|Publication number||US3377151 A|
|Publication date||Apr 9, 1968|
|Filing date||Oct 3, 1966|
|Priority date||Mar 26, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3377151 A, US 3377151A, US-A-3377151, US3377151 A, US3377151A|
|Inventors||Lamczyk Robert J, Lanham Samuel E|
|Original Assignee||Gen Foods Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (15), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 9, 1968 s. E. LANHAM 3,377,151
METHOD FOR MAKING A CLEANSINO AID Original Filed Max-.ch 26, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR5. IAM/fl i AN/YAM ,fodmr AA/$27k' BY mss..
Arron/n April 9, 1968 s. E. LANHAM METHOD FOR MAKING A CLEANSING AID 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed March 26, 1964 United States Patent yftice Patented Apr. 9, 196,78
METHD FOR VMAKING A CLEANSING AID Samuel E. Lanham, Hazel Crest, 'and Robert J. Lamczyk,
Roselle, Ill., Vassignors to General Foods Corporation,
White Plains, N.Y., a .corporation of Delaware Original application Mar. 26, 1964, Ser. No. 354,929, now
Patent No. 3,284,963, dated Nov. 15 1966. ,Divided and this 'application 9ct. 3, 1966, Ser. No. 604,084
6 Claims. (Cl. 51-295) This application is a division of application Ser. No. 354,929, filed Mar. 26, 1964, and now U.S. P atent No. 3,284,963.
This invention relates generallyto aprocess for making a cleansing aid adapted for home use in the cleansing of kitchen utensils and -the like. More particularly, the invention relates to the process for making a cleansing aid in the form of a pad presenting highly effective and durable abrasive surfaces and preferably having incorporated therewith a water-soluble cleansing agent, said pad including means for retaining a liquefied cleansing agent within the pad to thereby prevent unnecessary wastage of the cleansing agent.
A cleansing or scouring pad of the type above referred to should ideally represent a combination of several functional and physical characteristics. It is, of course, desired that the outer surfaces of the pad provide a good abrasiveaction, be of an open or lofty structure so as not to mat or become clogged bythe dirt, grease or other material removed in the cleansing operation and furthermore be of a rustffree material. It is also desirable that the pad be of suiiicient resilienceso as to be comfortable to handle and also capable of conforming to irregular contours in the article or utensil to be cleansed. VPreferably the pad may-be provided withits own self-contained supply of a cleansing agent kas a convenience factor i'n avoiding the necessity `for having on hand a separate supply of cleansing agent and for applying same externally to the pad. Whether or not provided with a self-contained supply of cleansingagent, it is nevcrthelesshighly desirable that the pad include means for minimizing waste of a cleansing agent when dissolved in an aqueous solution by retaining said solution within the pad, which means serve the function of a reservoir and act to dispense only so much `of Said solution as is required to complernentthe abrasive action in removing the foreign substances and particles from vthe article being cleansed. It is also desirable that the pad be comprised of component elements which are firmly bound together' soas tomaintf-in the structural integrity of the pad and prevent tearing away or disintegration of the component elements thereof, even after long periods of usage, from the strains and stresses imparted thereto while in rubbing contact with articles `being cleansed or scoured.
Each of the qualities considered desirable in a cleansing aid made by this type are present in the pad of the instant invention. The pad accordingto the instantin- Ivention comprises a composite or laminatedstructure of which the two outer laminae are each formed of a lofty, open, resilient, web material of relatively low density and having excellent abrasive qualities, thethird orinne'r lamina of the pad being formed from a web of more dense but spong-like and compressible materialhaving a cellular structure such as to render it highly water absorbent so as to retain the associated cleansing agent when in liquefied form.
The web material constituting the outer laminae of -the pad consists of a plurality of randomly oriented nonwoven-fibers, which may be either natural or synthetic, boundtogether at their points of touching contactfby a binder, preferablyaresin, so Das to vmaintain the integrity of the web which presents an open, lofty and somewhat resilient Vthree dimensional structure possessing extremely Vlow density and having vcontained .therein a network of many relatively large intercommunicating voids. Prefer,- ably, there is also distributed within the .web .material abrasive .particles which are firmly adhered Vto the struclture by the aforesaid binder which ,generally exists inthe form Vof globules located `at the points 4of intersection of lthe respective fibers. A web of abrasive material rof the sort `above .described has heretofore been .described in patent issued to Clarence Robert Loefiler, No. 2,327,199 issued Aug. 17, 1943, .patent'to R. L. Melton, etal., 2,334,- 572 issued Nov. 16, 1943, and also patent to H. l.. Hoover, et al., 2,958,593 issued Nov. l, 1960i.
For use as abrasive web material, it has been found that synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyesters .(el.g., Daeron) are .particularly well suited. The uniformity and quality of such types of fibers can .be v.closely controlled. Also, these fibers retain substantially their desired physical properties when wet with water `or oil. How ever, various natural fibers which are flexible, resilient, durable, and tough can also be utilized in the abrasive web material. The resulting extremely open fibrous vconstruction exhibits a remarkablyeffective abrasive action. lt is essentially nonclogging and nonfillingvin nature, particularly when used Vin conjunction with liquids such as water and oils. Furthermore, litcan be readily cleaned upon simple flushing with aprinsin-g liquid, dried and left for substantial periods -of time and then reused with all its `original proper-ties intact. The structure -ofrthe web is vflexible vand readily compressible and upon release of compression returns substantially completely to the initial uncompressed form.
The third or inner lamina of the pad is kpreferably formed -of a foamed synthetic, thermoplastic material, such as for example polyurethane foam or the like which may be either ofthe Vpolyester or polyether type. yDue to the cellular-structure of .thisrfoamed material, theinner Web is highly Vflexible land compressible, thereby adding resilience to the overall pad, the cellular structure yfurthermore enabling the web to readily absorb and Aretain water which is not a characteristic of the outerabrasilve lamina of the pad. Thus, asthewpad is wetted in preparia- -tion for use, the ywetting of the water-soluble cleansing agent preferably .incorporated therewith liquefie's a portion of the cleansing agent, thus causing the solution to becomevabsorbed in the pores andcellular structure of the foamed inner webmaterial. fThereafterasthe padis put to use, the inner lamina of foam material issomewhat compressed causing the solution ofcleansing agent'to be exuded from the foamfmaterial and applied tothe Isurface `of the article beingcleansed. VWithout the innervply of lfoam material, the cleansing agent when liquefied would quickly wash through the open-structure of the abrasive youter webs thereby being much more wasteful ofthe cleansingagent. Upon reuse of the pad, after having'dried,
.the introduction of waterithereto first Saturatestheinner foamed web and thusplaces insolution the film ofclevavnsing agent lining the pores and cellsof the 'foam material thereby minimizing -the amount'of additional cleansing agent required. The intermediatefor inner ylaminaof-the foam web material also serves as aneffectivevmeans 1for bindingft-he three laminaeor plies of the composite pad into a unified and integral structure. By applicationof -heat to the opposed` surfaces of the inner foamed webinaterial up to the point where the material becomes ksoft ,and tacky and applying the outer webs of ,abrasive ,ma-
terial thereto While in the soft and tacky condition, `the inner lamina serves as a bonding medium which when subsequently cooled'firmly unites the three laminae into an integral unit.
`bonding of the three laminae is achieved by application of both heat and pressure at only the border area of the pad so as to produce a iin-sealed edge comprised of the three pad laminae bound together in a compressed state. In this species the application of heat also acts on the resin binder in the two outer laminae so as to effect a binding of the fibers of said outer laminae in a compressed state. Accordingr to another species of the invention, the bonding of the three laminae is achieved through a flame lamination technique by which heat is applied to the entire surface on both sides of the inner web of foamed ma terial, whereupon each outer ply is brought into contact with a respective heated surface with a force sufficient to effect a surface bond and without leaving any of the laminae of the pad permanently compressed. In the case of each species, the bonding of the several laminae into an integral product is accomplished without the addition of any glue, adhesive or other binding additives which might tend to impair the permeability or free iiow of water from one lamina to the other at their respective interfaces.
The cleansing agent which may be incorporated in a pad is preferably a thin, flat pellet or tablet of soap, synthetic detergent, or a combination thereof in a solid or semisolid form and disposed between the inner web of foamed material and one of the outer webs of abrasive material.
It is therefore an object of the invention to provide an improved method for fabricating a cleansing aid in the form of an abrasive scouring pad which may have incorporated therewith a self-contained cleansing agent.
Further objects of the invention, together with the features contributing thereto and the advantages accruing therefrom, will be apparent from the following description when read in conjunction with the drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a scouring pad made according to one embodiment of the instant invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of a scouring pad made according to another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along the line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a plan view of a scouring pad made according to still another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 5 is a side View in elevation of the pad shown in FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a plan view of a section of the pad forming web material after pads according to the FIG. 1 or FIG. 4 embodiment have been cut out therefrom;
FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the process for fabricating scouring pads according to the instant invention; and
FIG, 8 is a more detailed view in enlarged scale of a part of the pad fabricating equipment illustrated in FIG. 7.
Referring now in particular to FIGS. 1 and 3, it will be seen that a pad 5 made in accordance with one embodiment of the invention may assume a generally oval shape, the pad comprising a laminate structure which includes outer laminae 6, 7 of abrasive web material and an inner lamina 8 of a synthetic sponge-like foamed plastic material. The abrasive web material constituting the outer laminae 6, 7 is one which is comprised of a plurality of individual bers 11 randomly oriented, nonwoven, and bound together at the points where they contact one another by a binder, preferably resin, which tends to form in globules 12 at the juncture points between the respective fibers. Distributed within the web material are also ne abrasive particles 13 which may be of any suitable abrasive material such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbides, quartz, or the like, the abrasive particles being adhered to the web structure by the binder and preferably concentrated at or near the outer surface of the abrasive webs. The web material comprising the outer laminae 6, 7 presents an open, lofty and somewhat resilient structure possessing extremely low density and containing a network of many relatively large intercommunicating voids. Material of this character provides excellent abrasive qualities due to its natural resiliency and the openness of its structure which permits the dirt, grease or other foreign substance loosened by the abrasive action to wash away freely and not clog the surface of the pad to impair the abrasive action thereof.
Disposed within the pad at the interface between the inner lamina 8 and the outer lamina 6 is a water soluble cleansing agent 15 which may be either a soap, synthetic detergent, or a combination of both. The cleansing agent is introduced to the pad during fabrication thereof as a pasty, semisolid deposit which may, however, before usage, depending upon the length of time between fabrication of the pad and usage, dry out and become solid so as to constitute a thin tablet or wafer. The cleansing agent could, however, if desired, be initially incorporated into the pad structure in a solid tablet or wafer form.
The inner lamina 8 comprises a web of foamed plastic material such as polyurethane or the like. Such materials are flexible and compressible thereby providing added resilience to the overall pad structure. Such material is also, due to its cellular structure, highly absorbent, thereby enabling it to serve as a reservoir for retaining the cleansing agent in liquefied form after application of water thereto. In use, pressure applied to the pad incident to the scrubbing action compresses the foamed material of the inner lamina 8 causing it to exude the retained solution of cleansing agent which thereupon flows freely through the open structure of the outer lamina of the pad to the pad outer surface to assist and complement the abrasive action of the pad in removing the dirt, grease or other foreign substance from the article being cleaned.
In the form of pad illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3 the border areas of the three laminae 6, 7, 8 are bound together under application of suitable heat and pressure at said border areas to form a heat seal bond firmly securing the respective laminae into a unified and integral pad structure. Application of a suitable degree of heat. to the border area of the pad when under compresslon breaks down the cellular structure of the foamed thermoplastic material of the inner lamina 8 to render it more dense while fusing thereto the abrasive web material of the outer laminae 6, 7. At the same time, the fibers 11 of the outer laminae become bound together by the binder incorporated therewith under the iniiuence of the heat to result in a fin-sealed edge 18 ras shown. The fin-sealed edge constitutes a relatively thin and rigid pad portion having a good abrasive surface, thereby being particularly effective and useful for reaching into small cracks, crevices or other small openings in the article or utensil to be cleaned, which type of openings could not be effectively cleaned in the absence of such a iin-sealed edge on the pad. Also, by binding the respective laminae together in this manner, it will be apparent that the interface between the major portions of the inner and outer laminae contain no impediment to the free iiow or intercommunication of water or cleansing solution therebetween.
The thickness of the web material constituting respective laminae of the pad is not critical and may be varied without substantially impairing the usefulness of the pad as a cleansing aid. Typically, the outer laminae 6, 7 of abrasive web material may have a thickness of approximately 1A inch, with the thickness of the foamed plastic material constituting the inner lamina of the pad being approximately 1/8 of an inch. Pads comprised of laminae having the foregoing thickness dimensions have been found to be of an overall thickness which renders them highly effective as cleansing aids and convenient to handle.
The pad 20 of the FIG. 2 embodiment is essentially similar in construction to the FIG. 1 embodiment, the only difference being that the several laminae composing the pad are cut in a rectangular shape rather than in the oval shape of the FIG. 1 embodiment. The outer fibrous and abrasive web material of which only one lamina 21 is shown in FIG. 2 is of the same structure and Serves the same purpose as the outer laminate `6, 7 of the FIG. 1 embodiment, the FIG. 2 embodiment also including an inner lamina of plastic foamed material and preferably a deposit of cleansing agent for the same reasons and serving the same purposes as that described in connection with the FIG. l embodiment. Likewise, the several laminae of the FIG. 2 embodiment are joined together in a. compressed state by a heat sealed bond to provide the pad with a lin-seal edge 22 as in the FIG. 1 embodiment. The FIG. 2 embodiment could be of particular advantage in applications where its use is restricted to articles or utensils having shapes better suited to the rectangular embodiment of FIG. 2 rather than to the oval embodiment of FIG. l.
The pad 25 of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 is also generally similar t0 the pad of the FIG. l embodiment and is composed of outer laminae 26, 27 and an inner lamuia 28, all corresponding in structure and function with the outer abrasive web material 6, 7 and the inner foamed plastic web material 8, respectively, of the FIG. 1 embodiment. The FIG. 4 embodiment also preferably includes a deposit, not shown, cleansing agent disposed similarly to and serving the same function as the tablet of the FIG. 1 embodiment. The only difference in the two embodiments is the manner in which the respective laminae are bound together into an integral pad srtucture. The embodiment in FIGS. 4 and 5 lacks the fin-seal edge of the FIG. 1 embodiment, the binding of the respective laminae into an integral pad structure being achieved by a surface lbond over the entire interfaces between the outer laminae 26, 27 and the inner lamina 28. The joining of the respective laminae is accomplished by heating the opposed surface areas of the inner web 2S of foamed thermoplastic material to a plastic tacky state and then pressing the outer laminae 26, 27 of abrasive web material into contact therewith to cause a fusion therebetween upon subsequent cooling of the inner thermoplastic web surfaces while permitting the respective web materials to remain in their original uncompressed condition. The bond between the respective web materials is one which provides interfaces of high porosity permitting realtively unimpeded free flow and intercommunication yof water between the respective laminae of the pad as in the FIG. l embodiment. The thickness of the respective laminae comprising the FIG. 4 embodiment is also not critical. Typically the thickness of the web material constituting each lamina of the pad could have the same thickness of approximately 1%: inch, pads fabricated in such dimensions having functioned satisfattorily as cleansing aids and having been found to be l of a size convenient and easy to handle.
FIG. 7 depicts the process for fabricating the above described pads. As shown, elongate sheets of fibrous abrasive web material 6, 7 are supplied from spools 31, 33 thereof, a sheet of foamed thermoplastic material 8 being supplied from a spool 32 thereof. The sheets are continuously withdrawn from their respective spools at a uniform rate, the sheet of abrasive web material 7 being fed through a suitably driven pair of feed rolls 35 while the other sheet of abrasive web material 6 and the sheet of foamed thermoplastic web material 8 are similarly fed by suitably driven feed rolls 36, 37 respectively. The sheet 6 is thereafter supported by a series .of rolls 3'8, the sheet 8 4being thereafter supported by a series of rolls 39. As the sheet '7 is fed into the nip of feed rolls 41 it is brought into contact with the sheet 8, the two sheets thereafter :being fed in superposed relation beneath a dispenser 42. which is charged with the cleansing agent and deposits measured amounts thereof intermittently at spaced increments both laterally and longitudinally relative to the upper surface of sheet 8. As the two sheets 7, y8 enter the nip of feed rolls 4'5, the upper surface of sheet 8 is brought into contact with sheet 6 which overlies the deposits of cleansing agent, the three sheets thereafter being fed in superposed relation to one another into a die-cutting press 50. Feed through the die-cutting press is intermittent in synchronism with the cyclic operation of the press, the momentary interruption of feed ibeing compensated for by permitting the combined sheets to develop a loop between the feed rolls and the press.
For fabricating the pads according to the FIG. l ernbodiment thereof, the die-cutting press performs a two-stage operation, the first stage operating to compress and heat seal the three sheets 6, 7 and 8 in a plurality of oval patterns to form the fin-seal edge 18 of the individual pad structure, the second stage of press operation operating to cut or sever the three sheets at the heat sealed area so as to separate the individual pads from the elongate sheet material, which pads are then directed to a suitable conveying .mechanism 51 for delivery of the completed pads to another location. The heat sealing and cutting pattern effected by the press on the sheets of web material can be seen in FIG. 6 which shows a section of the sheet material remaining as scrap after individual pads have Ibeen separated therefrom. The individual pads are out out from a pattern in which they are aligned in a series of transverse rows, the adjacent rows being relatively offset from one another in the interests of minimizing waste of the web material from which the pads are formed. It will of course be understood that the spacing of the areas cut away from the sheets to produce the individual pads is arranged to coincide with the placement of the cleansing agent deposited by the dispenser 42, so
that each of the resulting pads will have incorporated therewith a deposit of said cleansing agent.
FIG. 8 illustrates in greater detail the portion of the press effective in the first stage of operation for heat sealing the sheet material to form the fin-seal edge of the individual pads. As shown, the mechanism includes opposed heating dies 52 mounted in heated blocks 53 each provided with a plurality of electrical resistance heat cartridges 54. The blocks 53 are supported on posts 55 of heat insulating material, the posts 55 associated with the lower die being mounted on a stationary portion 56 of the press, the posts associated with the upper die being secured to a reciprocally driven portion 57 of the press. Preferably, heating of the web material is also achieved dielectrically iby radio frequency energy supplied from a radio frequency pulse generator 60, the output of the generator being transmitted to the upper die 52 through a flexible conductor 61 connected thereto. Shorting outl the radio frequency energy across the gap bet-Ween the die 52 is prevented by coating the edge of the dies with a hard dielectric substances 62 such as a ceramic or the like. Such a coating also avoids excessive wear on the dies which otherwise would result from contact with the abrasive web material. The use of dielectric heating by radio frequency energy lessens the time to heat the web material to the desired temperature. It also avoids the tendency which would otheiwise exist for the die to stick to the web material.
For fabricating the pad according to the FIGS. 4, 5 embodiment, a slightly modified process is employed. According to this modified process a gas burner manifold 65 provided with a series of gas jets is disposed so as to direct a iiame on the undersurface of sheet 8 immediately prior to its being brought into contact with sheet 7 at the nip of the feed rolls 41. Accordingly, as the sheets 7 and 8 pass between the rolls 41 and the heated surface of sheet 8 starts to cool, the two sheets become flame laminated over their entire abutting surfaces. A similar gas burner manifold 66 is disposed so as to direct a liame over the entire upper surface of sheet 8 immediately prior to its being brought into contact with sheet 6 -by the feed rolls 45. Accordingly, as sheets pass between rolls 45, sheet 6 lbecomes surface bonded to the upper surface of sheet l8, the three sheets being thereby bonded one to another at their respective interfaces as they are fed into the press 50. In this modified process the press performs only a single stage operation of severing individual pads from the elongate sheets, the heretofore described first stage of press operation, employed for producing pads of the FG. l embodiment, not being employed in the modified process `for producing pads in accordance with the FIG. 4 embodiment thereof.
Although there has been shown and described what are considered to be preferred embodiments of the invention, it is of course understood that obvious changes or variations could be made from the techniques specifically described and disclosed herein without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is therefore intended that the invention be not limited to the precise techniques herein shown and described nor to anything less than the whole of the invention as hereinafter claimed.
l. The process for fabricating a cleansing aid in the form of a laminated pad including outer laminae of :abrasive web material composed of non-Woven fibers bonded together and an inne-r lamina of foarned thermoplas` web material, said process comprising the steps of centinuously withdrawing a sheet of the inner iamina foam/ed thermoplastic Weib material and sheets of each of the outer laminas abrasive web material from individual supplies thereof, directing said sheets of abrasive web material into contact with opposite surfaces of said sheet of foamed thermoplastic web material, heat sealing said sheet of foarned thermoplastic web material to each of said sheets of abrasive web material, and cutting through in pad defining patterns heat sealed areas of said sheets to separate therefrom individual sections each in the form of a laminated pad heat sealed around all edges thereof.
2. The invention according to claim li including the step of placing deposits of a cleansing agent on one surface of said sheet of foamed thermoplastic web material prior to its being brought into contact with the respective one of said sheets of abrasive web material.
3. The invention according to claim i wherein said heat sealing is effected in only a lborder area of said individual sections While said border area is under compression, and said cutting is accomplished along said border area to form each of said pads with a iin-seal edge.
4. The invention according to claim 1 wherein said heat sealing is achieved at ieast in part by heat derived dielect-rically by application of high frequency electrical energy.
5. The process for fabricating a cleansing aid in the form of a laminated pad including outer laminae of abrasive Web material composed of non-woven fibers bonded together and an inner lamina of foamed thermoplastic web material, said process comprising the steps of continuously withdrawing a sheet of tne inner lamina foarned thermoplastic web material and sheets of eacn of the outer laminae abrasive web material from individual supplies thereof, passing opposite surfaces of said sheet of teamed thermoplastic web material past flames each heating the respective surface to at least the fusion point, directing said sheets of abrasive Web material into surface contact with a respective heated surface of said sheet of foamed thermoplastic web material to heat seai said sheet of foametl thermoplastic web `material to each of said sheets of abrasive web material, and -cutting through the heat sealed sheets to separate therefrom individual ections each in the form of a iaminated pad.
6. The invention according to claim 5 including the step of placing deposits of a cleansing agent on one surface of said sheet of foamed thermoplastic web material prior to heat sealing said one surface to the respective one of said sheets of abrasive web material.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,107,636 2/1938 Kingman. 3,080,688 3/1963 Politzer. 3,175,331 3/1965 Klein. 3,261,675 7/1966 Cameron. 3,284,963 ll/l966 Lanham et al.
ALEXAN DER H. BRODMERKEL, Primary Examiner.
D. I. ARNOLD, Assistant Examiner.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|US6439989||Aug 4, 1999||Aug 27, 2002||Rodel Holdings Inc.||Polymeric polishing pad having continuously regenerated work surface|
|WO1982001027A1 *||Aug 6, 1981||Apr 1, 1982||Minnesota Mining & Mfg||Abrasive article comprising abrasive agglomerates supported in a fibrous matrix|
|WO1995034239A1 *||May 18, 1995||Dec 21, 1995||Alberto Corazzi||A synthetic, abrasive, coupled tampon and the realization process thereof|
|U.S. Classification||51/295, 51/296, 51/297, 451/532|
|International Classification||A47L17/00, A47L17/08|