US 3382713 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 14, 1968 P. e. CHUTTER 3,382,713
DRILLING RIG INSTRUMENT SYSTEM Filed Feb. 18, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Philip G. Chufler INVENTOR ATTORNEY;
y 1968 P. 5. CHUTTER 3,382,713
DRILLING RIG INSTRUMENT SYSTEM Filed Ffiib. 18, 1965 4 t s 2 FIG. 2
Philip G. ChuHer INVENTOR.
BYQA QM ATTORNEY ay 14, 1968 P. G. CHUTTER 3,382,713-
DRILLING RIG INSTRUMENT SYSTEM Filed Feb. 18, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 5' TO SWITCHES 74A TO 74h Philip G. Chuiter INVENTOR.
ATTORNEY y 1968 P. G. CHUTTER 3,382,713
DRILLING RIG INSTRUMENT SYSTEM Fild Feb. 18, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 RECORDER LOAD RECORDER FIG; 5
lOZ TO ALARM 2o 19 la l7 l6 :5 l4 :3 [2 n IO 9 a 1 e TACHOMETER Philip G. Chutter INVENTOR.
ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,382,713 DRKLLING RIG INSTRUMENT SYSTEM Philip G. Chutter, 6891 Adera St, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Filed Feb. 18, I965, Ser. No. 433,634 4 Claims. (Cl. 73--l51) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Apparatus for determining the work performed by a moving member which includes means for generating pulses in a plurality of channels in response to movement of the member, the number of pulses generated for a given movement being different in each channel; means for actuating a particular channel in response to the load on the member; and means for counting the number of pulses generated.
This invention relates to the drilling of boreholes into the earth. It relates especially to a system for determining and recording parameters useful in the eflicient drilling of boreholes. It relates particularly to a system for recording an indication ofa summation of the product of the parameters useful when determining when to move and/ or cut a wireline used in drilling operations.
In the art of drilling wells for the production of oil and gas, the most commonly used method is the so-called rotary drilling method. In the rotary drilling method, a drill bit is suspended at the lower end of a string of drill pipe which is supported from the surface of the earth. The drill string is conveniently formed with many joints of drill pipe, each joint usually being about thirty feet long. As the hole is deepened, additional joints of drill pipe, as. needed, are connected into the string. A drilling fluid is forced down through the drill string, through the drill bit, and back to the surface through the annulus between the drill pipe and the walls of the well bore. While the drilling fluid serves primarily to carry the rock cuttings from the drill bit to the surface, it also serves to lubricate and cool the drilling bit. The drill bit obtains its rotary motion from the drill pipe which is rotated from the surface. It is known that the rate of penetration of a drill bit can be increased by increasing the force of the drill bit on the bottom of the borehole. The penetration of the drill bit is also influenced by the rate at which the drilling fluid is forced through the drill bit and by the rate of rotation of the bit.
The life of certain mechanical portions or members of a drilling unit is at least partially dependent upon the work performed by those members. One such mechanical member is a heavy wire drilling line used on drilling rigs to raise and lower the drill pipe. Such a wireline is subjected to unequal wear due to the cyclic nature of drilling operations. An extra supply of wireline is carried as a continuous part of the active line or the line in use. Generally speaking, the drilling line extends from a supply drum through a releasable anchor for anchoring the line to a rigid base, through a block and tackle means suspended from the rig and downwardly to a draw works drum or power drum. Rotation of the power drum raises and lowers the blocks and tackle means. Means are provided for releasably attaching the string of drill pipe to the block and tackle means.
In general practice, periodically the anchor means is released and a portion of the supply of drilling line is ice slipped into use. The portion of the line previously used to raise and lower the block and tackle means is cut off at the end of the line where it has been connected to the power drum. The portion of the worn line cut from the new or supply line has to be unwound from the draw or power drum and removed therefrom. The new end of the line is secured to the power drum. The active portion of the hoisting or drilling line is thus changed.
Generally the time involved in cutting the line and resecuring the supply into the draw works drum is greater than the time to slip the line from a supply drum into a hoisting mechanism. Thus, in practice several slips are normally made before the line is cut at the draw works drum. Additional worn line is wound around the power drum and is thus removed from the remaining part of the hoisting mechanism. However, the size of the draw works drum limits the amount of line which can feasibly be contained thereon. Thus, when a fixed amount of line is wrapped around the draw works drum, the line has to be cut and the worn portion of the used line removed therefrom.
Much study has been done for determining when the active portion of the line in the hoisting mechanism should be slipped and replaced by a new portion of the supply line. In normal usage it has been found that the wear rate of the hoisting line is a function of the work done by that line. The product of the load on the drilling line and the distance moved by the line gives a product in work units, such as in ton miles. A summation of such products gives the measure of the total Work performed by such wireline. When a line has performed a certain amount of work in a system, the line should be replaced.
One object of this invention is to provide a system which computes and records the work of a wireline which is used in a block and tackle system.
Another object of this invention is to provide an electrically operated device which determines the load on the line and the distance the load travels and multiplies such load and distance to give a product in ton miles. Means are further provided to record the load on the dead line as determined by an electrical load-determining means.
Briefly, in a preferred embodiment, the invention is designed to compute and record in ton miles the work of drilling lines in service on drilling rigs. The two factors or parameters necessary to determine this are (l) the weight or load on the line and (2) the amount of travel of the line. The weight or load on the line is determined by a weight load indicator. The weight thus determined is multiplied by the travel of the line, without regard to direction. The summation of the product of this multiplication is an indication of the work performed by the line.
In an especially preferred embodiment, a pulse generator takes the form of a cylinder or drum having a plurality of circumferential rows or rings of contactors spaced about it. The contactors can be small permanent magnets. A row of small switches are supported adjacent the drum, there being a switch for each. circumferential row. As a contact moves under the switch, a pulse is generated. Each circumferential row has a different number of contactors, e.g. one row has one contactor, another two up to a maximum of 20 contaotors or more as may be desired.
The drum is rotated proportional to the travel of the line. For each revolution of the drum there is generated under one switch one pulse and under the other switches additional pulses corresponding to the number of contactors for its associated range. The particular channel of circumferential rows which is connected to a pulse counter is determined by the weight; and the number of pulses which that row produces is a measure of the travel of the line. Thus, the number of pulses entering the counter is a measure of the product of the weight on and travel of the line.
Thus, means are provided for generating a plurality of channels of pulses in which each channel generates a different number of pulses. The rate of generation of the pulses in each channel is controlled by a first parameter, i.e. the travel of the line. Means are provided whereby a second parameter, i.e. the load on the line, determines which channel of pulses is selected in any given instant. Means are provided for counting the pulses of the selected channel. The number of pulses thus counted is a measure of the work performed by the moving line.
Other objects and a better understanding of the invention may be had from the following description taken in conjunction with the drawing in which:
FIG. 1 illustrates certain features of a drilling unit useful in explaining this invention.
FIG. 2 illustrates in schematic form principal components of one embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 3 illustrates a selector switch controlled by the load on a line.
FIG. 4 illustrates a partial section of a drum which makes up one form of pulse-generating means.
FIG. 5 illustrates circuitry connecting a selector switch, a pulse generator, a counter, and a dead-line load recorder.
Referring to FIG. 1 there is shown schematically thereon a derrick or rig having a crown block 12 from which is suspended a traveling block 14 by line 16. The derrick acts as a structure from which the crown and traveling blocks function in suspending, pulling, and running the drill string 15 and other equipment run in a well. Line 16 is a conventional heavy wireline which is continuous from supply spool 18 through anchor device 20, crown block 12, traveling block 14 to the draw works or power drum 22. One end of the line 16 is secured to power drum 22. Item 20 is an anchor or clamp attached to the rig substructure. That portion of the line extending from the crown block to the point at which it is clamped or dead-ended is termed the dead line. Weight sensor 24 is provided on line 16 just above anchor 20 so that the weight on the line can be determined.
Means for obtaining a measure of the travel of line 16 is also provided. Attached to the top of the traveling block assembly at 45 is a small diameter steel line 44 which runs through a sheave 46 attached to the crown block to a spring-loaded traveling measuring wheel 48. A take-off power shaft 49 from wheel 48 is provided for the pulsegenerating means.
Attached to the dead line is a load cell 24 which is used to define or obtain an indication of the total load on the line which is accomplished by clamping a hydraulically actuated piston 32 against the dead line. As shown in FIG. 2 the tension on line 16 which represents the load thereon forces hydraulic piston 32 inwardly into a hydraulic cylinder 34. The greater the tension on line 16, the greater the force on piston 32, thus the greater the hydraulic pressure within cylinder 34. Thus, the pressure within cylinder 34 is proportional to the load on line 16. A Bourdon-type gage 36 is connected to the interior of hydraulic cylinder 34. A radial contact arm 30, which has a permanent magnet 42 on the end thereof, is connected to the Bourdon tube; the pressure with the Bourdon tube controls the position of the radial contact arm 30. The switch means includes a plurality of selecting switches 40A to 4011 which are closed when the end of radial arm passes over it. As shown in FIG. 3, one side of these switches A to 4011 is connected to switch 74A to 741: of the pulse-generating means respectively and the other side to a common ground. The purpose of the switches will be explained hereinafter. Which switch 40A to 4021 is closed is dependent upon the pressure in hydraulic cylinder 34 which is dependent upon the tension or load on line 16. This provides one parameter in determining the work performed by line 16. It also provides means for indicating the line load as will be seen.
Attention is now directed especially toward FIG. 2. Shown thereon are (1) means for providing the first parameter, that is the weight on line 16 and (2) means for providing the second parameter, i.e. the travel of the moving part of line 16. The first parameter is indicated by the position of radial arm 30 of Bourdon tube 36. The second parameter is indicated by the speed of rotation of wheel 48 which is driven by following line 44. The drum is-biased in the direction of the arrow so that line 44 is always taut. It thus clearly follows the movement of block 14. Shaft 49 from wheel 48 is connected to one-way clutch means 57 and 59 which are provided with gears 56 and 58, respectivley. One-way clutch 57 is responsive to transmit rotation of shaft 49 in one direction to gear 60 which meshes with gears 56 and 58 and clutch 59 transmits rotation of the opposite direction of shaft 49. In other words, one is a left-handed clutch and the other a right-handed clutch. The total revolving of shaft 62, which is connected to gear 60, is directly proportional to total line movement of line 44. Suitable one-way clutch assemblies are available from the Miniclutch Company, Hamden, Conn. and is designated their Model 62 CL 6. Shaft 51 rotates alternately in one direction and then in the other. However, this is transmitted into rotation in one direction to shaft 62 through clutches 57 and 59.
Shaft 628 is connected to gear box 64 which has an output shaft 66 upon which is mounted a pulse-generating drum 68. FIG. 4 shows a partial view of pulse-generating drum 68. As can be seen in FIG. 4, drum 68 has a plurality of circumferential rows of contactors 70. There are shown in FIG. 4 twenty such rows 72A to 7211. Each such contractor 70 in this particular embodiment includes a permanent magnet. There is a pulse switch means 74A to 7411 spaced adjacent each circumferential row 72A to 7212. As each contactor 70 comes under one of these switches, that switch is momentarily closed, thus causing a pulse to pass therethrough. For each revolution of drum 68 there is generated in each circumferential row the number of pulses equivalent to the number of contactors indicated in FIG. 4.
Attention is now directed to FIG. 5 which shows a wiring diagram connecting the load switch, the pulse generator, counter, a dead line load recorder and a recorder of the speed at which the traveling block moves. Shown thereon is a load switch 36 which has a radial arm 30 and a permanent magnet 42 at the end similarly as illustrated in FIG. 3. In FIG. 5 the switch is illustrated as having 20 separate switches numbered 1 through 20. This corresponds to the different channels or circumferential rows of pulses generated by the pulse generator when in operation. As shown in the partial illustration of the embodiment of FIG. 4 the pulse generator has 20 rows having different numbers of contactors running from one to twenty. Switches 74A to 7411 are illustrated. Just above each of the switches is a number representing the number of pulses which is generated for each revolution of drum 68. These numbers correspond to the number of contactors indicated in FIG. 4. One side of each of switches 74A to 7411 is connected through conduit 73 to counter 80.
The Bourdon-type gage which is attached to the load cell is calibrated from zero to twenty as indicated by the numerals 1 to 20, which are adjacent switches 40A to 40/1. These switches 40A to 40/1 are small sealed switches, each such switch is momentarily closed upon the magnet from the end of radial arm 30 passing over such switch. One side of each of the switches 40A to 4011 is connected to common ground 43 through a voltage source 45 to counter 80; the other side is connected through conductor 41A to 4111, respectively, to switches 74A to 7411 which has the same number of pulses for each rotation of drum 68 as the number indicative of the load on the switch means.
Thus, one side of each switch 74A to 7411 is connected to a common lead which is connected to pulse counter 80. The other side of each switch 74 is individually connected to switches 49A to 4011. Thus, the only channel of pulses of the pulse generator which is connected to counter 80 is that channel which is connected to whichever switch 4tiA to 4012 which is closed by radial arm 30.
To very briefly summarize the operation of the apparatus, pulse generator drum 68 is rotated directly proportional to the amount of travel of line 16. In the embodiment shown, it has a plurality of circumferential rows of switches. Each revolution of the drum causes each channel or row to generate the number of pulses indicated. In the embodiment shown, this is 1 to 20. Which of these channels is connected to counter 80 is determined by the load on line 16 as determined by load indicator 24 which controls the position of radial arm 30. In the position shown in FIG. 5, switch is closed by radial arm 30, thus, for each revolution of drum 68, the channel which generates ten pulses is connected to pulse counter 80. Thus, counter 81' counts 10 pulses. Thus, the movement of line 16 is multiplied by the load thereon to obtain work. The counter integrates these products. The load measured by weight sensor 24 is a fraction, e.g. /6, /8, or of the load travel block 14 depending on the reeve system used. For example, if 6 lines are used in supporting the traveling block, the total load thereon is six times the load on the dead line. Gear box 64 is provided so that a constant ratio can be maintained in event the reeve system is changed. By proper calibration of the load switch and the rotation of drum 68, counters 80 can read in ton miles or in decimal fractions thereof, as desired. This is thus seen to be a simple, direct, and accurate means of determining the measure of the work done by line 16.
Attention will now be directed toward that part of FIG. 5 which is used for recording the dead line load. Switches 40A to 497: are also connected through conducting lines 84A to 8412 to contacts 86A to 8611, respectively, of a resister 88 which, in effect, is a voltage divider having a plurality of taps. Resistor 88 is connected to line 90 through voltage source 91 to a recorder 92. The other side of the recorder is connected to the common ground of switches 46A to 45in. Thus, the position of arm 30, which is a measure of the load on the line 16, determines the voltage which controls recorder 92.
An automatic alarm system can be installed as shown in FIG. 5. This includes a relay 160 having switch 192 connected to an alarm. One side of relay 160 is connected to the one side of the appropriate switch 40A to 4011 and the other side to the ground or other side of the switches. In operation, when arm 3% is over the switch to which the line 1% is connected, it closes relay switch 102, thus actuating an alarm or other appropriate devices. Line 104, can, of course, be connected to the output of any switch to provide for whatever load protection desired. This particular feature is particularly helpful in fishing or pulling on a stuck drilling string. It can thus help to prevent pulling a drilling line apart.
Sometimes it is desired to record the speed at which the drill string is raised or lowered. Normally it will not be desired to record the speed of the traveling block assembly without its load of drill string. This is accomplished with the device shown in FIG. 5 and in FIG. 2. Shown thereon is a tachometer 108 responsive to rotation of shaft 62 which is responsive to the movement of the traveling block or drill string. However, as it is desired to only record the speed of the traveling block when a load is on the traveling block, a relay switch 106 is provided. This relay is connected through line 107 to switch 105 on load switch 36. Switch 106 is closed any time the load is greater than a given load, for example, five ton, indicated by 5 on the switch 36. An arcuate magnet 31 is attached to arm 30 which closes switch 105. This closes relay switch 106 which permits the tachometer reading to be recorded on recorder 110.
While there are above disclosed but a limited number of embodiments of the system of the invention herein presented, it iss possible to produce still other embodiments without departing from the inventive concept herein disclosed. It is therefore desired that only such limitations be imposed on the appended claims as are stated therein.
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus for determining the work performed by a moving member having a load thereon which comprises:
a drum means including a rotatable drum provided with means for generating pulses in a plurality of channels in response to rotation of said drum, the number of pulses generated during one revolution of said drum being different in each of said channels;
means for rotating said drum responsive to the movement of said moving member;
a pulse counter; and
means for determining the load on said moving member, said means including means for selecting a channel in accordance with said load thus determined and for connecting such selected channel to said counter.
2. An apparatus for determining the work performed by a moving member of a drilling unit having a load which comprises:
first means for generating a plurality of channels of pulses in which each channel generates a different number of pulses for a given movement of said moving member;
a counter; and
means for detecting the load on said moving member and including means to selectively connect said counter with a channel according to the load thus detected.
3. An apparatus for determining and recording the work performed by a drilling line having a load thereon and in use a drilling rig which comprises:
(a) a pulse generator including a cylinder having a plurality of circumferential rows of contractors spaced about it, each contactor including a permanent magnet and each such row containing a different number of such contactors;
a pulse switch means supported adjacent each row of contactors so that said switch is actuated by the permanent magnet of a contactor as said contactor passes adjacent such switch and a pulse is generated;
(b) a pulse counter means;
(c) selective control means for selecting and connecting one of said pulse switch means to said pulse counter means including a Bourdon tube-type gage means having a rotating contact arm whose radial position is dependent upon the load on the drilling line; a permanent magnet attached to the end of said contact arm; a plurality of selecting switches closable by magnetic action and spaced radially about said gage means and which are sequentially magnetically contacted by said contact arm as it rotates; first circuit means connecting one side of each pulse switch means with said pulse counter means; second circuit means connecting one side of each said selecting switch with said counter means and connecting the other side of each selecting switch independently with one of said pulse switch means.
4. Apparatus for determining the Work performed by a moving line including means for generating pulses in a plurality of channels in response to the movement of said line, the number of pulses generated for a given movement of said line being different in each of said channels; means for selecting a particular channel in response References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Greene 73-144 Greene 73-144 Stowe 73-398 Hayward 73144 Botsch 73141 Smith et al. 73379 Karol et al. 73313 Sikes 73-151 Hildebrandt 73-151 RICHARD C. QUEISSER, Primary Examiner.
JAMES J. GILL, Examiner.
C. A. RUEHL, Assistant Examiner.