US 3378151 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
p i 1968 c. R. SALLOUM 3,378,151
PARKING GARAGE Filed Cd. 19, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet l OUT INVENTOR. L Omen: X, lmaww a/Wm April 16, 1968 c. R. SALLOUM 3,373,151
PARKING GARAGE Filed Oct. 19, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I INVENTOR.
W fda m United States Patent 3,378,151 PARKING GARAGE Charles R. Salloum, 154 Ellis St., San Francisco, Calif. 94102 Filed Oct. 19, 1964, Ser. No. 404,622 1 Claim. (Cl. 214-16.1)
The present invention relates in general to an improved arrangement for the parking of automobiles in a building, and is particularly adapted to particular building constructions for maximized utilization 'of the interior space as parking stalls and the ready parking and removal of vehicles from such stalls.
It is well recognized that the parking of automobiles has become an acute problem in congested communities throughout the world. There have been designed and constructed a large number of different types of off-street parking facilities in an effort to alleviate this problem. Conventional parking facilities which have been constructed normally employ automobile ramps between a number of different floors of the facility, together with aligned parking stalls and driveways between same. On the other hand, attendant-operated parking facilities commonly employ either ramps or elevators for moving cars between floors, and commonly contain parking stalls in tightly-packed array Without access drives to all of the stalls. Attendant-parking commonly contemplates the moving of a number of cars by attendants in order to reach cars that are parked in inaccessible stalls. This type of parking is generally considered unsatisfactory for selfpark garages, inasmuch as it is highly undesirable to have the general public moving cars other than their own. Consequently, there is normally encountered the opposite extremes of maximized space utilization requiring numerous vehicles to be moved for access to other vehicles by attendants, or the relatively space-wasting arrangements in which each parking stall lies adjacent a driveway.
There have been advanced a substantial number of parking schemes and devices in which automobiles are automatically stacked or moved about by the devices; however, this type of development has yet to achieve popular acceptance. Unfortunately, the complexity and costs of such systems are generally substantial, and also the average automobile owner may be somewhat hesitant to entrust his car to the machinery which moves and stacks automobiles.
The present invention provides parking apparatus of somewhat intermediate design, in which parking space in a building is utilized to the maximum degree without the necessity of physically gripping the automobile or forcibly moving same as by chains or grips. The invention hereof is applicable for self parking or for attendant parking; however, in the latter instance only a minimum number of attendants are required, inasmuch as the ease of automobile placement and removal is maximized. The invention provides a multi-level parking facility with separate levels interconnected by elevators and rotary-mounted parking platforms upon each level, such that substantially immediate access to inlet and egress elevators is available from all parking places on each level. The invention is illustrated in connection with two preferred embodiments; however, numerous modifications of these are possible, as identified below.
The present invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of one level of a parking facility in accordance with the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a partial sectional view taken in the vertical plane 2-2 of FIGURE 1, and illustrating a plurality of levels of the parking facility of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of an alternative embodiment 3,378,151 Patented Apr. 16, 1968 of the present invention including a central or axial elevator; and
FIGURE 4 is a partial sectional view taken in the vertical plane 4-4 of FIGURE 3.
Considering first the invention in general, there is provided in accordance herewith a multi-level building which may have any desired external configuration, but under certain circumstances is advantageously formed as a circular building. Each parking level within the building is formed as a plurality of contiguous concentric parking platforms which are individually rotatable. Drive means are provided for controllably rotating each of the parking platforms on each level, and one or more elevators extend from the entrance and exit floor to each of the parking levels. Each of the parking platforms is dimensioned to provide, at the most, two automobile parking stalls in radial alignment, and each of the platforms has at least one no-parking strip extending radially across same. In addition, the invention provides a central rotatable element or platform having a suflicient dimension to carry at least one automobile, and serving to angularly index the automobile for self propulsion into or out of parking stalls on the rotatable platform or platforms. With this arrangement, it is possible to completely fill an entire circular floor area with automobiles in tightly-packed array, and yet to almost instantaneously move any automobile out of the parking stall and into an egress elevator. Similarly, individual parking stalls are filled almost instantaneously by angularly indexing the parking platforms and central member so that an incoming automobile may be quickly moved into an empty stall. While the utilization of a turntable for turning cars around is well known, the present invention goes far beyond this concept in providing rotatable parking platforms so that the full benefit of relative rotational movement is attained.
Considering now the present invention in somewhat greater detail, and referring first to FIGURES 1 and 2 illustrating one preferred embodiment of the present invention, there will be seen to be shown a parking structure or building 11 containing in addition to a ground floor, vertically-spaced parking floors 12, 13 and 14, as well as any number of additional floors, which may be stacked above same. In FIGURE 1 there is illustrated a plan view of a single floor of the building 11, and same will be seen to depict a plurality of vertical supports or girders 16 by means of which the vertically-stacked floors are mounted one above the other. At the center of this floor there is provided a central plate member 17, which is mounted for rotation in either direction, for example, and radially outward thereof there is provided an annular member or platform 18 which is also mounted for rotation. Radially outward of this annular parking platform 18 there is provided another annular or ring-like platform 19, which is also mounted for rotation. Any number of annular rotatable parking platforms may be provided in accordance with the present invention, however, but it is necessary that they be concentrically disposed and closely contiguous, so that automobiles or the like may be readily driven from the top surface of one onto the top surface of the next adjacent member. Furthermore, each of the rotatable annular members may be provided with either one or two radially-spaced rows of parking stalls. In the illustration of FIGURE 1 the inner annular member 18 is provided with a single circumferential row of parking stalls 21, and] the outer annular member 19 is provided with a single Circumferential row of parking stalls 22. An alternative configuration may provide for each of the annular members 18 and 19 to have two radially-spaced circumferential rows of parking stalls, or, alternatively, the two members 18 and 19 may actually comprise a single member which thus has two radially-spaced circumferential rows of parking stalls.
[n this latter instance, however, the inner and outer rows 3f parking stalls have the individual stalls radially aligned so that automobiles or the like 23 may be readily moved radially of the member at any point thereon.
In addition to the central rotatable member or plate 17 and the concentric annular parking member or members 18 and 19, there are additionally provided one or more elevators for the movement of automobiles between doors of the structure 11. In FIGURE 1 there are illustrated two inlet elevators 24 and 26 and two outlet elevators 27 and 28. These elevators extend from the ground lloor upwardly through or beside the building, so that automobiles may be moved thereon at any fioor and vertically carried thereby to any other floor.
In addition to the above-noted automobile parking stalls or strips upon the annular members or parking platforms of the present invention, there is additionally provided a single automobile driveway defined in FIG- URE l by the no-parking strips 31 and 32 upon the separate annular members 18 and 19, respectively. Additionally, it is to be noted that the structure 11 may be formed as a circular building supported by the vertical elements 16 about the circumference thereof and having the elevators extending outward therefrom, for example; or, the structure 11 may be formed of a square or rectangular structure, as indicated by the dashed lines 31 of FIGURE 1. A square or rectangular building will, of course, provide corner areas upon each floor which may be variously utilized either for further parking of automobiles or other vehicles, or for various other purposes such as automobile maintenance, refueling, or shopping areas. In a truly large structure wherein the rotatable parking apparatus comprises but a small portion of each floor area, there may be provided extensive shops, stores, or the like upon each floor with the advantage that shoppers may readily ascend to that floor in their own automobile and park same upon the parking apparatus of the present invention to achieve ready and immediate access to the shopping areas. The invention furthermore provides for a maximum utilization of the parking area so that a minimum of lost space is involved in the over all structure.
As noted above, the parking platforms and central vehicle turntable of this invention are mounted for rotation upon the individual floors of the structure 11. A wide variety of drive means may be employed to accomplish controllable rotation of the central member and the concentric annular parking members. In FIGURE 1 there is schematically shown drive means 32 for the central member and drive means 33 and 34 in geared connection to the parking platforms 18 and 19. All of these elements are preferably controlled from a central station 36 located at the automobile entrance of the structure.
Considering now the manner of utilizing the improved parking apparatus of the present invention, there is sche matically shown in FIGURE 2 an automobile 41 entering an inlet door 42 of the structure at ground level. On this ground level, there may be provided parking apparatus as illustrated in FIGURE 1. However, the showing of FIGURE 2 indicates parking as being provided upon the second, third, fourth, etc. levels of the building and, consequently, the automobile 41 initially entering the building is stopped upon an inlet elevator 24, for example. Parking of this automobile is accomplished by an operator actuating this elevator 24 to raise the automobile 41 to the desired level, such as the one shown in FIGURE 1, and the car is then driven radially inward of the parking apparatus under its own power across the parking platforms 18 and 19 and across the central element 17 into a parking stall on the opposite side. The automobile is thus pointed radially outward of the annular parking element, and if disposed on the outer element 19, is immediately available to be moved merely by rotationally indexing this outer element to point the automobile into one of the outlet elevators 27 or 28. As
the parking platforms of each floor are filled, the equivalent of one parking stall upon each of the parking platforms 18 and 19 and extending radially thereacross, are left empty. These are indicated at 31 and 32 of FIG- URE 1. An automobile 41, for example, which has been parked in a stall of the inner annular parking platform 18 and pointed radially outward thereon may be readily removed from the parking area by backing the automobile onto the turntable 17, and rotation of the turntable to aim the front of the vehicle through the noparking strips 31 and 32 into the down elevator 28. Either an attendant or an automobile owner may then readily drive the car forward into this egress elevator so that the car is lowered to the street floor and is ready to drive away from the parking structure.
In the circumstance wherein the separate, annular parking platforms contain only a single circumferential row of automobiles, it is not necessary to utilize the central turntable. However, in the alternative circumstance which is preferred herein, that each annular parking platform contains two radially-spaced circumferential rows of automobiles, the automobiles in the inner row can only be removed by moving the automobile onto the turntable, and thence rotating the turntable to point the automobile toward an outlet elevator, and rotating the parking platforms so that the no-parking strips 31 and 32 are aligned between the automobile and outlet elevator. In the circumstance wherein the outer parking platform 19 contains two radially-spaced circumferential rows of parking spaces or stalls, a car in the inner row is released from its inaccessible parking space by aligning the no-parking area or strip of the inner parking platform with the car so that it can be moved radially inward of the overall parking area onto the inner platform which, in turn, can then be rotated into alignment with the open or no-parking space of the outer platform that is then aligned with an outlet elevator.
A large number of variations of the foregoing structure of the present invention are possible, and one such variation is illustrated in FIGURES 3 and 4, wherein a truly circular building 51 is provided with suitable vertical supports 52 about the circumference thereof to support the successive vertically-stacked floors. Although this embodiment of the present invention includes many portions in common with the embodiment described above, a main difference lies in the provision of a central axial elevator 54, which extends upwardly through the center of the building and is adapted, for example, to carry automobiles into the building for parking upon the various floors. In this instance, the central member or turntable 56 has an annular configuration to fit about the central elevator 54, and is of course, provided with a planar or fiat top surface and a suitable drive means 57 to rotate this central member or platform at the direction of an operator. Automobiles entering the building 51 through an entrance 58 are driven to the center of the building onto the elevator 54 and thence, at the control of the operator, raised to the desired floor. Upon this floor, the automobile is driven from the elevator onto the central platform 56 and may then either be driven directly into a parking stall on a rotatable parking platform, or may be rotated by the element 56 into alignment with an empty parking stall. In common with the embodiment of FIGURE 1, there is shown in FIGURE 3 inner and outer annular parking platforms 61 and 62 which are circumferentially provided into a large plurality of individual automobile parking platforms. Each of the parking platforms 61 and 62 may include either one or two radially-spaced circumferential rows of parking stalls, although for convenience these annular platforms are shown to have a radial width only slightly greater than the length of single automobiles to be parked thereon.
As automobiles are raised to an individual floor, they are driven either by their owner or an attendant outwardly from the central or axial elevator 54, and into a radial parking stall upon one of the parking platforms 61 or 62. Either the central turntable 56 or the annular parking platform 61 or 62 may be rotated to maintain an open stall in alignment with the elevator opening so that parking is facilitated. For removal of automobiles from the parking area on each floor, the outer parking platform 62 may be rotationally indexed to align the desired parking stall with one of the ilustrated two egress elevators 66 or 67, and the automobile then merely driven forward into the elevator for lowering to the street floor" and departure from the parking building. In common with the embodiment of FIGURE 1, both of the parking platforms contain a radial driveway or no-parking area extending thereacross, so that no matter how full the parking platforms may be, it is always possible for an automobile to be directly driven from the central turntable 56 radially outward across these no-parking slots, as shown in the drawing, into an egress elevator assuming, of course, that the parking platforms are properly angularly indexed to align the no-parking slots with each other and with the egress elevator. In the instance wherein one or both of the parking platforms contain two radially-spaced circumferential rows of parking stalls, removal of an automobile parked in the inner row of the outer parking platform may be readily accomplished by aligning the no park area of the inner platform behind or radially inward of the automobile in question, so that it can be backed up into the open space on the inner platform. Subsequent annular rotation of the parking platforms to index same in position for alignment of the no-park areas with an egress elevator then opens a lane for such automobile to be driven radially outward into an egress elevator, such. as 66. Similarly, an automobile parked in an inner row of a double row inner parking platform 61 may be readily removed by backing the automobile onto the central turntable 56, and then angularly indexing the parking platforms and turntable by relative rotational movement thereof to align the no-park areas on both of the parking platforms with the egress aperture, and to align the automobile with these aligned open spaces, so that the automobile may be driven radially outward into an egress elevator.
It is to be appreciated that any desired number of concentric parking platforms may be employed, and FIG- URES l and 3 hereof only illustrate two separately rotatable parking platforms as illustrative of the invention, rather than being limiting thereon. Furthermore, it is noted that any suitable drive means may be provided for controllably rotating or angularly indexing the central turntable, as well as the annular parking platforms concentric therewith. In FIGURE 4there is only shown in block form drive means 68 and 69 associated with the inner and outer parking platforms 61 and 62, respectively. As previously noted, a wide variety of drive means may be utilized, and it is assumed in the illustration that some type of gear drive is employed, preferably with an electric motor for each separately movable element of the parking apparatus hereof and properly energized at the control of an operator located somewhere else in the parking building, such as the ground floor. It is contemplated that control over the angular position of individual elements of the present invention shall be directed from a control area or the like, possibly adjacent the inlet door 58 of the building.
It is to be further noted that parking apparatus of the present invention provides for locking within the building substantially all automobiles parked therein, except those that happen to be parked in an outer parking stall of the outer parking platform 62, for example, adjacent an egress elevator. Thus, control over automobiles leaving the facility is substantially entirely within the hands of an operator who rotationally indexes the parking platforms and central turnstile. Practically none of the automobiles parked upon any of the floors of the present invention can be removed without the operator rotating one or more elements of the present invention, and this is highly advantageous in connection with the control over parking and insurance of the collection of full charges for such parking. Only after payment of a required parking fee by the automobile owner to the controller does the latter actuate drive means to free the automobile in question so that it may be moved into alignment through an open lane with an egress elevator. The foregoing and a wide variety of other advantages attach to the parking apparatus of the present invention.
Particular attention is invited to the extreme flexibility of the present invention, inasmuch as same is readily adaptable to a wide variety of different types of buildings, building locations, and building sizes. It is, of course, possible in accordance with the present invention to house the parking apparatus in a rectangular building having two annular parking arrangements such as illustrated in FIG- URES 1 or 3, for example, and disposed side-by-side on each floor of the building. By the provision of external elevators, some of which may be designed to carry automobiles and others designed to carry only passengers, there is achieved a remarkably pleasing external appearance of the parking building incorporating the present invention. Furthermore, one or more floors including, for example, the top floor of the building, may house entirely different facilities such as stores, lounges, restaurants, or the like. By the utilization of substantially all of the physical space on a floor for parking, there is achieved a maximum advantage in building structure, and also an ability to intersperse parking floors with floors employed for other purposes. The present invention does not include space-consuming automobile ramps, or the alternative difficulty of large number of attendants normally necessary to park and remove automobiles in high-density parking. While it is possible for each floor of the parking facility hereof to be provided with an attendant who serves to remove the automobile from the inlet elevator and park same, as well as remove the automobile from the parking stall and place same back into an egress elevator, this only calls for a single attendant for a very large number of cars on each floor. Contrasted to this system is the more conventional approach of providing a large number of attendants required to move a plurality of cars for access to those parked in otherwise inaccessible areas of high-density parking in a parking facility. The sole alternative available at the present time appears to be an undue delay in automobile owners obtaining their car back from a high-density parking facility or garage.
There is thus provided by the present invention a truly practical and yet quite simple parking apparatus capable of handling a very large number of cars and the storage of same in a markedly small area or volume, without the normally expected extremely high cost associated with prior art attempts along this line. The invention is admirably suited for installation in any area such as a city whereing parking of automobiles is a problem. A large number of automobiles must be readily and rapidly parked and still be almost instantaneously available for removal by their owners. Not only are the foregoing aims and objects accomplished by the present invention, but furthermore, these results are attained with a remarkably simple struc ture requiring only a minimum expenditure for construction thereof, again in contrast to prior art high-density automobile parking systems. The present invention does not require physical gripping of the automobile by parking mechanism, and thus the natural and inherent reluctance of the automobile owners to entrust their cars to parking apparatus is not present in the present invention.
What is claimed is:
1. Automobile parking apparatus comprising a building structure having vertical supports mounting verticallyspaced floors for parking automobiles, each of said floors mounting a central rotatable automobile turntable, drive means engaging each of said turntables for individually and controllably rotating same into angularly indexed positions, at least one annular parking platform disposed :oncentrically about the turntable on each floor and inlependently rotatable drive means controllably rotating aid platforms, said independently rotatable drive means :ach having two speeds with one speed rapidly rotating he platform for large angle turning and a second speed ndexing the platform by turning same one stall at a time for successive filling of platform stalls, and a plurality of :levators extending between said floors for carrying autonobiles, each of said platforms having a pair of circum- Ferential rows of parking stalls thereabout adapted to convain parked automobiles, and a driveway extending radially across each platform so that automobiles driven radially inward upon the turntable from the inner row of stalls on the adjacent platform are adapted to be turned by the :urntable toward an elevator and the platform rotated to align the driveway thereof between such automobile and :levator, and said plurality of elevators being disposed in spaced relation entirely about the circumference of said parking platforms.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS FOREIGN PATENTS Belgium.
11/ 1926 Great Britain. 5/ 1957 Great Britain. 2/ 1954 France.
GERALD M. FORLENZA, Primary Examiner.
R. B. JOHNSON, Assistant Examiner.