|Publication number||US3384312 A|
|Publication date||May 21, 1968|
|Filing date||Jul 25, 1966|
|Priority date||Jul 25, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3384312 A, US 3384312A, US-A-3384312, US3384312 A, US3384312A|
|Inventors||Patterson Warren R, Torrence James D|
|Original Assignee||Allis Chalmers Mfg Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (25), Classifications (10), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 21, 1968 w. R. PATTERSON ETAL 3,384,312
SPIDERLESS GYRATORY CRUSHER HAVING FRICTIONLESS BEARINGS Filed July 25. 1966 @MPMM United States Patent 3,384,312 SPIDERLESS GYRATORY CRUSHER HAVING FRICTIONLESS BEARINGS Warren R. Patterson, Brookfield, and James D. Terrence,
Milwaukee, Wis., assignors to Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, Wis.
Filed July 25, 1966, Ser. No. 567,603 7 Claims. (Cl. 241-208) This invention relates generally to gyratory crushers. More specifically, this invention relates to a new and improved hydraulically adjusted gyratory crusher of the spiderless type incorporating frictionless bearings to effect a constant bearing engagement surface and a constant bearing load at any position of adjustment. In addition, the frictionless hearings will eliminate the hazards of uneven bearing surface wear and reduces lubricating fluid distribution complications.
In spiderless gyratory crushers of more recent development, a new and more rigid design has been effected by securing the crusher mainshaft to the base frame structure, and then placing the step bearing assembly on top of the crusher mainshaft between the mainshaft and the conical crusher head. The eccentric member is therefore rotatably mounted on the base frame structure, with an eccentric outer surface engaging a skirt portion of the crusher head. Thus, the eccentric member directly gyrates the crusher head rather than the supporting crusher mainshaft, as had been the practice in prior art crushers.
As in more conventional gyratory crushers, a hydraulic adjustment mechanism for adjusting the crusher opening can be incorporated into the above described crusher. This is done by supporting the base of the crusher mainshaft upon a piston operated within a hydraulically fed cylinder. By regulating the hydraulic fluid in the cylinder, the piston, crusher mainshaft and crusher head can be raised or lowered to any desired position of adjustment. A relief device or check valve may be provided in this hydraulic support system which will save the crusher from damage in the event tramp ir n or other noncrushable objects are inadvertently fed into the crusher. That is, when such a noncrushable object is pinched between the two crushing surfaces, the pressure in the hydraulic support system will increase suddenly, causing the relief device to open. This allows the crusher head and mainshaft to slide downward permitting the hard object to pass through the crusher without causing damage thereto.
The main disadvantage of such a hydraulic adjustment system is that the crusher head and skirt must be raised, or lowered as the case may be, relative to the eccentric member therewithin. Thus, as the crusher head is raised, the contact area common to the crusher head and eccentric is reduced. This will cause an uneven wear on the bushing surface resulting in ridges thereon which may make further crusher adjustments more difficult. Particularly when widening the crusher opening, it may be more difficult to get the skirt portion of the crusher head to slide down over the wear ridges.
Such wear ridges may cause far more serious problems, however, if the crusher is provided with a relief device or check valve system as described above. If a piece of tramp iron or the like is fed into the crusher, and the relief device or check valve forced open, the wear ridges on the bushing surface may prevent the crusher head falling or sliding downward appreciably over the eccentric member. Even a slight or momentary resistance to the downward motion of the crusher head may be suflicient to prevent the hard object from passing on through the crusher before damage results.
If the eccentric bushings are in good shape Without any "ice wear ridges, the relief device system may still be ineffective in passing hard objects with sufficient promptness to prevent damage to the crusher. This is because in bushing fitted crushers of this type, the lubricating fluid in the chamber defined by the crusher head and eccentric, may be under suflicient pressure to prevent the crusher head from moving downward as rapidly as necessary to prevent damage. This results when the fluid in the chamber cannot be forced along the bushing interface as fast as necessary to allow the crusher head to release the hard object before damage results. Thus, despite the relief device or check valve system, prior art crushers of this type may still become seriously damaged by tramp iron or the like.
In addition to the above mentioned problems, a Well fitted bushing type of hearing may possibly cause other problems even during normal crushing operations. For example, when the crusher is cold, the lubricating fluid being pumped therethrough will be rather viscous. Therefore, the pressure of the lubricating fluid may increase steadily in the chamber between the crusher head and eccentric member because the fluid will not readily flow downward along the bushing surface. In such a situation, it is possible that the fluid pressure may eventually build to a point where it actually lifts or floats the crusher head off its support to change the setting of the crusher- Such an uncontrolled change in the crusher setting cannot usually be tolerated, and may even damage the crusher.
This invention is predicated upon our conception and development of a new and improved hydraulically supported gyratory crusher of the spiderless type having frictionless bearings between the eccentric member and the skirt portion of the crusher head to provide a constant bearing engagement surface at any position of adjustment. This will eliminate the hazards of wear ridges commonly associated with the bushing type bearings as noted above. In addition, the frictionless type bearings provide a crusher which is more easily lubricated and which is not subject to crusher head up-lift. And of course, the additional efficiency advantages of the frictionless bearings should be apparent.
Accordingly, it is a primary object of this invention to provide a new and improved hydraulically supported gyratory crusher of the spiderless type embodying frictionless bearings between the eccentric member and the conical crusher head to effect a constant bearing engagement surface at any position of adjustment.
It is another primary object of this invention to provide a gyratory crusher of the hydraulically supported spiderless type utilizing frictionless hearings in place of the eccentric bushing to eliminate the hazards of Wear ridges on the bushing surface.
It is a further primary object of this invention to provide a hydraulically supported gyratory crusher of the spiderless type in which uncontrolled crusher head uplift is eliminated.
It is still another primary object of this invention to provide hydraulically supported, spiderless gyratory crusher utilizing frictionless hearings to assure the proper operation of a relief device or check valve system Which will lower the crusher head to prevent damage to the crusher in the event tramp iron or other noncrushable objects are inadvertently fed into the crusher.
These and other objects and advantages are fulfilled by this invention as will become apparent from a full understanding of the following detailed description, especially when considered in conjunction with the attached drawing which is a sectional elevation of a spiderless gyratory crusher utilizing one embodiment of this invention.
Referring to the drawing, one preferred embodiment of this invention comprises a base frame housing 10, having a drive housing portion 11 and a cylindrical hub portion 12 extending vertically therefrom at a right angle to the drive housing 11. A sleeve-shaped outer frame structure 13, having a flange 14 at the top thereof, is concentrically disposed around the cylindrical hub 12 and rigidly secured to the base frame housing 10. A concave upper frame structure 17 having a flange 18 is secured horizontally to the sleeve frame 13 at flange 14 by any means such as a plurality of bolts 19. A removable overhanging concave ring 20 is secured horizontally within the concave upper frame 17 concentrically above the hub 12 by any means such as a plurality of bolts 21.
A tubular crush mainshaft having a flange or head portion 26 at the upper end thereof, is concentrically and slidably fitted within the cylindrical hub 12 on the base frame structure 10 and projects vertically upward into the space defined by the concave ring 20. A pair of circular bearings and seals 22 are provided at the upper and lower extremities of the bore through cylindrical hub 12 to slidably support the crusher mainshaft 25 within the hub 12. The lower end of crusher mainshaft 25 is secured to a piston 27 which is slidably fitted within a cylinder 28 in the lower portion of the base frame housing 10. If desired, a frictionless hearing, such as roller bearing 23, may be disposed between the crusher mainshaft 25 and piston 27, so that torque forces acting on the crusher mainshaft 25 need not be imported to the piston 27. A cylinder head 29, provided with a hydraulic fluid inlet 30, is secured over the lower cylinder opening by any means such as bolts 31. A relief device such as check valve 32 connected to an accumulator (not shown) is provided on a fluid line 33 which feeds the lower portion of cylinder 28.
A fluid passage means, such as tube 44, is provided through the hollow crusher mainshaft 25 communicating between the upper portion of the cylinder 28, abovepiston 27 and the upper surface of head 26 on crusher mainshaft 25. As shown, communication is provided through openings in roller bearing 23. Therefore, in the event the crusher mainshaft 25 is securely fixed onto the piston 27, some means of communication between tube 44 and the upper portion of cylinder 28 must be provided. A second fluid passage means, such as bore 45, extends through the base frame structure 10 communicating between the upper portion of cylinder 28 and a point outside the base frame housing 10.
A removable intermediate washer 47, having a hole 48 through the axial center thereof, is disposed on top of head 26 and held in place by any means such as lip 49 at the center of head 26. A pressure bearing 50, having a concave upper surface and a hole 51 through the axial center thereof, slidably rests upon the washer 47. A second pressure bearing 52 having a complementary convex lower surface mates with the pressure bearing to form a step bearing assembly 55. Such step bearing assemblies are well known in the crusher art and need not be further detailed here.
A conical crusher head 57, having a cylindrical skirt portion 58 extending downward from the outer periphery thereof, is secured to the upper pressure bearing 52 by any means such as lug 59. A conical crusher wearing mantle 60 rests directly over the conical surface of crusher head 57 and is held in place by any means such as nut 61.
An annular eccentric member 63, having a ring gear 64 secured to the lower end thereof, is rotatably mounted over the cylindrical hub 12 of the base frame housing 10, and rests against the base frame 10 with roller bearings 65 therebetween.
To facilitate rotation of the eccentric member 63 on hub 12, a first pair of frictionless bearings, such as roller bearings 66 are disposed between the eccentric 63 and hub 12. The two inner races 67 are tightly fitted onto hub 12 and spaced apart by a tightly fitted sleeve 68. The outer races 69 are tightly fitted within the eccentric 63 and spaced apart by a tightly fitted sleeve 70. The outer circumference of the eccentric 63 mates generally with the inner circumferential surface of the skirt 58 on crusher head 57. Accordingly, a second pair of frictionless bearings such as roller bearings 71 are disposed therebetween to facilitate rotation of the eccentric 63 within the skirt 58. The two inner races 72 are tightly fitted over the eccentric 63 and spaced apart by a tightly fitted sleeve 73. Since the crusher head 57 and skirt 58 will be subject to vertical motion relative to the eccentric 63 and bearings 71, a full single race 74 is tightly fitted within the inner circumference of skirt 58, and has a vertical dimension suflicient to permit the race 74 to slide vertically over the rollers, or rolling elements as the case may be, to provide a constant contact area at any position of adjustment.
Thus, it should be apparent that the frictionless bearings 66 may be similar or identical to any conventional roller or ball bearing wherin the rolling elements, either balls or cylindrical rollers, are concentrically fixed between an inner and outer race. Frictionless bearings 71, however, differ from conventional bearings since the outer race 74 must be axially slidable relative to the rollers. Therefore, the stationary races, in this case races 72, should be provided with a groove or a pair of flanges as shown to maintain the rolling elements or rollers in position. On the other hand, the sliding race, race 74, cannot have any such obstruction.
A drive shaft 75, rotatably extending through the drive housing 11 on base frame 10, has a pinion gear 76 secured to the inside end thereof. The pinion gear 76 is in meshing engagement with the ring gear 64. Thus, a rotary power source (not shown) acting on shaft 65 can rotate the pinion gear 76 and in turn rotate the ring gear 64 and eccentric 63 about the hub 12. Rotation of the eccentric 63, within the skirt 58 on crusher head 57, will cause the crusher head 57 and wearing mantle 60 thereon to gyrate relative to ring 26 as necessary for the crushing action.
A fluid outlet such as bore 77 is provided to communicate between the chamber 78 which houses the ring gear 64 and pinion gear 76, and outer portion of the base frame housing 10.
Suitable dust seal means, such as dust ring 80 slidably fitted over extension sleeve 81 on the base frame 10 and operating in a suitable groove 82 on the crusher head 57 will keep crusher material and dust out of the chamber 78 and away from all internal bearing and gear surface.
To place the crusher in a condition for operation, a hydraulic lubricating fluid must be pumped through the bore 45 and into the top portion of cylinder 28 above piston 27. This lubricant in upper cylinder 28 will lubricate the lower bearing and seal 22 and the frictionless roller bearing 23 between the crusher post 25 and piston 27. From the upper portion of cylinder 28, the fluid lubricant is forced through tube 44 and hole 48 in washer 47 and hole 51 in pressure bearing 50. The fluid will then pass between the washer 47 and concave pressure bearing 50 and between concave pressure bearing 50 and convex pressure bearing 52 to completely lubricate the step bearing assembly 55. Accordingly, it may be necessary to provide grooves on the surfaces of pressure bearings 50 and 52 to facilitate the flow of the lubricant. Subsequently, the fluid will be collected in chamber 40 and flow downward lubricating the frictionless bearings 66 and 71 in contact with the rotatable eccentric 63. The lubricating fluid is collected in chamber 78 to lubricate the intermeshing ring gear 64 and pinion gear 76, and the bearing 65. Excess lubricant will flow out of chamber 78 through bore 77 where it may be collected by any means (not shown) and recirculated.
Another hydraulic fluid is pumped through inlet 30 in cylinder head 29 and into the lower portion of cylinder 28 to raise the piston 27, crusher mainshaft 25, step bearing assembly 55, crusher head 57 and crushing mantle 60 to the desired position of adjustment.
Crushing can then be commenced upon rotation of shaft 75 which will in turn cause the crusher head 57 and mantle 60 to gyrate relative to the overhanging concave ring 20.
The crux of this invention resides primarily in the frictionless bearings 71, and to a more limited extent in the frictionless bearings 66. By providing an outer race 74 with a vertical dimension substantially greater than the distance between the two sets of rollers, this race 74 may follow the skirt 58 being vertically slidable with respect to the two sets of rollers to provide a full uniform bearing contact surface area at any position of adjustment. Thus, an adjustment in the crusher opening will neither change the bearing contact area nor the bearing load. Furthermore, since the race 74 is substantially harder than the metal used in a bushing type bearing, no grooves or ridges will be worn into the race to interfere with the vertical sliding motion of the skirt 58 over the eccentric 63. This is most important of course, when a piece of tramp iron or the like is encountered, and it is necessary to immediately lower the crusher head 57 and wearing mantle 60 to avoid serious damage to the crusher.
Accordingly, when a piece of tramp iron or the like is pinched between the concave ring 20 and wearing mantle 60, its resistance to breaking will cause an increase in the downward acting forces along the crusher mainshaft 25, and therefore will cause a sudden increase in the hydraulic pressure in the lower portion of cyilnder 28. As in conventional crushers, the check valve 32 is set to open upon such a sudden increase in pressure whereby the hydraulic fluid in cylinder 28 is forced out of cylinder 28 and into the accumulator (not shown) permitting the piston 27, crusher mainshaft 25, step bearing assembly 55, crusher head 57 and wearing mantle 60 to fall downward.
In prior art gyratory crushers of this type, however, wherein bushing type bearings are employed on the inner and outer circumference of the eccentric 63, such a relief system as described above is not wholly suflicient to prevent damage to the crusher. One reason for this is that ridges which may be worn into the surface of the bushing may cause the crusher head 57 to hang-up preventing it from sliding down rapidly over the eccentric member 63. Even when the bushings are new and have no wear ridges, the relief system may not operate as designed to save the crusher from damage, because in using bushings the interface clearances must be rather close. Therefore, lubricant will tend to accumulate in chamber 40, and may be of sufficient pressure to prevent the crusher head 57 from falling as rapidly as necessary. By replacing the bushings with frictionless bearings, no wear ridges will be formed, and a much greater passageway is provided between the bearing rollers, so that the lubricating fluid in chamber 40 will readily flow into chamber 78 when the crusher head 57 is suddenly forced downward.
Another problem that may be encountered in gyratory crushers of this type, wherein bushings are used on the eccentric interfaces, is that due to pressure build-up in chamber 40. When the crusher is started up cold, it is likely that the lubricating fluid therein will be rather viscous. In fact, the lubricant may be so viscous that it will not readily flow downward from chamber 40 along the contact surfaces of the bushings. Therefore, as lubricating fluid is continually pumped into the crusher via bore 45 the pressure in chamber 40 may steadily increase to a point where, in some prior art crushers, the fluid pressure could actually lift or float the crusher head 57 off of the step bearing assembly 55 to reduce the crusher opening or even damage the crusher itself. By providing frictionless bearings such as roller bearings 66 and 71, much wider clearances are provided around the eccentric member 63 as discussed above, so that such pressure buildup in chamber 40 will not result.
It should be apparent that many modifications could be made in the crusher detailed herein without departing from the basic concept of this invention. Accordingly, this invention should not be limited to the details given herein but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims.
The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. In a spiderless gyratory crusher having a frame, a vertical crusher mainshaft slidably supported by said frame, an overhanging concave ring horizontally supported in a fixed position within the upper portion of said frame concentrically above said crusher mainshaft, a crusher head mounted on top of said crusher mainshaft with a step bearing assembly therebetween and disposed within the space defined by the concave ring, a hydraulically operated piston assembly supporting the lower end of said crusher mainshaft to vary the opening defined between said concave ring and said crusher head, a relief device for releasing the hydraulic support from said piston assembly upon a sudden increase in pressure, an eccentric sleeve member rotatably supported on said frame concentrically around said crusher mainshaft, a skirt member rigidly supported to said crusher head and extending downward to engage the eccentric circumference of said eccentric member, and a means for rotating said eccentric sleeve member, in combination therewith, the improvement comprising: an annular frictionless bearing assembly mounted between said eccentric member and said skirt member, said bearing assembly comprising a plurality of rolling elements rollably mounted between two concentrically disposed races, the first of said races being fixed vertically with respect to the rolling elements, and the second of said races having a vertical dimension sufiicient to permit said second race to slide vertically with respect to the first race and rolling elements.
2. The spiderless gyratory crusher as defined in claim 1 wherein said first race is provided with a groove to maintain said rolling elements in position vertically.
3. The spiderless gyratory crusher as defined in claim 1 wherein said rolling elements are cylindrical rollers disposed between a pair of flanges on said first race.
4. The spiderless gyratory crusher as defined in claim 1 wherein said first race is tightly fitted around said eccentric member, and said second race is tightly fitted within said skirt member.
5. The spiderless gyratory crusher as defined in claim 1 wherein a plurality of said first races are provided with a plurality of said rolling elements against each of said first races, and one said second race is provided common to all of said rolling elements and having a vertical dimension suflicient to permit said second race to slide with respect to said first races and said rolling elements.
6. The spiderless gyratory crusher as defined in claim 5 wherein said first races are tightly fitted around said eccentric member, and said second race is tightly fitted within said skirt member.
7. The spiderless gyratory crusher as defined in claim 1 wherein said rolling elements are cylindrical rollers between pairs of flanges on each of said first races.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS WILLIAM W. DYER, 111., Primary Examiner.
F. T. YOST, Assistant Examiner.
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|International Classification||B02C2/04, B02C25/00, B02C2/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B02C25/00, B02C2/04, B02C2/047|
|European Classification||B02C25/00, B02C2/04F, B02C2/04|
|Jul 28, 1983||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CONNECTICUT NATIONAL BANK THE, A NATIONAL BANKING
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ALLIS-CHALMERS CORPORATION A DE CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004149/0001
Effective date: 19830329
Owner name: WOODS KATHLEEN D., AS TRUSTEE