|Publication number||US3382800 A|
|Publication date||May 14, 1968|
|Filing date||Nov 9, 1964|
|Priority date||Nov 9, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3382800 A, US 3382800A, US-A-3382800, US3382800 A, US3382800A|
|Inventors||Biggs Jr Lawrence M|
|Original Assignee||Navy Usa|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (26), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 14, 1968 1.. M. BIGGS, JR
LINEAR-SHAPED CHARGE CHEMICAL AGENT DISSEMINATOR Filed Nov. 9, 1964 IJ/l/IJI/IIl/II I III l/l/I/III I/ INVENTOR. LAWRENCE M. BIGGS, JR.
KA M ATTORNEY.
United States Patent 3,382,800 LINEAR-SHAPED CHARGE CHEMICAL AGENT DISSEMINATOR Lawrence M. Biggs, Jr., China Lake, Calif assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy Filed Nov. 9, 1964, Ser. No. 410,033 2 Claims. (Cl. 1026) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.
The present invention relates generally to improvements in chemical agent disseminating devices, and more particularly to improvements in chemical bombs of the type which utilize an explosive burster charge for effecting chemical agent aerosolization and dispersion.
Heretofore, chemical agent dissemination has been performed utilizing well-known devices of a type normally provided with a liquid agent disposed within a bomb shell and surrounding a generally smooth-surfaced cylindrical explosive burster charge arranged in a burster liner. Upon detonation, the energy of the exploding burster charge normally is utilized to rupture the burster liner and bomb shell, break the agent into droplets and accelerate the droplets outwardly from the bomb to form an aerosol cloud thereabout.
Briefly, when the cylindrical charge of a known device is detonated, a detonation wave is caused to progress along the explosive column producing a conical shock wave behind it. As this shock wave reaches the burster liner, the liner, the liquid agent, and the outer wall are radially expanded. The burster liner is first caused to reach its limit and then rupture into longitudinal strips, whereupon the shell is then caused to reach its limit and subsequently rupture into longitudinal strips. The liquid agent is then forced through the ruptures and caused to expand into a ring close behind an air shock as the shock wave progresses outwardly from the shell. The liquid will continue to progress outwardly behind the air shock, but at a velocity less than that of the air shock, until a rarefaction or relief wave overtakes the progressing liquid, at which point outward progression for the liquid agent ceases and the liquid essentially comes to rest with a resulting aerosol cloud thus being formed. Agent droplets are formed as the agent is expanded into a ring too large to remain intact and by aerodynamic drag effects acting on the agent as the agent is caused to progress through the atmosphere. The cloud thus formed may be found to be effective for many purposes. However, where larger clouds containing small droplets are required, the conventional devices have proven to be inadequate as a significant quantity of explosive energy normally is expended in rupturing the liner and shell rather than being expended in disseminating the liquid agent.
Therefore, it is the purpose of the instant invention to provide a simple, and practical chemical bomb for forming aerosol clouds of an increased size containing droplets of a reduced size without increasing the physical size of the device over that of the heretofore known devices. Applicant has discovered that this may be achieved through an inclusion of a shaped charge, which is detonated for creating radial jets, whereby aerosolization and cloud formation is significantly enhanced.
An object of the present invention is to provide a chemical bomb which utilizes explosive jets for forming a starshaped aerosol cloud.
Another object is to provide a chemical agent disseminator utilizing the Monroe effect for increasing the disseminators aerosol cloud forming capabilities.
A further object is to provide an improved chemical 3,382,8M Patented May 14, 1958 bomb capable of being launched from an airborne aircraft and detonated for forming a maximized aerosol cloud containing droplets of a minimized size.
Other objects, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side view of the chemical bomb of the instant invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross section side elevation, on an enlarged scale of the bomb of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross section front elevation, on an enlarged scale, taken generally along lines 3-3 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the burster charge provided for the device of the instant invention.
Referring now to the drawings, wherein like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout the several views, there is shown in FIG. 1 an aerodynamic chemical bomb, generally designated B. About the bombs center of gravity there is provided a suitable strongback assembly 10, including straps 10a and lugs 1%, for mating the bomb 13 with a delivery aircraft, not shown.
Turning now to FIGS. 2 and 3, the bomb B comprises a shell 29 formed of a readily rupturable metal skin and being of a suitable aerodynamic configuration. Within the shell 2% there is fixed a plurality of paralleled support members 21. The support members 21 may be formed as bulkheads for dividing the bomb into communicating chambers C C and C in which is retained a substantial quantity of a selected liquid chemical agent A. The bulkheads may be complete and perforations 22 may be provided therein for accommodating filling and expansion of the liquid agent A contained within the bomb, or if desired, the bulkheads may comprise partial bulkheads.
The support members 21 are secured to the shell 20 and are provided with axially aligned openings 23, which supportingly receive a tubular burster assembly, generally designated 24. The burster assembly 24 may include a tubular burster liner 25, formed of a readily rupturable material, which slidingly receives a longitudinally grooved or star-shaped linear-shaped charge 26 and a fuze 27.
Preferably, the shaped charge is so formed as to provide the charge with a star-shaped cross-section configuration with the points thereof being displaced 45 degrees apart. However, it is to be understood that the longitudinal grooves or corrugations may be spaced at various intervals and the depths thereof may be varied as found desirable. The charge 26 may, if desired, be extruded or fabricated from any one of several extrudable compositions, such as, for example, cyclotol cyclotrimethylenetrinitromine and 35% trinitrotoluene), and lined with a suitable metallic liner 28.
The fuze 27 includes any one of several well-known explosive compounds capable of causing a pyrotechnic initiation of the linear shaped charge to occur by establishing an explosive shock wave therealong. The fuze 27 may be activated through any suitable mechanical or electrical means including a charging cable 29, which may be attached in a suitable fashion to the delivery aircraft and utilized for activating the fuze 27 as the bomb is delivered.
Suitable mounting coupling 30 and 31 are provided at opposite ends of the burster lincr 25 and serve to secure the liner 25 to the bombs endmost bulkheads for thus mounting the assembly 24 within the shell 20. A conventionally designed aerodynamic fairing 32 or ogive is releasabiy mounted about the forward end of the bomb B in a manner such as to provide access to the coupling 36 and the fuze 2'7, as well as to reduce aerodynamic drag effects normally imposed thereon as the bomb is delivered.
A selected liquid agent A may be introduced into the chambers C C and C through suitably arranged filler openings 33, only one of which is shown.
While the linear shaped charge 26 may comprise a single continuous charge, as illustrated in FIG. 2, a random arrangement of multiple linear shaped charges, as illustrated in FIG. 4-, may be utilized to provide a more uniform cloud, and therefore may be found desirable where uniform pattern density is of utmost importance.
In operation, the fuze 27 of bomb B is caused to initiate the shaped charge 26, whereupon a shock wave is projccted from the charge through the agent A. This shock wave serves to disintegrate the burster liner 25 and the shell 20, and to expande the liquid agent in a manner similar to that of the smooth surfaced cylindrical burster charge. However, a plurality of explosive jets are immediately established by the shaped charge 26, in a manner wellknown to those acquainted with the Monroe effect of shaped charges. These jets, which may be referred to as linear Monroe jets, are projected behind the shock wave and extend through the expanding ring of liquid agent A at velocities as high as 10,000 feet per second for breaking down the liquid agent into small globules, which are then carried with the jets outwardly from the bomb and dispersed. While it is postulated that the globules formed by the jets of the present invention do not move at as great a rate as the globules of the known bombs, which utilize cylindrical smooth-surfaced charges, they tend to retain their initial velocity for longer periods and, consequently, produce star-shaped clouds having greater over-all diameters.
The reduced size of the globules, as provided by the bomb of the instant invention, is due to the several phenomena produced by a linear shaped charge etfect, or Monroe effect. The initial and direct energy of the jet movement is partially responsible for aerosolization, however, aerosolization also occurs as the jets deteriorate and create low-pressure areas into which the liquid agent moves with a rapid and vortical movement. Consequently, the aerosol cloud produced utilizing a linear-shaped charge will be of a greater diameter and contain droplets of lesser size than may be produced utilizing a smoothsurfaced charge of similar size, weight and composition.
While the foregoing description of the instant invention is directed to one embodiment intended to disseminate a liquid incapacitating agent, it is entirely feasible to utilize the bomb of the instant invention for disseminating dry solids, compacted powders, or materials such as those used in the design of conventional incendiary bombs.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
What is claimed is:
1. A chemical bomb comprising:
an elongated outer cylindrical shell closed at opposite ends thereof;
a cylindrical burster tube 'extending'axially of the cylindrical shell and coextensive of its length,
the outer shell and burster tube forming an annular chamber containing a liquid chemical, and
an elongated lined burster charge, star-shaped in crosssection, disposed within the burster tube and coextensive of its length, of a type adapted to produce a plurality of angularly spaced linear jets when detonated, for rupturing the burster tube and outer shell and disseminating the chemical into the form of a generally flat star-shaped aerosol cloud.
2. A bomb in accordance with claim 1 wherein said burster charge comprises a plurality of axially aligned seg ments, angularly spaced with respect to each other, to provide a plurality of angularly spaced linear jets along the length of the bomb and thereby increase the number of points in the aerosol cloud.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,234,790 7/1917 Mutro 102-6 2,742,856 4/1956 Fieser et al. 1026 2,789,504 4/1957 McCloud et al. 2,839,997 6/1958 Church et al. 102-20 3,054,938 9/1962 Meddick 102-24 X SAMUEL \V. ENGLE, Primary Examiner.
BENJAMIN A. BORCHELT, Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||102/369, 102/476|
|International Classification||F42B12/50, F42B12/02|