US 3384158 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 21, 1968 E. ROTHENBACH 3,384,158
RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING DEVICE Filed Sept. 5, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING DEVICE Filed Sept. 5, 1965 2 Shee1s-Sheet z INVENWYJR. ERNST ROTHENBACH United States Patent 3,384,158 RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING DEVICE Ernst Rothenbach, Kusnacht, Zurich, Switzerland, assignor to Stramax Aktiengesellschaft, Zurich, Switzerland, a corporation of Switzerland Filed Sept. 3, 1965, Ser. No. 484,972 Claims priority, application Switzerland, Sept. 4, 1964, 11,569/64 Claims. (Cl. 165-49) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A thermal radiation device includes a plate distributor element having flat side portions which are disposed in a common plane and separated by intermediate bent portions. A tubular energy carrier is disposed within the bent portions and it is held therein by resilient engagement on opposite sides thereof by a resilient securing strap. A feature of the construction is that the intermediate portion is provided with a hole on each side through which one leg of the resilient securing strap may be directed and an opposite leg may be engaged around the curved portion of either the distributor element or the tubular energy carrier in order to resiliently hold the tubular energy carrier against the intermediate bent portion of the distributor element. In one embodiment the tubular carrier is carried within the recess formed by the intermediate bent portion and the securing strap includes a portion which extends around the exterior wall of the distributor element. In another embodiment, the tubular energy carrier is retained on the exterior of the bent portion in a concavely formed recess and it is held in position thereon with the interposition of a cover by the resilient securing strap acting on opposite sides of the tubular energy carrier.
This invention relates to radiation thermal arrangements having as their object improved heat transmission from the energy carrier to the distribution organs, whether the latter distribute their energy directly to the space regions to be thermally controlled or be loosely on heat conductive layers or anchored to or embedded in such heat conductive materials.
A further object is to so construct such radiation arrangements that it does not matter in What direction the distribution organs or means transmit their energy, for example, upwardly as in floor heaters or downwardly as in ceiling heaters, the primary concern being the disposition of the layers of material of high resistivity to heat conduction.
Experience has shown that in radiation arrangements, the heat transmission from energy carriers, for example, from pipes in which the heating or cooling medium circulates, or in which heating means are disposed, to the distribution organs or elements, such as conductive lamellae, sheet metal, metal ribs, etc., is not of the best when such distribution elements are merely fitted to, or about, or in supporting contact with, the carriers as is the case in many ceiling, fioor and wal heating, respectively, cooling installations. The transmission of heat from the energy carrier to the distribution elements not only always decreases with increasing temperature of the energy carriers but also as the result of ageing over the years. The reason for this is attributable to the differing coefiicients of expansion of the utilized materials and to fatigue of the materials resulting, for example, in a decrease in the elasticity of the material.
A feature of the instant invention is that each distribution organ has at least one upward reentrant bend projecting from the plane of the organ, such reentrant bent being so formed as to tightly envelope a portion of "ice the peripheral wall of the energy carrier and in that at a height of the lower portion of the energy carrier is provided with diametrically opposite apertures through which a clamping means extends and presses the upright reentrant bend and the energy carrier toward each other.
The invention will be more readily understood from the following description of some illustrative embodiments thereof when read in conjunction with the appended drawing in which:
FIGURE 1 shows a clamping element;
FIGURES 2 and 3 discloses a first illustrative embodiment in section, respectively, perspective;
FIGURE 4 shows a second illustrative embodiment;
FIGURE 5 and 6 shOW, respectively in section and in perspective, a third illustrative embodiment;
FIGURES 7 and 8 a fourth illustrative embodiment; and
FIGURE 9 shows stili another embodiment.
A clamping element in the form of a clip or strap 3 is shown in FIGURE 1, the clamping element serving to aflix a distribution organ to an energy carrier as is shown in FIG. 2. Strap 3 is of a springy elastic material. FI URE 2 discloses an energy carrier 1 in the form of pipe 1, in which a heating or cooling medium circulates, or in which a heating device, for example an electrical heater is disposed. This energy carrier is affixed in known manner to a ceiling, a floor or a wall, depending on the intended use of the radiation installation.
A distribution element, comprising a lamella 2, has a reentrant bend 15 in the form of an inverted, downwardly open, U-shape with bend 15 of the lamella enveloping the upper portion of pipe 1. The upper portion of reentrant bend 15 is semi-cylindrical, and hence closely envelopes cylindrical pipe 1. To maintain the desired excellent contact, the particular clamping element 3 shown in FIGURE 1 is utilized. Reentrant bend 15 at its lower portion is provided with apertures 8 arranged in pairs opposite each other. The lower arm of clamp 3 is inserted through apertures 8 and below energy carrier 1. The upper arm of the clamp, whose form corresponds to that of the upper portion of bend 15, presses the reentrant bend tightly against energy carrier 1 as the result of the clamps springy elfect, thus assuring the desired excellent contact between energy carrier 1 and distribution organ 2. Positioning apertures 8 in this manner permits of the providing of a predetermined spacing 7 between the fiat portion of distribution organ 2 and the lower portion of energy carrier 1. Such spacing 7 is particularly important when the energy carrier is of high temperature because by its provision a direct radiation of the temperature of the energy carrier to the radiation layer of material, for example a plaster or gypsum sheet or plate is prevented, while the heat distribution is primarily effected by the distribution organ.
From FIGURE 3 it will be noted that distribution organ 2 is aiiixed to the energy carrier by a plurality of clamps 3.
In FIGURE 4 there is disclosed an embodiment in the form of a floor heater. Clamp 3 passes through distribution organ 2 by way of the apertures S at appropriate height in reentrant bend 15 of distribution organ 2 so that spacing 7 is always maintained, and due to its springy nature, presses the energy carrier and the distribution organ tightly together. In FIGURE 4, 11 is the house frame ceiling, 19 the layer of heat insulation, 12, the concrete coating and 13 a reinforcing network.
FIGURES 5 and 6 disclose an illustrative embodiment for ceiling, wall or floor heating and cooling installation. Distribution organ 2 is-provide-d with reentrant bend 15 which is semi-cylindrically downwardly where it engages a portion of the energy carrier, thus enveloping the carrier :1 from the bottom. Clamp 3 engages below the reentrant portion and on the other hand presses on the energy carrier from the top into the reentrant bend. To increase the transmission of heat a tube shoe 4 is provided between the energy carrier and the upper portion of the clamp. By means of clamp 3, and the provision of apertures 8 in distribution organ 2, energy carrier 1 is held at a fixed spacing 7 from the =lower edge of the distribution organ 2. In this manner direct contact, for example, between a mass of plaster 6 coated on a carrier 5 therefor and the energy carrier, respectively, the lower face of the distribution organ 2, is avoided, which contact if made at higher temperatures in the energy carrier would eventually destroy the plaster mass. This spacing is shown in FIGURE 5 for a ceiling heater and in FIGURE 6 for a fioor heater.
In the above described illustrative embodiments, the energy carriers are afiixed to the flooring or ceiling structure, and the clamps assure good contact between the energy carriers and the distribution organs. In the now to be described illustrative embodiments of FIGURES 7 through 9, the clamps simultaneously serve as hanging means for the entire radiation arrangement. The portion thereof functioning as the clamping means per se consists of a sling which presses the energy carrier and the distribution organ together. The hanging means with sling may for example be of springy wire, and the pressing together of the carriers 1 and distribution organs 2 may be produced by the weight of the hanging ceiling structure drawing the hanging arrangement taut.
FIGURE 7 shows an illustrative embodiment of the hanging arrangement 13 with the sling at one end. In such embodiment, to thread the hanging arrangement through apertures 8 in the distribution organ 2, the point of the sling is bent back and then after hanging is twisted about the vertical portion of the hanging arrangement. FIGURE 8 discloses the installation procedure of the inventive hanging arrangement 13 and the position of the inventive apertures in the distribution organ.
In the above described illustrative embodiments, distribution organs 2 are of such form and structure that they were not intended as elements which could be directly visible. FIGURE 9 shows an illustrative embodiment which is to function as a directly visible element. These distribution elements likewise have a reentrant bend but, as contrasted to the prior described embodiments, they are not at the interior thereof but at their end portions. Each distribution organ 2 must have such a reentrant bend at each end, the reentrant bends of two adjacent distribution organs together enveloping an energy carrier. The supporting and clamping element 13 passes through aperture 8, each of which is defined in an upward portion of the bend and presses the bend and the energy carrier toward each other by the closing and tightening of wire sling 13. Such pressing results from the weight of the hung structure and the spring effect of the sling.
The shapes of the distribution organs may be as desired while the ree-nt-rant bends must obviously conform to the shape of the energy carriers. The described arrangements have, in addition, the advantage that on applying layers, for example, plaster, to distribution organs which are free and unencumbered to their lower face, and by pressing in mortar, or stepping or loading the energy carriers, for example, by application of a concrete coating over floor heaters, contact between the distribution organs and the energy medium carriers can not be loosened.
What I claim is:
'1. A thermal radiation device comprising a tubular energy carrier, a distributor element having a distribution plane and at least one bent portion defining a substantially U-shaped recess in said plane with opposite side portions and with an end portion of a configuration complementary to said tubular energy carrier and abutting at least a portion of the periphery of said tubular energy carrier, an opening defined in respective opposite sides of said bent portion, and a substantially U-shaped resilient securing strap resiliently holding said tubular energy carrier in abutting relationship with the bent portion of said distributor element and being detachable substantially parallel to said distribution plane including a first leg portion extending through the opposite openings of and across said bent portion and arranged on one side of said tubular energy carrier and a second arm portion extending substantially parallel to said first arm portion arranged on the opposite side of said tubular energy carrier, at least one of said first and second arm portions resiliently bearing in a direction normal to said distribution plane to urge said tubular energy carrier into abutting engagement within said end portion of said bent portion of said distributor element.
2. -A thermal radiation device according to claim 1, wherein said tubular energy carrier is disposed within said bent portion on the end portion thereof in a concave'ly formed recess of said end portion, said securing strap first leg portion extending through said opposite openings and bearing against said tubular energy carrier, said second leg portion being curved around the exterior of said end portion of said bent portion and bearing in a direction opposite of said first le por-tion.
'3. A thermal radiation device according to claim 1, wherein said tubular energy carrier is disposed within said portion on the end portion thereof in a concavely formed recess of said end portion, said securing strap first leg portion extending through said opposite openings and bearing against said tubular energy carrier, said second leg portion being curved around the exterior of said end portion of said bent portion and bearing in a direction opposite of said first leg portion.
4. A thermal radiation device according to claim 1, wherein said tubular energy carrier being disposed on the exterior of said bent portion in a convexly formed recess of said end portion, a cover disposed over said tubular element, said second leg portion of said securing strap being curved around and bearing against said cover on the opposite side of said tubular element, said first leg portion extending through said opposite openings and bearing in a direction opposite said second leg portion.
5. A thermal radiation device according to claim 1, wherein said resilient securing strap first leg portion is substantially straight, said second leg portion being curved complementary to said end portion and/ or said tubular energy carrier.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,166,916 7/1939 Lombard 248-74 2318,853 5/ 1943' Hall 248-74 X 3,043,567 7/1962 Bergh et al -56 3,244,803 4/1966 Becker 248-74 X 3,262,662 6/1966 Gastaldi 248-74 X 2,782,006 2/1957 Frenger 165-56 2,805,842 9/1957 Andorfer 165-56 ROBERT A. OLEARY, Primary Examiner. T. W. STREULE, Assistant Examiner.-