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Publication numberUS3377585 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 9, 1968
Filing dateMar 17, 1961
Priority dateMar 17, 1961
Publication numberUS 3377585 A, US 3377585A, US-A-3377585, US3377585 A, US3377585A
InventorsPierre Magnin Jean
Original AssigneeElectro Mechanical Res Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Telemetering decoder system
US 3377585 A
Images(18)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

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United States Patent O 3,377,585 TELIEMETERHNG DECGDER SYSTEM .lean Pierre Magnin, Sarasota, Fla., assigner to Electro- Mechanical Research, Inc., Sarasota, Fla., a corporation of Connecticut Filed Mar. 17, 1961, Ser. No. 96,413 il@ Claims. (Cl. 340-206) This invention relates to telemetering decoder systems and, particularly, to decoder systems for decoding timemultiplexed pulse signals.

In presently known telemetering systems, various types of signal multiplexing techniques are utilized to enable the transmission of a number of different information channels over a single common wire line or radio link. One commonly used multiplexing technique is known as time division multiplexing. In a time division multiplex system, the transmitting equipment includes encoder anparatus which samples the information in the different signal channels in a cyclic sequence and puts out a pulse, or group of pulses, for each channel. Each pulse or pulse group is modulated in accordance with the information in that channel. The pulse modulation may take the form of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), pulse duration modulation (PDM), pulse position modulation (PPM), or pulse code modulation (PCM). The resulting train or sequence of modulated pulses is then usually supplied to a carrier frequency transmitter where it modulates the carrier signal. This carrier signal is then transmitted over the transmission link to the receiving equipment. At the receiving end, the pulse train is recovered from the modulated carrier signal by appropriate demodulator apparatus. The recovered pulse train is then supplied to a decoder system which operates to separate the pulses belonging to the different information channels and to apply the separated pulses to different output circuits or devices. The resulting signal appearing across any given output circuit is then used to provide an indication of the information or data value in the corresponding information channel.

In order to obtain the proper separation of pulses belonging to the different information channels, it is necessary to synchronize the separating or decommutating operation in the receiver decoder with the sampling or commutating operation in the transmitter encoder. This synchronization is obtained by inserting distinguishable synchronizing pulses or pulse patterns into the transmitter pulse train at periodic intervals which are related to the timing of the transmitter sampling operation. The receiver decoder system includes circuits which utilize these synchronizing pulses to control or regulate the timing of the decommutating operation.

Under fairly good signal transmission condition, presently known types of telemetering decoder systems provide generally satisfactory operation. When the received signal contains a substantial amount of electrica-l noise or is subject to signal fading or other undesired forms of signal impairment, then the performance of known decoder systems leaves much to be desired. In particular, the synchronization of the receiver tends to deteriorate and become unreliable. Also, when the received signal -is subject to momentary fade-outs, not only is synchronization lost when the signal disappears, but, in addition, when the signal reappears objectionable lengths of time are required to regain synchronization.

Another problem encountered in time multiplexed telemetering system is that of handling a wide variety of signal types. Different types of pulse modulation may be utilized. Different numbers of information channels are required to be sampled in ditferent situations. Different sampling rates and, hence, different pulse rates are freice quently encountered. It would be desirable, therefore, to have a decoder system which is capable of handling a wide variety of signal types.

It would also be desirable to have a decoder system which is capable of driving a variety of different types of output circuits and devices. In addition to driving different types of analog recording and display devices, it would be desirable to provide a digital form of output capable of driving various types of digital computers and digital data processing machines. It is also desirable to have a decoder system which is capable of providing output signals which are in a suitable form for recording on magnetic tape.

It is an object of the invention, therefore, to provide a new and improved telemetering decoder system for decoding a time-multiplexed pulse train.

It is another object of the invention to provide a new and improved telemetering decoder system which is readily capable of decoding different types of pulse modulation.

It is -a further object of the invention to provide a new and improved decoder system which is readily capable of handling a variety of different pulse rates, duty cycles and numbers of information channels.

It is a additional object of the invention to provide a new and improved signal decoder system having greater flexibility in the selection of channels to be decoded and which is more readily capable of handling changes in channel programming.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a new and improved decoder system capable of driving a variety of output devices of either the analog or digital type.

It is yet another object of the invention to provide a new and improved decoder system for more rapidly and consistently decoding multiplexed pulse signals which are partially impaired by electrical noise.

It is an additional object of the invention to provide a new and improved decoder system which provides improved compensation for variations in the zero and full scale signal values.

It is yet another object of the invention to provide a multi-channel pulse signal `decoder system having new and improved synchronizing circuits for synchronizing the decoding operations with the various elements of the signal to be decoded.

It is a still further object of the invention to provide new and improved synchronizing systems for establishing and maintaining synchronization with noisy input signa s.

In accordance with the invention, a telemetering decoder system for decoding time-multiplexed pulse signals includes input circuits having a very high degree of noise rejection capability. These input circuits distinguish relatively weak signals in the presence of substantial amounts or electrical noise and provide well-defined output signals which are relatively free of such noise. The input circuits also include a converter system for converting one type of pulse modulation to another type to provide a uniform type of pulse modulation to the remainder of the decoder system. The decoder system also includes timing circuits for generating local timing signals bearing known relationships with respect to the various elements of the input signal. These timing circuits include various logical circuits for recognizing momentary interruptions and impairments in the input signal and for preventing such impairments and interruptions from disturbing the synchronization of the local timing signals. The decoder system further includes circuits for converting the analog form of pulse modulation supplied by the input circuits to a digital form to provide digital or binary representations of the incoming signal values. The decoder system also inadditionally includes a plugboard type of programming system for the output display circuits so that a wide degree of flexibility is provided in the number and manner of connection of the output circuits and devices.

For a better understanding of the present invention, together with other and further objects thereof, reference is had to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, the scope of the invention being pointed out in the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a general block diagram of a representative embodiment of a telemetering decoder system constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 are `waveforms used in explaining the operation of the FIG. 1 decoder system;

FIGS. 5 and 6 show block diagrams of slicer circuits used in the input portion of the FIG. l decoder system;

FIG. 7 shows the details of a PAM-to-PDM converter system used in the input portion of the FIG. l decoder system;

FIG. 8 show waveforms used to explain the operation of the FIG. 7 converter system; n

FIG. 9 is a general block diagram of the timing circuit portion of the decoder system of FIG. l;

PIG. 10 shows in greater detail the frequency synchronizer portion of the timing circuits of FIG. 9;

FIG. 11 shows waveforms used in explaining the operation of the FIG. 10 frequency synchronizer;

FIG. 12 shows in greater detail the phase synchronizer portion of the FIG. 9 timing circuits;

FIG. 13 shows typical waveforms for the FIG. 12 phase synchronizer;

pulse train is a pulse amplitude modulated train having a frame synchronization pattern which occupies two signal channels of each frame or complete cycle of operation. The PAM-3 train uses three channels per frame for synchronization. |In both PAM cases, the frame sync consists of the presence of a full scale signal value for the appropriate number of channels. The PDM train, on the other hand, is a train of pulses wherein the width or duration of the pulses is modulated in accordance with the signal values. In the PDM case, frame sync is provided by the transmission of a zero signal value for two channels per frame. In all three cases, one channel per frame is used to transmit a signal representative of the system zero value, while a second channel is used to provide a signal representative of the system full-scale Value.

The present embodiment is constructed to handle any- Where from 10 to 128 channels per frame. For any given FIG. 14 shows in greater detail the frame synchronizer 35 portion of the lFIG. 9 timing circuits;

FIG. 15 shows various waveforms for the FIG. 14 frame synchronizer;

FIG. 16 shows the details of a TR-3 pulse generator portion of the timing circuits of FIG. 9;

FIG. 17 shows the details of the recycle circuits of the FIG. 9 timing circuits;

FIG. 18 show-s a general block diagram of the serial PDM to parallel PCM converter portion of the FIG. 1 decoder system;

IFIG. 19 shows the details of the quantizer portion of the FIG. 1-8 converter; Y

FIG. 20 shows the zero logic portion of the FIG. 18 converter;

FIG. 2l shows the full-scale logic portion of the FIG. 18 converter;

FIG. 22 is a general block diagram for one of the sets of output display channels of the FIG. 1 decoder system; and

|FIG. 23 illustrates in a simplified manner the plugboard portion of the FIG. 1 decoder system.

Decoder system-General Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawings, there is shown a representative embodiment of a decoder system constructed in accordance with the present invention for decoding a continuous train of time-multiplexed pulse signals. The incoming pulse signals which are supplied to the input of the decoder system may either be signals which are, at that moment, being received from a distant transmitter station or they may -be signals which are being obtained from the playback of a signal previously recorded on magnetic tape or some other form of recording medium. The pulse train supplied to the decoder system is a so-called video sign-al. Any c-arrier or subcarrier components used in transmitting the signal to the receiving station have been removed by suitable demodulator apparatus .at an earlier stage in the receiving equipment.

FIG. 2 shows different types of pulse trains which the present embodiment is capable of handling. The PAM-2 number of channels per frame, the present embodiment can h-andle pulse rates or channel rates of anywhere from 10 to 4600 channels per second. For the PAM case, the channel duty cycle may be set at anywhere between 40% to For various timing purposes in the decoder system, each ychannel portion of the pulse train is subdivided ito 16 sub-intervals. These sub-intervals are indicated in FIG. 3; The fixed and regularly-recurring leading edges of the PDM pulses define the initial to reference points of the sub-channel intervals. As will be seen, this applies even where the input signal to the system is of the PAM type.

FIG. 4 shows various signal waveforms developed at different points in the FIG. 1 decoder system. These waveforms will be referred to from time to time in the ensuing description.

Input circuits It will initially be assumed that a PDM type of pulse train is being applied to the input of the FIG. 1 decoder system. This input PDM signal is supplied by way of a variable attenuator 30 to an input amplifier 31. The output signal from amplifier 311 is, among other things, applied to a signal level detector 32. This is a peak detector type of circuit which provides an indication of the peak value of the incoming pulse train. By means of this level detector 32, together with high and low indicator lamps associated therewith, the attenuator 30 is adjusted to provide a predetermined peak signal amplitude at the output of amplifier 31. A typical value for this maximum signal amplitude is 5 volts. A simple voltage or current meter may be used in place of the high and low indicator lamps if desired.

For the case of a PDM signal, the pulse train at the output of amplifier 31 is then supplied by Vway of a switch 33 to a 50% slicer 34.

FIG. 5 shows the details of the 50% slicer 34. This Slicer includes three identical slicer stages 35, 36 and 37 connected in cascade. The PDM input signal is supplied to an input amplifier 38 of the first slicer stage 35. Amplifier 38 is preferably of the unity-gain type. The output of amplifier 38 is supplied to a pair of D.C. restorer circuits 39 and 40. One of these circuits clamps the peak amplitude level of the pulse train waveform to a zero voltage level, while the other restorer clamps the base amplitude level of the waveform to this same zero voltage level. The two clamped waveforms are then combined by adding resistors 41 and 42 to produce a resultant double amplitude waveform. This double amplitude waveform is then sliced about the zero voltage level by a pair of oppositely poled d iodes 43 and 44. The small threshold voltage required across these diodes for conduction therein results in a narrow slice of the waveform at the 50% or zero voltage level being supplied to an output amplifier 45 for the first stage. The use of the D.C. Vrestorers and adding resistors serves to improve or sharpen (i.e., decrease) the rise and fall times of the individual pulses. The clipping or slicing diodes 43 and 44 provide a

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3466397 *Dec 14, 1965Sep 9, 1969Bell Telephone Labor IncCharacter at a time data multiplexing system
US3483330 *Dec 22, 1966Dec 9, 1969Bell Telephone Labor IncNetwork synchronization in a time division switching system
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