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Publication numberUS3384924 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 28, 1968
Filing dateMar 18, 1963
Priority dateMar 18, 1963
Publication numberUS 3384924 A, US 3384924A, US-A-3384924, US3384924 A, US3384924A
InventorsClyde C Schuetz, Jr Charles R Norman
Original AssigneeUnited States Gypsum Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for forming shingles
US 3384924 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 28, 1968 c. c. SCHUETZ ET AL 3,384,924

APPARATUS FOR FORMING SHINGLES Filed March 18, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 May 28, 1968 c. c. SCHUETZ ET AL 3,384,924

APPARATUS FOR FORMING SHINGLES Filed March 18, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 f! fi FZ' ,4 w a n, I4 mm Ma v 71% United States Patent 0 3,384,924 AFPARATUS FGR FURMING SHENGLES Clyde C. Schuetz, Prospect Heights, and Charles R. Norman, in, Gienview, 111., assignors to United States Gypsum Company, a corporation of Delaware {Zontinuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 794,633, Feb. 20, 1959. This application Mar. 18, 1963, Ser.

3 Claims. or. 18-10) ABSTRACT (BF THE DISCLOSURE An embossing roller having parallel raised portions rotatably engages a deformable cementitious sheet moving on a supporting conveyor. The roller has parallel valley portions between the raised portions which are continuous about the roller periphery and which do not extend into the cementitious material. Ink is applied by a contacting roller to the raised portions of the embossing roller, and any excess ink accumulates in the embossing roller valleys. A cleaning brush continuously maintains the embossing roller valleys free of foreign material.

This invention relates to apparatus for manufacturing shingles, and more particularly pertains to apparatus for manufacturing striated shingles constructions which provide unusual and attractive visual effects. This application is a continuation-in-part of our copending application Ser. No. 794,638 filed Feb. 20, 1959, now Patent No. 2,939,882.

Various methods and apparatus have been employed for forming designs on the surfaces of asbestos-cement shingles, such as are made by the so-called Hatschek or wet machine process. In accordance with these methods the ordinary smooth unfinished surfaces of shingles are rendered more attractive in appearance.

Weathered wood designs have been pressed into cement shingles in a plastic state prior to setting of the same. Shingle surfaces have also been painted in pleasing and variegated color schemes; granules have also been irnbedded in shingle surfaces to effect novel designs and colorations. A current and popular design is obtained by forming parallel valleys on a surface of a plastic cement shingle whereby the valleys will be vertically disposed when the shingle is erected in its normal position of use. This particular design is readily adapted to full scale plant production as the asbestos-cement sheets from which individual shingles are formed may readily engage peripherally grooved embossing rolls for purposes Of effecting the decorative valleys and crests on the sheet surface while still in the plastic state.

Added decorative effect may be attained with such shingles if a colored ink is placed on the ridges of the embossing roll and subsequently deposited in the corresponding valleys formed on the asbestos-cement sheet engaged thereby. The valley coloration in combination with the presence of a color in the sheet surface portions which are not engaged presents a two-tone coloration that is attractive and in addition accentuates the striated effect. The large embossed sheets which may be readily produced are then cut into smaller shingle units in a manner well known in the art.

3,354,924 Patented May 28, 1953 In accordance with the present invention, however, it has been found that the appearance of an asbestos-cement shingles or the like can be much improved if a horizontal band, darker in color than the remainder of the sheet, is placed at the upper or head portion of the shingles so that about 1 /2 inches is exposed under the butt of the overlying shingle course when in place. This dark colored band should be preferably the same color as the shingle surface but of a darker shade. This effect is especially desirable for use with the striated shingles described above.

Heretofore application of such a dark shadow band could be accomplished only by means of a costly spraying operation. It is obvious that if such a band formation could be produced simultaneously with the formation of the shingle striations a definite advance would be made in this art.

It is an object of this invention to provide apparatus for forming shingles having a shadow-simulating band formed thereon as a result of the formation of valleys and crests the ein of varying width, utilizing a novel embossing roller.

It is another object of this invention to provide a novel embossing roller for use in forming shingles having continuous valleys thereon of varying width which are constantly maintained in a dirt-free condition.

The above and other objects of this invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description and appended claims.

In one embodiment of the provided invention a plastic or deformable asbestos-cement sheet such as is formed in the course of the well-known Hatschek process is passed through a drying oven to remove a portion of the water content therein. A peripherally embossed roller member then rotatably engages the surface of the plastic asbestoscement sheet producing grooves therein where the roller raised portions engage the same. The latter raised portions are of such design as to effect a variety of formations in the sheet surface whereby transverse valley portions are formed in addition to vertically disposed striations.

The novel visual effects provided are hereinafter explained in greater detail. The asbestos-cement sheet upper layer may be colored and the rotating embossing roller may engage an inking roller which applies a different color thereto. Consequently the valleys formed in the processed sheet valleys may be of one color and that of the sheet surface and crests may be of another.

For a more complete understanding of this invention reference will now be made to the drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of apparatus which may be employed in the formation of the shingle constructions provided by this invention;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating an embossing roller member in the course of engaging a sheet of shingle forming material in the plastic state;

FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 2 in which a modified embossing roller is illustrated;

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary front elevational view of two overlaping shingles members which have been formed from a sheet such as is illustrated in FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 4 in which a modified shingle surface design is illustrated;

FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 4 in which the illustrated shingles are made from a sheet such as is illustrated in FIG. 3: and

In the course of forming the shingle constructions of 1 this invention and in the course of carrying out the hereinafter disclosed processes, the apparatus employed is that which is well known in the art for the formation of the Hatschek shingles from asbestos-cement base sheets. Since such apparatus obviously does not comprise a part of this invention, only portions thereof are schematically illustrated in the drawings.

The apparatus employed in the formation of the Hatschek shingles comprises a series of revolving forming cylinders (not illustrated in the drawings), each of which has the lower portion thereof immersed in a vat containing a slurry of asbestos, Portland cement, and water. The slurry mixture flows into the cylinder interiors by means of a suction-creating hydraulic head, and as a result of such [low a portion of the slurry which is partially dewatered forms in a ply upon a felt disposed upon the cyiinder periphery so as to form a wet lap.

The fibrous material deposited on the periphery of the cylinders is allowed to form in layers upon a means such as rotating accumulator roller (illustrated in FIG. 1). When a sufficient thickness has formed it is cut and dropped as a sheet, such as sheet 12 of FIG. 1, upon adjacent conveyor belt 14 driven by opposed illustrated rollers 16 and supported by interposed rollers 17. Sheet 12 is then moved by conveyor belt 14 through a drying oven 13 where a portion of the water remaining in the asbestoscement sheet 12 is removed The described sheet contains in the neighborhood of 22 percent moisture. Following passage through the oven 18 the moisture content is reduced to within the range of 14 to percent and preferably slightly above 18 percent. In one working example of shingle sheet processing a sheet containing 22 percent moisture passing through an oven maintained at a temperature of 565 F. in approximately 1% minutes had the moisture content thereof reduced to about 19 percent.

The partially de-watered sheet 12 then passes by means of supporting rollers 20 between an embossing roller 22 and a cooperating backup roller 24. The embossing roller 22 rotates clockwise and the backup roller rotates counterclockwise (as indicated by the arrows) so that the asbestoscement sheet 12 may be moved therefrom over the supporting rollers away from the oven 18.

Upon reaching embossing roller 22, the sheet 12 is sufficiently plastic so that a design embossed on the Periphery of roller 22 may be readily formed on the surface of such sheet 12. It will be noted from FIG. 1 that the raised periphery of the embossing roller 22 engages an inking roller 26 which in turn is in rotatable contact with a roller 28 disposed in an ink fountain 30. Therefore, before engaging the surface of the plastic sheet 12, the raised portions of the embossing roller 22 have ink applied thereto which will be transferred to the corresponding valley portions formed in the sheet.

As the embossing roller 22 continues rotating following engagement with the moving sheet 12, the periphery thereof will contact two wire brush members 32, or other equivalent cleaning means, which function to clean the raised surface portions and depressions thereof. It is es sential that the peripheral portions of the embossing roller be continuously maintained in a clean condition to facilitate inking of the raised portions and to permit efficient transfer of the ink to the valley portions to be formed in the plastic sheet 12.

Referring now more particularly to FIG. 2, an embossing roller 22a is illustrated having formed thereon projecting peripheral portions 34 raised from a base surface portion 36 thereof. It will also be noted from FIG. 2 that raised portions 34 on the roller 22a uniformly widen or enlarge along a transverse band portion 38 of the roller. Raised portions 34 widen to form grooves or reduced val ley portions 40 in the roller, which are of the same depth as the surface portions 36 on the roller 22a. By utilizing such a roller construction the raised portions 34 will form valley formations 34v in the surface of the plastic sheet 1211 with crest formations 36c alternately arranged therewith. The roller grooves 40 will in turn form the narrow strip portions 40s on the surface of the sheet 12a.

Since a special colored layer or ply is usually formed as the top surface of the asbestos-cement sheets formed in the Hatschek process, the raised sheet portions 36c and 40s of sheet 12a will retain this particular color. However, since it is intended that the raised portions 34 of the roller 22a engage an inking roller (such as roller 26 of FIG. 1), another color may be deposited in the uniform valley portions 34v and widened valley portions 40w by means of the roller 22a simultaneously with the valley formation.

It is apparent that by coloring the valley portions of the sheet 12a with a darker shade of the color to be found on the raised portions 360 and 40s of the sheet 12a, :1 shingle may be cut from the sheet 12a having the appearance illustrated in FIG. 4. It will be seen from FIG. 4 that a transverse band defines the upper edge portion of overlapping shingles 42. The height of each band portion 44 comprises one-half of the length of an enlarged valley portion 40w illustrated in FIG. 2, which was formed by engagement of roller band portion 38 with the surface of the plastic asbestos-cement sheet 12a.

The darker colored sheet portions 40w of FIG. 4 which are separated by the lighter. colored interposed shingle portions 40s provide the effect of a dark band disposed across the top of each shingle member 42' formed from the sheet 120. Thus, the dark shadow band of shingle 42 is formed by the continuous colored valley portions which are vertically disposed. The valley portions uniformly vary in width, as illustrated, so as to provide the novel transverse shadow effect seen in FIG. 4.

It is seen, therefore, that by forming crest and valley portions of predetermined dimensions in the plastic surface of an asbestos-cement sheet, the sheet may thereafter be divided into shingle members providing the visual effect of a dark or shaded band disposed across one edge portion, thus producing a desired shadow etfect when the shingle members are overlapped (as are shingle members 42 in FIG. 4). This shadow effect produces a pleasing appearance, imparting the visual impression that the over lapping shingles are thick and massive.

To facilitate the necessary punching operations that must subsequently be made on the embossed asbestoscement sheets (such as sheet 12a of FIG. 2), means such as projections 45 of embossing roller 22a are employed to form corresponding notches 46 in sheet 12a. The latter notch serves as a guide in punching the sheet 12a in a cutoff press (not illustrated) which forms shingles from the sheet. Proper insertion of the sheet in the machine assures horizontal shadow lines on the surfaces of the shingles formed. Equivalent electrical means (not illustrated) may also be used to assure proper positioning of the sheet in the process of forming shingles thereon. When utilizing such means, electrical means actuate the cutoff press only when the sheet is in the predetermined proper position.

It is clear that in the process of shingle formation the raised portions 40s of sheet 12a will be cut transversely to their longitudinal midpoint to define the upper edge portions, or shadow portions, of two shingles. The circumference of the embossing roller 22a will of course define the width of an even number of shingles to be blanked out from the embossed sheet 12a. To avoid waste of the asbestos sheet material the embossing roller 220 should contact the leading edge portion of each shcet 12a so that a fractional portion of a shingle member will not be formed thereon, only to be discarded later.

FIG. 3 illustrates a modified embossing roller 48 in the course of engaging the plastic surface of an asbestoscement sheet 12b. It will be seen that raised peripheral portions 50 of the roller 48 are intermittently transversely interrupted. As a result, the roller 48 will form interconnected crest portions 54 on processed sheet 1212 as illustrated. By contacting raised portions 50 with an ink or paint lighter than the surface coloration of the sheet 1212, shingles 56 (such as shown in FIG. 6) may be formed from the sheet.

FIG. 5 illustrates still another shingle modification wherein shingles 58 are formed by embossing rollers (not shown) having projecting portions of the precise configuration of the light colored areas 60. The ink employed for coloring the valley portions in the above-described shingle members is usually an aqueous Portland cement slurry containing colored pigments.

In FIG. 7 a plastic asbestos-cement sheet 120 is illustrated in the course of engaging embossing roller 49. The latter roller has peripheral raised portions 51 which are uniformly interrupted at 53 whereby a transverse valley area 55 is formed. Strips 51 form valleys 57 in sheet 120 and a solid strip or raised sheet band 61 is formed transversely to valleys 57 because of valley area 55. The sheet 120 may be divided along band 61 to form shingles having a solid bahd disposed along one edge portion. Inking of the roller portions 51 with appropriately colored ink will emphasize the surface characteristics of the shingles formed from sheet 126.

It has been discovered that uniform application of color to the valley portions of the various shingle members formed from. the asbestos-cement sheets can be accomplished only when the embossing roller valley portions have been thoroughly cleaned prior to the application of ink to the embossing roller crest portions. It is seen therefore that wire brushes 32 (illustrated in FIG. 1) play an important part in processing the described shingles.

Assuming that sufiicient dirt has accumulated in an embossing roller valley portion to completely close it, which enclosure will more easily occur as the valley portion narrows, the valley portion formed in the plastic asbestoscement sheet will be badly smeared or the color will be squeezed to one edge of the formed valley. Care, therefore, should always be taken to clean the embossing roller valley portions, or grooved portions, with a wire brush, or other equivalent means, prior to ink application and subsequent engagement and concomitant coloration of the asbestos-cement sheet. Grooves therefore should not be formed in the embossing roller unless they are at least of sufiicient width to permit the bristles of a wire brush or equivalent cleaning means to enter and clean them. It has been found for all practical purposes that the width of the grooves should be not less than about .03 inch. By forming the embossing roller grooves with a width of at least about .03 inch, the desired transfer of the ink from the embossing roller to the asbestos-cement sheet is assured. It has also been found desirable to form the crest portions of the embossing rollers no wider than about /2 inch to assist in the prevention of ink smearing.

Despite the use of wire brushes and equivalent roller cleaning means the valley bottoms of the various rollers described may still contain some dirt. This dirt will mar the appearance of the shingle crest portions if allowed to come into contact with the surface of the deformable sheet from which shingles are formed. Accordingly, as is apparent from the various views of the drawing illustrating embossing rollers, the rollers are predeterminately spaced from the plastic shingle material. Thus, only a fraction of the height of each roller projecting crest depends into the plastic mass whereby the roller valley bottoms generally containing some dirt never contact the plastic sheet surface. It will be noted from FIGS. 2, 3 and 7 that the valleys of the illustrated rollers have greater depth than the valley portions formed in the engaged sheets.

Also, the roller valley bottom portions serve as safety receptacles into which any excess ink passing from roller printing raised portions may enter thereby preventing smearing of such excess ink over the cement sheet raised portions. Thus, the construction of the embossing rollers and the spacing thereof relative to the sheet to be embossed assures absence of ink smearing on the resulting sheet surface.

It will be noted from the illustrated embodiments of the embossing rollers that main peripheral grooves therein are continuous. Such continuity enables cleansing brush bristles to be constantly in the valley or grooves for dirtremoving purposes without engaging a stop surface against which dirt particles may accumulate. Thus, the continuous nature of the valleys facilitates cleaning thereof. Also, the continuous nature of the peripheral valleys or grooves always assures the presence of a safety reservoir into which ink from the embossing rollers may pass thereby eliminating any possibility of the ink being forced onto the sheet surface.

From the foregoing description it is apparent that numerous shingle designs and visual effects may be produced by means of the above-described embossing rollers. Such shingle valley and crest portions may var in width, and be formed parallel to both the longitudinal and transverse axes of the shingles formed.

It is believed apparent from the foregoing description that the shingles described are merely illustrative of the many effects to be obtained by engaging the plastic surface of an asbestos-cement sheet with an embossing roller having raised portions disposed parallel and transversely to the axis of rotation of the embossing roller. By tapering and enlarging the crest and valley formations respectively of an asbestos-cement sheet, shingles may be formed therefrom having a novel shadow effect which heretofore has been produced only by much more costly methods. In addition, other novel transverse band effects may be obtained by varying the width of vertically disposed crest and valley portions as above disclosed.

It is intended that this invention be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.

We claim:

1. In a combination for producing an embossed shingle or the like from an asbestos cement sheet while in a plastic deformable state, the combination com-prising means for conveying such cement sheet, an embossing roller of cylindrical configuration rotatable about a central longitudinal axis; said roller having a plurality of spaced, raised, substantially continuous crest portions and interposed continuous valley portions disposed about the periphery thereof; said roller being adapted to rotatably engage the surface of such plastic sheet whereby such sheet is embossed in accordance with the pattern of the raised portions disposed on said roller periphery; a plurality of applicator rollers in communication with a source of coloring material adapted to engage the outermost surface of said crests on said embossing roller whereby a coating of colored material is transferred from said applicator rollers to said crests, and a plurality of cleaning rollers having a peripheral surface of flexible bristles, said cleaning rollers being disposed longitudinally of said embossing roller for engaging said plurality of crest portions and grooves of said embossing roller thereby cleaning the surfaces thereof after said roller crests have engaged the surface of such sheet in a deformable state and before said crest portions engage said applicator rollers; said applicator rollers and said cleaning rollers simultaneously cooperating in rotary motion with said embossing roller, as said latter roller engages the surface of such sheet of plastic material; said embossing roller being spaced from the sheet conveying means so that the roller valleys do not engage the plastic sheet when disposed thereover in the normal course of shingle formation.

2. The combination as recited in claim 1 in which each raised portion on said roller is not greater than about .5 inch wide.

7 8 3. The combination as recited in claim 1 in which 934,214 9/1909 Rotignier et 211. each raised portion of the embossed sheet has -a width 1,080,647 12/1913 McKay 18- 10 X of at least .03 inch. 1,469,555 10/1923 Cumfer.

1,742,363 =1/ 1930 Ma'rtinek 101-23 References Cited 5 1,819,793 8/1931 Ross. UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,954,635 4/1934 Leonard 1810 379,068 3/1888 Heller et a1. K22 3552 719,238 1/1903 LOOHIIS 1810 X 2 928 124 3 19 0 Hugger. 752,565 2/1904 Koneman. 7 3, 1 3/1904 Hollsc e 2 21 10 WILLIAM J. STEPHENSON, Primary Exan'ziner. 805,699 11/1905 Avr-ii 10123 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,384,924 May 28, 1968 Clyde C. Schuetz et a1.

It is certified that error appears in the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 1, line 28, and Column 2, lines 3 and 6, "shingles" each occurrence, should read shingle Column 5, line 37, "enclosure" should read closure Column 8, line 7, "Van Derhof" should read Fowler between lines 7 and 8, insert 2,226,186 12/1940 Van Derhoef.

Signed and sealed this 21st day of October 1969.

(SEAL) Attest:


Edward M. Fletcher, Jr.

Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4511323 *Apr 20, 1983Apr 16, 1985Gebruder Kommerling Kunststoffwerke GmbhArrangement for stamping outer surface of shaped bar material
US5383778 *Sep 4, 1990Jan 24, 1995James River Corporation Of VirginiaStrength control embossing apparatus
US5419695 *Mar 2, 1992May 30, 1995Clegg; Samuel E.Apparatus for forming a device for use in balling a tree
US5490902 *Oct 18, 1994Feb 13, 1996James River Corporation Of VirginiaStrength control embossing and paper product produced thereby
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US20060185533 *Aug 31, 2004Aug 24, 2006Kilian SaueressigRoller arrangement for embossing web-shaped materials
WO2009134907A1 *Apr 29, 2009Nov 5, 2009Gaylen BlosserShingle and method of using the shingle
U.S. Classification425/385, 425/DIG.116, 101/23, 425/394
International ClassificationB28B11/08
Cooperative ClassificationY10S425/116, B28B11/08
European ClassificationB28B11/08