US 3379024 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 23, 1968 J. WOHLMEYNER 3,379,024
MACHINE FOR CONSTRUCTING LINED DUCTS THROUGH ROCK Filed April 13, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 April 23, 1968 J. wow MEYER 3,379,024
MACHINE FOR CONSTRUCTING LINED DUCTS THROUGH ROCK Filed April 15, 1965 s Sheets-Sheet 2 III United States Patent 3,379,024 MACHINE FOR CONSTRUCTING LINED DUCTS THROUGH ROCK Josef Wohlmeyer, deceased, late of Vienna, Austria, by Maria Wohlrneyer, Ilse Kirchner, Helrnut Wohlmeyer, Helga Wohlmeyer, all of Vienna, Austria, heirs; Anna Berger, testamentary heir, Vienna, Austria, and Hans Waber, Vienna, Austria, guardian of Robert Berger and Anna Berger, testamentary heirs, both of Vienna, Austria Filed Apr. 13, 1965, Ser. No. 449,383 20 Claims. (Cl. 6185) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A tubular shield provided in its front end with a rotary drum carrying adjustable and rotatable working tools by which a duct is formed. A formwork of a smaller diameter at the rear end of the shield defines an annular space between itself and the wall of the duct. Concrete is pumped into the annular space to form a lining for the finished duct, and as the lining hardens, pumping of the concrete provides a force which advances the shield with the working tools along the duct. Tracks for the shield are also provided along with power means for advancing the shield along the tracks at the start of the duct forming operation Where finished duct lining is not available for advancing the shield by pumping of concrete.
Various kinds of machines are known for the construction of tunnels, galleries, caves, walls or the like. Besides, it is no longer new to provide a tool carrier having working tools on its face and to advance this tool carrier at the rate of the progress of work. For this propulsion, one section of the apparatus is usually anchored first by means of radial struts in the tunnel duct and then the tool carrier is pushed forwardly with the aid of hydraulic piston drives or of screw drives backed by this section of the apparatus, until the drive means have reached their maximum extension. The back-up section is then released from its anchorage, caused to follow up at high speed, and again strutted in the tunnel duct, whereafter the tool carrier is advanced by the next increment so that the entire operation is repeated. This procedure results in an intermittent advance which is slow owing to the necessary interruptions and involves complicated manipulations to clamp and release the back-up section. Similar disadvantages are involved in another known design, in which a tubular shield set with tools is advanced by piston drives or screws backed by the lining which has already been completed. Another disadvantage of all previous machines and processes for constructing lined tunnels or the like resides in that the lining, e.g., with concrete, is effected entirely independently of and after the drilling operation and that the lining operation is carried out according to orthodox, complicated methods of construction, whereas the preceding drilling operation has been improved and accelerated. Even when modern machines enable the excavation to be carried out at much lower costs and at a much higher speed, the total cost and the total construction time of the project are still fairly high because the lining has not been improved and has not been reduced in cost. Besides, the known drilling machines cannot be used universally for various kinds of rock, from solid rock to broken rock and quicksand, or selectively under dry or submerged conditions, and special difficulties and delays result when rock water is encountered during drilling and before or during lining.
The method according to the invention enables a continuous construction of the lining by machine simultaneously with the excavation work in such a manner that rock "ice water does not create any difficulties and submerged operation is readily possible.
Based on a method in which a tubular shield having tools working at its face is propelled at the rate of the progress of work, the invention resides essentially in that concrete or another pumpable and hardenable substance is forced behind the rear wall of the shield into the annular space between the wall of the tunnel or the like and a sliding formwork, which is connected to the shield, so that the lining is formed and the shield is pushed ahead. The concrete or the like forced into this annular space bears at one end on the previously completed concrete pipe and at the other end on the pistonlike rear wall of the shield so that the same is advanced and at the same time the lining is formed under a pressure which is so high that a concrete having a particularly high quality and impermeability to water is obtained and exerts a high pressure on the tunnel Wall. This eliminates the previous need for a complicated and time-consuming introduction of back-up concrete under pressure. If the shield is watertight and care is taken that the material detached by the tools passes through the shield without any water entering the shield, the method according to the invention can be carried out under submerged conditions without need for accommodating the operators in a pressure chamber because the completed lining prevents an access of water behind the shield and the sliding formwork and because the watertight shield is provided in front. Another advantage of the process according to the invention resides in the con tinuous operation and in the great simplification of the machinery because the strutting members or the like otherwise required for the advance are eliminated and three is no need for steps to support the rock before the lining is completed and for further formwork for this purpose.
According to the invention, the cement or the like is pneumatically conveyed to the site, together with the aggregates, if desired, and the concrete is made up only on the site. This enables a supply of the materials at the required rates in simple conduits and within a small space through the previously completed tunnel.
The machine for carrying out the process according to the invention comprises in known manner a tubular shield and is characterized according to the invention by a sliding formwork, which is disposed behind the rear wall of the shield and connected to the shield but smaller in outside diameter than the same, and by a pump which is dis posed within the sliding formwork or the shield and supplies concrete or the like under pressure preferably through a central manifold and radial tubes or hoses into the annular space outside the sliding formwork. To enable the formation of a lining in a variable thickness, as required, the sliding formwork consists of radially adjustable parts, which may carry bushings, which are disposed adjacent to the outlet openings for the concrete and in which the radial supply tubes for the concrete are a sliding fit. The sliding formwork is preferably composed of a plurality of segments, which are articulatedly connected at one end to radially extending piston drives and at the other end slidably engage the adjacent segment.
To enable an adjustment of the local pressure of the concrete in accordance with the respective operating conditions, adjustable throttles are incorporated in the conduits for supplying concrete.
It will be understood that the machine may be used for carrying out the method according to the invention only when the machine has penetrated into the rock or the like to such an extent that there is a sufficiently strong lining ring of concrete behind the machine. To enable a starting operation, the shield is adapted to be mounted on tracks at the beginning of the operation with the aid of detachable rollers or slide runners and is adapted to be advanced by hydraulic piston drives backed up by a cross head, which is connected to the tracks. Thus the first section of the tunnel is driiled with the aid of hydraulic propelling means. As the machine penetrates into the rock, the machine leaves the tracks and the roller or slide runners are removed. To ensure that the concrete will immediately find a firm back-up surface so that it can advance the shield, 21 formwork ring is provided which is preferably box-shaped and may be composite, and which is adapted to be clamped to the rear end of the sliding formwork and then to be anchored in the tunnel duct or the like. The rollers or slide runners may be adapted to be held with the aid of straps, which embrace the rail heads from above and are adapted to be screw-connected to the rail webs so that these rollers or slide runners may be used for setting up the shield or the n achine.
Various working tools may be used at the face of the shield. It is even possible to obtain the drillings by hand. It is particularly suitable, however, to provide a drum, which is waterand airtightly inserted at the front end of the shield and rotatable about a main axis of the machine, which main axis coincides with the axis of the tunnel or the like. Said drum carries tools which may be independently rotatable, if desired. Hence, the drum forms a tool carrier and at the same time a tight closure at the face of the shield. The drum may be formed in its both end walls with doors so that the operators have access to the face of the machine. When Work is carried out below the underground water level, compressed air may be blown into the working space in front of the drum when work is to be carried out there so that the interior of the drum can be used as a passage lock.
The drum is axially slidable in the shield and has at its rear end a large diameter thrust bearing, the backing ring of which is engaged by hydraulic piston drives or the like. This enables a retraction of the drum from the face of the gallery or tunnel for a replacement of tools or for servicing the tools. The drum may be provided with inserted-tooth cutters or the like, which are eccentrically mounted in bushings which are angularly adjustable in the drum. An angular adjustment of these bushings will then vary the radial distance of the inserted-tooth cutters or the like from the drum axis whereby the outermost inserted-tooth cutters may be pulled inwardly so that they do not obstruct the retraction of the drum into the shield. On the other hand, the bushings may be adjusted to provide for a drilling diameter in excess of the shield diameter.
The drillings must be discharged through the shield, the sliding formwork and the succeeding completed concrete pipe. This transfer may be effected with the aid of various conveyors. Difficulties will be encountered when the conveyance is to be etfected in such a manner that no water has access "to the space within and behind the shield and work can be carried out without providing for a superatmospheric pressure in this space. According to the invention, these diihculties are eliminated in that the shield accommodates an armored suction pump, which has a suction conduit leading to the face of the shield and serves for removing the material which has been detached by the tools and is mixed with water. Such a flushing conveyance is suitable even for a high rate or drillings, which may then be discharged through suitable pipelines provided in the completed tunnel. To limit the lump size in which the rock drillings are obtained so that clogging of the pipelines is avoided, a stone crusher is arranged before the suction mouthpiece of the suction line. Such a stone crusher may also be recommendable when other conveyors are used during work under dry conditions and with a shield which is not tight.
The drillings may be discharged with the aid of a suction pump even when work is carried out above the underground water level. For this purpose, a central pressure water nozzle is provided at the face of the tool-carrying drum and is independently rotatable about the drum axis and extends preferably transversely to this axis. This nozzle &- supplies the required flushing and conveying Water. In light rock, the water jet may partly or entirely detach the rock so that it replaces special tools.
To enable particularly in relatively hard rock a reliable transmission to the rock of the reaction torque generated by the drilling machine which consists of the tools carried by the drum, the substantially circular-cylindrical shield has at least on its underside a keellike extension, which may form in front a Wedge, which performs thrust movements that are preferably parallel to the axis whereas the sliding formwork has, if desired, a corresponding extension which is smaller in cross-section. In this case the extension of the sliding formwork provides for a non-circular tunnel profile so that, e.g., a water discharge gutter or a. support for sleepers or ties or rails in the floor of the tunnel or a recess for current collectors of electric railways in the roof of the tunnel may be obtained.
To enable the use of the machine also for curved tunnels or the like, the shield consists of a plurality of overlapping length sections, which are held together and can be spread apart like an accordion on one side by means of hydraulic piston drives or the like. In the construction of an arcuate tunnel, the length sections are spread apart on the outside of the are so that the annular surfaces of the individual length sections extends like chords approaching the desired arc. For a better approximation of such an arc, the length sections of the shield may be cambered at their periphery. in spite of being divided into individual sections, the shield is tight because it is provided at each joint between two length sections with at least one annular groove or the like, which is always covered by the adjacent length section and accommodates a seal.
Finally, the last length section may be arranged to be radially expanded or be provided with expanding members and the remaining shield may be adapted to be advanced alone with the aid of piston or screw drives bearing on this length section. In such a design, drilling and constructing the lining may be carried out at the same time. In this case all length sections remain together. Alternatively, a tunnel having no lining may be constructed, in which case the connecting apparatus is not used and the shield is advanced in known manner, except for the last length section, which is used for backing the shield against the tunnel pipe.
An embodiment of the invention is shown by way of example in the accompanying drawing. FIG. 1 is a sectional view taken on line I-I of FIG. 2 and shows a machine for constructing lined tunnels or the like. FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on lines IIII (right-hand side of FIG. 2) and IIa-Ha (left-hand side of FIG. 2) in FIG. 1. FIG. 3 is an enlarged axial sectional view showing as a detail joint between two length sections of the shield. FIG. 4 is side elevation showing a track arrangement for the machine at the start of the duct forming operation. FIG. 5 is a top plan view of the track arrangement. FIG. 6 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken on the line VI-VI in FIG. 4.
A tubular shield is composed of a plurality of length sections 1-5. The first length section consists of an outer shell 6 and a transverse wall 7. It might alternatively have a shell in the form of a Hat box. Each of the length sections 2, 3 and 4 has an outer shell 6, an inner shell 8 and transverse walls 9, which connect these shells. The last length section 5 of the shield has a shorter outer shell 10 and a transverse wall 11, which forms at the same time the rear wall of the entire shield. Two cylindrical or polygonalprismatic drums 12 are secured to the wall 11 and carry hydraulic piston drives 13. One side of segments 14 is axially displaceably and pivotally connected to the piston rods of these piston drives 13. The other side of each segment is slidably supported by the adjacent segment. These segments form a substantialy cylindrical sliding formwork, the diameter of which can be varied with the aid of the piston drives 13. A platform 15 disposed within the sliding formwork carries a concrete pump 16, which is supplied with concrete from a final mixer 17 and which forces the concrete through a central manifold 18 and radial tubes 19 into the annular space surrounding the sliding formwork 14 behind the rear wall 11 of the shield. The radial tubes 19 have a sliding fit in bushings 20 to enable a radial adjustment of the formwork segments 14.
The length sections 15 of the shield have cam'bered outer shells 6, 10 and are held together by piston drives 21, as is particularly apparent from FIG. 3. The length sections can be spread apart by admission of pressure to the piston 22. When they are spread apart on one side, the shield will be curved so that a curved tunnel or the like may be made. It is also apparent from FIG. 3 that the shield is provided adjacent to each joint between overlapping length sections with an annular groove 23, which remains always covered by the adjacent length section and accommodates a gasket 24. Various forms of gaskets may be used. In the present case the gasket consists of a flexible tube, which may be inflated, if desired.
A drum 25, which is rotatable about the main axis of the machinewhich axis concides with the axis of the tunnel or the likeis inserted at the face of the shield. Gaskets 26 are provided to prevent a penetration of water or air between the first length section 1 of the shield and the drum. The drum is provided with inserted-tooth cutters 27, 28, which are driven by motors 29. The drum is rotatably and longitudinally displaceably held by rollers 30, which are mounted in the length section 2 of the shield and suitably spaced apart in the peripheral direction. The drum has at its rear end a thrust bearing 31, which is large in diameter. The backing ring 32 is articulatedly connected to hydraulic piston drives 33, by which the drum can be extended or retracted. The backing ring has also sliding extensions 34, which engage longitudinal grooves 35 in the inner shell of the length section 3 to hold the backing ring against rotation. The second part of the thrust bearing 21 consists of an internal gear 36, which is in mesh with a pinion 37, by which the drum 25 can be rotated by means of a variable transmission 38 so that the inserted-tooth cutters 27, 28 describe epicyclic orbits.
The outer inserted-tooth cutters 27 are eccentrically mounted in bushings 39, which are tightly but rotatably mounted in the drum 25 and provided with a gear segment 40 in mesh with a common gear rim 41, which can be driven by a pinion 42. Owing to the eccentric mounting of the inserted-tooth cutters, a rotation of the bushing 39 will result in a change of the radial distance of the inserted-tooth cutters from the main axis of the machine so that the inserted-tooth cutters can be moved inwardly when the drum 25 is retracted to move the cutters into the length section 1 of the shield.
It will be understood that the drum 25 may be provided with different tools, such as radially extending cutting knives, break-oif discs, roller chisels and the like.
Another platform 43 provided under the machine platform 15 carries two pumps 45, 46, which are driven by a common motor 44. The pump 45 comprises an armored suction pump, which through a pipe sucks the material which has been detached by the inserted-tooth cutters 27, 28 and mixed with water and discharges this material through a telescope tube 48 into a tube 49. The centifugal pump 46 serves for discharging water under pressure through a central tube 50 and a telescopic tube 51 to a nozzle 52, which is rotated by a transmission 53 about the drum axis and supplies the flushing and conveying water. Before the suction mouthpiece 54 of the suction conduit 47, a stone crusher 55 is arranged, which is driven by universal joint shafts 56 and a transmission 57 from motors 58 disposed in the length section 2 of the shield. The stone crusher may be provided with hydraulically operated crushing rods.
To enable a reliable transmission of the reaction torque even to relatively hard rock, each annular length section is provided with keellike, box-shaped extensions 59. The
foremost extension 60 forms a wedge having a thin edge 61 and may be provided with a thrust drive for moving it in a horizontal direction parallel to the axis.
With reference to FIGS. 4 to 6, at the beginning of operation, tracks 72 are mounted on ties or sleepers 73. Then annular length sections 1-5 are erected in pairs from the horizontal position with the aid of hydraulic piston drives. For this purpose, transverse shafts 74 are extended through the keellike extension 59 and rollers 75 or slide runners are mounted on these shafts. To erect the length sections of the shield, these rollers or slide runners may be held in position by means of straps 76, which embrace the rail heads from above and are screwconnected to the rail webs. When the machine has been erected, the keellike extension 59 is rearwardly extended by an extension member 77, and another shaft 74 provided with rollers 75 is mounted at the end of the extension member. The entire machine is then stiiI'ened with the aid of oblique struts 78. At the beginning of operations, the advance of the machine supported on the tracks 72 is effected with the aid of hydraulic piston drives 79, which bear on a cross-head connected to the tracks and are connected to each other by a plate 81. The thrust force is transmitted by the extension member 77 and the oblique struts 78 to the machine. As the machine penetrates into the rock, the foremost rollers 75, the second rollers and finally the last ones are removed and the machine slides then throughout its length in the drilled duct.
When the machine has sufiiciently penetrated for the introduction of concerete, a formwork ring 82, which is clamped to the rear end of the sliding formwork 14 is detached from the sliding formwork and is anchored with the aid of steel nails or by similar means in thedrilled tunnel duct or the like. Concrete may now be pumped into the annular space between the sliding formwork and the tunnel wall, initially under a relatively low pressure, which is increased to the full pressure. As soon as the advance is eifected by the concrete pressure, the oblique struts 78, the extension member 77 and the piston drives 79 are demounted.
It will be understood that the apparatus may be modified inwarious ways without departing from the scope of the invention. More particularly, the described hydraulic pliston drives may be replaced by screw drives or other. strictly mechanical drives.
What is claimed is:
1. A machine for constructing lined ducts through rock, which comprises a tubular shield having a face set with working tools and a rear end wall, a sliding formwork connected to said shield and smaller in outside diameter than the same, said hield and sliding formwork defining an interior cavity, a pump contained in said interior cavity and having a discharge outlet communicating with the space surrounding the periphery of said sliding form work, said pump being operable to discharge a pumpable and hardenable substance under pressure into said space, a set of tracks, a cross head connected to said tracks, track engaging means detachably mounted on said shield and relatively movably engaging said tracks, and hydraulic piston drive means connected to said shield and engaging said cross head and operable to advance said shield along said tracks.
2. A machine as set forth in claim 1, track engaging means comprise rollers.
3. A machine as set forth in claim 1, in which said track engaging means comprise slide runners.
4. A machine as set forth in claim 1, which includes a formwork ring, means for clamping said formwork ring to the rear end of said sliding formwork, and means for anchoring said formwork ring in said duct.
5. A machine as set forth in claim 4, in which said formwork ring is box-shaped.
in which said 6. A machine as set forth in claim 4, in which said formwork ring is composite.
7. A machine as set forth in claim 4, in which said tracks comprise rails having rail heads and rail webs and which comprises straps adapted to embrace said rail heads from above and means for screw-connecting said straps to said rail webs, said straps being adapted to hold said track engaging means in position on said tracks.
8. A machine for constructing lined ducts through rock, which comprises a tubular shield having a face set with working tools and a rear end wall, a sliding formwork connected to said shield and smaller in outside diameter than the same, said shield and sliding formwork defining an interior cavity, a pump contained in said interior cavity and having a discharge outlet communicating with the space surrounding the periphery of said sliding formwork, said pump being operable to discharge a pumpable and hardenable substance under pressure into said space, a drum watertightly and airtightly mounted in said shield at said face thereof and rotatable about the axis of the shield, said working tools being rotatably mounted in said drum, said drum being axially slidably mounted in said shield and having at its rear end a thrust bearing which is relatively large in diameter, said thrust bearing having a backing ring, said machine including hydraulic piston drives engaging said backing ring for axially sliding said drum.
9. A machine as set forth in claim 8, in which said working tools comprise inserted-tooth cutters, which are eccentrically mounted in bushings, which are angularly adjustably mounted in said drum.
10. A machine as et forth in claim 8, which includes a pressure water nozzle mounted at the face of and independently rotatable about the axis of said drum.
11. A machine as set forth in claim 11), in which said nozzle extends transversely to the axis of said drum.
12. A machine as set forth in claim 8, in which said shield has substantially the shape of a circular cylinder and is provided at least on its underside with a keellike extension, which forms at its front end a wedge adapted to perform thrust movements.
13. A machine as set forth in claim 12, in which said wedge is adapted to perform thrust movements parallel to the axis of said shield.
14. A machine as set forth in claim 12, in which said sliding formwork comprises a corresponding extension which is smaller in cross-section than said extension of said shield.
15. A machine as set forth in claim 8, in which said shield consists of a plurality of overlapping length sections and which includes hydraulic piston drives which hold said length sections together and are operable to spread said length sections apart on one side like an accordion.
16. A machine as set forth in claim 15, in which said length sections of said shield have a cambered periphery. 17. A machine as set forth in claim 15, in which each joint between two adjacent length sections incorporates a seal covered by one of the adjacent length sections in all possible relative positions of said adjacent length Sec- 15 tions.
13. A machine as set forth in claim 15, in which the last length section of said shield adjacent to said sliding forrnwork is adapted to be radially extended and which comprises extensible drive means interposed between said last length section and the remaining length sections and operable to advance only said remaining length sections. 19. A machine as set forth in claim 15, in which said last length section comprises segments which are adapted to be radially expanded.
28. A machine as set forth in claim 15, in which said last length section comprises radially extensible elements.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,320,144 10/1919 Hencken 29962 X 1,574,040 2/1926 Lasher 16623 X 360,959 4/1887 Greathead 6185 512,037 1/1894 Kraus 6172.2 X 517,808 4/1894 Ransorne 61-85 551,042 12/1895 McDonald 6185 1,146,477 7/1915 C018 6|. al. 25 32 1,501,093 7/1924 Blower 299-31 2,466,709 4/1949 Karr 61--85 3,232,062 2/1966 Bland (El-84 Re. 26,132 1/1967 Cerutti 61-84 1,320,144 10/1919 Hencken 299-62 X 1,574,040 2/1926 Lasher 16623 X FOREIGN PATENTS 49 443,158 2/1936 Great Britain.
620,764 11/1935 Germany.
ERNEST R. PURSER, Primary Examiner.