|Publication number||US3386202 A|
|Publication date||Jun 4, 1968|
|Filing date||Jun 4, 1964|
|Priority date||Jun 4, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3386202 A, US 3386202A, US-A-3386202, US3386202 A, US3386202A|
|Inventors||Crews John B, Edward Dillingham, Kearl James R|
|Original Assignee||Calculator Equipment Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (26), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 4, 1.968 i J. B. CRI-:ws ETAL 3,386,202
AUTOMAT I C PAS SAGEWAY Filed June 4, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIV f /////H Nm Effi# Julie 4, 196s? Filed June 4, i964 J. B. CREWS ETAL AUTOMATIC PAssAGEwAY 4 Sheets-Sheet June 4, 1968 Filed June 4, 1964 J. B. CREWS ETAL AUTOMATIC PAssAGEwAY 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 June 4, 1968 J. a. cREws r-:TAL 3,386,202
\ AUTOMATIC PAssAGEwAY Filed June 4, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 United States Patent O 3,386,202 AUTOMATIC PASSAGEWAY John B. Crews and Edward Dillingham, Pacific Palisades, and James R. Kearl, Costa Mesa, Calif., assignors t Calculator Equipment Corporation, Los Angeles, Calif.
Filed June 4 1964, Ser. No. 372,450 16 Claims. (Cl. 49-35) ABSTRACT 0F THE DISCLOSURE An automatic passageway with two pairs of power actuated passage obstructing doors and an intermediate foot space restricting structure. A computer circuit responsive to passage sensing devices disposed along the passageway and to a fare payment sensing device enables the entrance door to open upon payment of fare, closes the entrance door and simultaneously opens the exit door upon sensing the presence of a person in the passageway, and closes the exit door when exit from the passageway is sensed. Succession of fare payments at short time intervals results in the computer counting and storing the number of paid fares, holding both doors open, and counting the number of persons passing through the passageway. Passenger counting is accomplished by the central sensing device cooperating with the narrowed -oor space provided by the foot space restrictor, thereby insuring that only one person can pass through at a time, and be individually sensed.
This invention relates to a structure for controlling passage through a barrier and more particularly to a structure for allowing legitimate paying passengers to pass uninterrupted and unhindered through a barrier while barring the passage of persons who have not paid the proper amount (hereinafter referred to as nonlegitimate passengers). The structures may be located at railroad stations, race tracks, amusement places, passenger vehicles or the like where it is desirable to control the passage of patrons without the necessity of an attendant.
In places where it is desirable to collect payment for the use of facilities or for attendance by patrons, it has been customary to require the presentation of a fare such as a ticket, coin or token as a condition to passage through a barrier leading to the facility or place the patron desires to enter. 1t has been customary to either use an attendant t0 recognize or collect the tickets, tokens or coins, or to use some sort of a mechanical recognition device or collector in order to determine whether the person presenting the pass is entitled to passage. It has been necessary to have either the attendant or the token receiving device operate a metering movable barrier such as a turnstile, a sliding or swinging barrier or a plurality of such barriers, in order to correlate the passenger with his entrance pass and allow him alone to pass without allowing other passengers to slip by unchecked.
Many different turnstile type devices have been proposed heretofore for allowing the passage of a legitimate paying customer through a barrier. All of the devices are designed to achieve some compromise between speed of flow through the gate, attractiveness to the patron and lack of hindrance to him on the one hand, and the need for effective metering of the aloneness of individuals and the desirability of making the gate secure against cheaters on the other hand. These latter factors are, of course, especially important when the gate is unattended as it is `at many times in a railroad station.
In order to accomplish these objectives, an innite variety of turnstile and rotating gate arrangements have been used because they have apparently proved to be a Patented June 4, 1968 more practical solution to the problem than prior art sliding or swinging type barrier arrangements. The primary advantage of the rotating or turnstile type arrangements has been their relatively effective metering of the aloneness of the person going through by virtue of the arrangement of the arms of the turnstile, which contact the person and in theory are linked so as to allow only one person to fit within the arms. Since the turnstiles rotate continuously in one direction, they have made relatively high speed of passage through the barrier possible. The most successful turnstiles have used light, thin arms rather than large swinging barriers, partially because of the inertia of such large barriers when continually rotating, but mainly because of the undesirable psychological effect on persons stepping into a huge rotating barrier. Subconsciously persons entering such barriers may tend to view these devices as huge grinding mills.
The main problem arising from the thin spokes of the typical turnstile barrier is the permeability to cheaters who duck underneath the barrier. Another great problem in the use of turnstiles is the undesirable psychological effect on customers who are forced to remove the barrier by exerting a turning force to turn the turnstile. On the other hand, power actuation of rotating devices such as the turnstile has proved impractical because of the undesirable psychological effect on the patron of powered rotating arms. Since there is a fixed mechanical linkage between the barrier arm yielding before the passenger and the barrier arm arising behind the passenger as he passes through the turnstile, the passenger is forced to adapt himself to the speed of rotation of the powered gate at the risk of not getting through the gate or being pushed by the gate. Thus the usual solution has been an unpowered gate which, however, slows the passage of people through the gate because of the necessity of preparing themselves physically and psychologically to exert force upon the turnstile.
In order to correlate a patron with his pass and to insure that only one patron passes through the barrier, it has been necessary to construct turnstiles and other automatic metering movable barriers so that they register between patrons by completing a metering cycle and coming to a locked or closed rest position. Therefore, the usual solution used at railroad stations has been a registering type turnstile which stops for an instant between passengers at a rest position. In passing, it should be noted that references herein to registration of turnstiles presently in use refer to mechanical alignment and not to counting functions. The rest position is properly aligned for the new passenger to insert his pass in the actuation device, and
, to insert himself in the metering space between the arms of the turnstile.
An undesirable feature arising from the use of such a registering turnstile is the fact that a cycle completing, rotating force must be applied to the turnstile by a device within the turnstile after the passenger has partially pushed the turnstile through its metering cycle. This is necessary to insure that the turnstile will stop at the proper registration point, as it has proved impractical to expect the customer to push the turnstile far enough or to stop the turnstile at the precise point needed for registering so as to meter the next passenger and reset the pass actuation device or coin locking device. Furthermore, such registration is necessary to effectively correlate the passenger with the token, ticket or coin. The undesirable feature arising from this situation is that this rotating force will tend to close the gate at a predetermined rate. As a result, the passenger will be struck by the next arm of the turnstile, which is forming a barrier closing behind him, if he does not adapt himself to move at the same speed as the turnstile arms.
Of course, registering turnstiles are not the only types of control barriers which must, of necessity, use the registering type action where the cycle is returned to rest position between passengers. The prior art includes registering barriers of the sliding and swinging barrier type, and combinations and grouping of such barriers with each other and with turnstiles, all of which utilize some sort of registering devices to place the barrier at a rest position between passengers. Such prior art devices have depended upon the use of a force applied to the barrier arms, whatever the type, in order to accomplish such registration, and in such prior devices this registering force has not adapted itself to the individual movements of the person passing through the device, but instead has been applied through the barriers to the individual luckless enough to fail to adjust himself to the tempo of the gate, and in some cases has been continually applied to the .passenger at each barrier or set of barriers regardless of his speed of passage.
Furthermore, such registering devices of the prior art have included locking cams and switch closings directly connected to the barriers in order to actuate the next cycle, and, therefore, such devices are dependent upon the proper and precise alignment of the barriers at the registration point in order to allow the next passenger to pass through. This, of course, makes these devices very suitable to jamming where pieces of paper, pieces of cloth, etc., can get jammed in the gates or their cams and contacts and prevent them from completing their cycles. The usual solution to avoid this is to apply an extremely strong registering force through the barrier arm which, as pointed out above, results in a strong registering force to the passenger who does not adapt himself to the tempo of the gates, and in many cases increases the force which the passenger must exert to pass through the barrier.
For the most part the devices now in use throughout the World for the above purposes date back a generation or more and have proved practical for the use of past generations of passengers. However, businesses today have become increasingly aware of the feelings of their customers, and it has been noted by businesses, such as large transportation companies, concessioners and others faced with the matter of dealing with large numbers of people through such metering devices that people strongly resent the hidrances, the bodily contact or impact, the necessity of exerting force and the forces exerted upon them by the usual movable barriers such as turnstiles. Furthermore, the inroads made by automation and the high cost of labor at the present time have made it extremely desirable to replace attendant barriers with fully automatic metering movable barriers. Such automatic barriers must be more impenetrable to cheats than the turnstiles or swinging bar arrangements which are easily ducked under, and yet must present an inviting appearance to the customer rather than the fearful or foreboding appearance of large impenetrable rotating or swinging barriers.
Increased use of mass transportation and the necessity of using existing facilities which physically limit the number of gates which can be placed in a station as well as the corresponding ability of many amusement places to handle larger audiences necessitates metering devices which are capable of handling a greater flow of passengers than any of the present devices; as these are limited by the passengers physical and psychological reaction to the necessity of exerting force, the forces to the body, contact metering and the other hindrances imposed by present day metering movable barriers.
Accordingly it is an object of the present invention to facilitate the passge of legitimate paying passengers through a passageway in a barrier with no restrictions or hindrances, and with no physical contact of the passenger with the barrier or the passageway, by means of an automatic passageway which recognizes a nonlegitimate passenger and provides a relatively impenetrable barrier for him.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an automatic passageway which will work without the presence of an attendant and will permit a higher ow Arate of passengers than any devices presently in operation today.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an automatic passageway which will not require physical registration of its barrier devices between each legitimate paying passenger in order to operate and whose metering and cycle reset functions will be independent of the exact position of its movable barriers.
A further object of the present invention is to provide the automatic passageway with a metering space shaped so as to permit the passage of a single adult passenger alone, or with a small child, while barring others and without restraining or hindering passengers carrying suitcases, bundles or other bulky objects.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an automatic passageway capable of being set to operate in several different modes of operation by use of simple switching arrangements.
A further object of the .present invention is to provide an automatic passageway which automatically operates in a high speed continuous flow submode of operation during rush hour type conditions and a high security single passanger submode of operation during other times.
Typical prior art metered barrier devices are the common registering turnstile, the attendant controlled freewheeling brake controlled turnstiles, swinging door and swinging bar barriers of the single and multiple type, rotating paddlewheel turnstiles, floor to ceiling rotating doors and many combinations of the above.
This invention is in the nature of an improvement over such prior art devices in that it provides unhindered passage through the barrier with no physical contact to legitimate passengers and a relatively impenetrable barrier to nonlegitimate passengers. One illustrative preferred ernbodiment of the invention employs two pairs of power 4actuated constricting passage wall sections arranged inan automatic passageway with a foot space restriction structure, and with computer registers which link the constricting wall sections and are responsive to sensing devices disposed along the passageway which are responsive to the characteristics and actions of legitimate passengers; all of which cooperate to make available a capability for forming a specially shaped metering space which separates a legitimate passenger from a cheater or nonpaying passenger by allowing the legitimate passenger to pass unhindered while stopping the nonlegitimate passenger.
Accordingly an important feature of the present invention is the enclosure of a legitimate paying passenger in a zone of no interference which .passes through the barrier with the passenger and in phase with his movements so as to make his progress as unhindered as walking through an open passageway.
Instead of relying on the application of direct force by the passen-ger to the barrier to open the barrier for the legitimate passenger, a feature lof the present invention contemplates constricting wall sections which remove themselves from the pa-th of a legitimate passenger and stay out of the path of a succession of legitima-te passengers. Instead of relying on a restraining force exerted on the passenger to register a movable barrier in a closed position in order to insure completion of the registering cycle and prepare the barrier or barriers to meter the next passenger, a feature off the present invention contemplates computer registers responsive to sensing means which complete the registering cycle without exerting force on the passenger and which operate independently of the position of the constricting wall sections. Instead of relying `on a barrier which closes the passageway to each passenger as an integral part of each registering cycle, a feat-ure of the present invention is an automatic passageway system adapted t-o stay open for a succession of registering cycles corresponding to the succession of legitimate passengers immediately following a lirst passenger while having a capability of constricting so as to bar a nonlegitimate passenger.
The structure -disclosed in the present invention has many advantages over prior art devices. The passageway exit and entrance restrictions either remove themselves from the path of a legitimate passenger or remain out ofhis way at all times instead of requiring the passenger to exert a Iforce on a barrier as in previous art turnstiles and unlocking barriers. The recognition and sensing devices, together with the computer register linkage between the access and exit restrictions to the passageway and its metering space, keep track at all times of the location of the person passing through the passageway and correlate his location with information that he is entitled to passage. Because of this, there is no need for physical registration of the access and exit restrictors between the passage of each legitimate passenger, and there is no registration force applied -to the person of the passenger as he passes through. This results in higher reliability and improved speed during rush hours since there are no closing switches or cams attached to movable barriers which will cause the barrier to jam if they are n-ot precisely registered. The metering space formed by the specially shaped entrance and access restrictors formed out of sections of the passage walls and the specially shaped foot space restrictor cooperates with the computer register and the recognition and sensing devices to effectively separate a legitimate passenger or a legitimate passenger with a small child and/or packages from a nonlegitimate passenger by allowing the legitimate passenger to pass without interference or contact while restraining the nonlegitimate passenger. This is to be compared with prior art devices such as turnstiles which are not completely effective in separating legitimate from nonlegitimate patrons and require the hindrance of the legitimate passenger in order to restrain the nonlegitimate passengers.
The automatic passageway structure has a pleasing appearance and has the psychological attractiveness to passengers of an open passageway in comparison t-o present day gates which always otter a barrier to the passenger and consist primarily of aesthetically unpleasing plumbinglike structures. The oonstricting walls for the automatic passageway form a more secure barrier to the nonlegitimate passenger than do the thin Vbars of present day turnstile type devices which can be stepped over or ducked under.
In the case of railways and other transportation systems encompassing large geographical areas, studies have revealed that zone fare systems are necessary for profitable business, rather than the single fare system. In a zone fare system it is frequently desirable for the passengers to present a token or a. ticket or coin in order to exit through a barrier as well as to enter through a barrier. Therefore, for efficient utilization of gates in a zone fare system, it is necessary that the gates can be adapted to operate in either direction and can be easily set for the prevailing direction during the rush hours. Furthermore, increasing automation of mass transportation fare collecting requires gates that can be made responsive to sophisticated computer operated credit devices of an electronic nature in addition t-o simple coin or token devices.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an automatic passageway which will facilitate the control and metering of either entering or exiting passengers and which can be adapted to zone fare operations.
Accordingly, in one embodiment of the present invention the automatic passageway structure is constructed so as to -be the same in appearance and operation when approached from either end. Suitable switching arrangements are provided for determining the direction of passenger travel through the passageway, and duplicate sensors are provided at each end of 4the passageway.
Thus, this embodiment is easily adapted for bidirectional operation and makes a group of automatic passageways as exible as attendant controlled barriers for adjustirig to rush hour conditions in a zone fare operation, and yet has the advantage of eli-minating the attendants. The computer register makes the automatic passageway highly suitable for use with sophisticated collection and zone fare devices as well as for use with credit recognizing devices, while the prior art devices in present use are limited to c-oin or token operation.
The novel features which are believed to be characteristic of the invention both as to its organization and method of construction and operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, will be better understood from the following description, considered in connection with the accompanying drawings in which illustrative embodiments of the invention are disclosed by way of example. It is t-o Ibe expressly understood that the drawings are for the purposes of illustration and descriptiontonly and do not constitute a ylimitation of the invention.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 schematically shows a typical installation of a group of the automatic passageways described in this disclosure in luse in a subway station.
FIG. 2 is a pictorial view of an embodiment of the present invention showing one door of the entry set of constricting wall sections and one door of the exit constricting wall sections in their unconstricted position.
FI'G. 3 is a pictorial representation of the present invention showing both sets of constricting wall sections in their constricted position.
FIG. 4 is a plan view of an embodiment of the auto matic passageway, partially in sec-tion.
FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of the automatic passageway.
FIGS. 6a, 6b and 6c are schematic representations cf the automatic passageway operating in the single passenger submode of operation so as to illustrate the meterino action of the metering space and the constricting wall secations. FIG. 6a illustrates the metering space with no passenge'r. FIG. 6b illustrates the metering space surrounding a legitimate passenger. FIG. 6c illustrates the metering action of the constricting wall sections barring a passenge who 'has not paid the fare, while permitting the exit of a legitimate passenger.
FIG. 7 illustrates the automatic passageway in the continuously open rush hour submode.
FIG. 8 is a block diagram of the controls of the computer register linkage which controls the automatic passageway so as to provide the legitimate passenger with unnindered passage.
Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference characters designate the same parts throughout the several views, there is shown in the figures an illustrative embodiment of an automatic passageway in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. l shows a typical use of the automatic passage- Ways described herein a railway station where they are used to provide persons who have purchased a ticket with access to the train platform and are also used to provide passengers leaving the trains with access from the platform to the station and street.
As shown in FIGS. l, 2 and 3, the embodiment com- 'prises a passageway 10 through a barrier 12 with side walls 14. Disposed along the passageway is a shaped metering space 18 with foot space restrictors 2t) immediately adjacent said side walls in opposed relationship. The passageway walls and the foot space restrictors may =be made of sheet metal or plastic or other covering over a rigid framing of metal, plastic tubing, wood or other material, as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. The frame 22 is preferably of bolted or welded construction, and in the preferred embodiment a welded metal frame construction is used with a sheet metal covering. This covering gives the passageway and the foot restrictor a neat, streamlined, modern appearance which is attractive to the patron and functional in that it keeps the machinery clean and protects it from unauthorized persons.
These automatic passageways may be used as a single passageway through a barrier or in side-by-side groupings as multiple passageways through a barrier, as shown in FIG. 1.
In the preferred embodiment the top 24 of the automatic passageway side wall 14 is approximately of waist height. The spacing between the side walls 14 has been scientifically designed to allow the presence of a single passenger Aby himself or a passenger with a small child, and the passageway is long enough to house two sets of constricting wall sections 28', 29 capable of enclosing the metering space. The tops 24 of the waist-high walls 14 in the preferred embodiment are wide enough to include a ticket acceptance 58 and return 30 device and a display device 32, where necessary; and in one embodiment rollers have been placed on the top 24 of one of the waist-high side walls 14 to facilitate the passage of heavy bundles and suitcases.
Disposed along the passageway are sections 28, 29 of the side wall which may be actuated so as to constrict the passageway. These constricting wall sections 28, 29 have a passage wall surface 36 which is flush with the passage wall 14 in the unconstricted mode and appear as part of these walls. In the constricting mode each section 28, 29 pivots at one edge and presents a Wedge shaped configuration in plan views such as that of FIG. 4. These constricting wall sections 28, 29 are divided into opposed pairs or sets and are disposed along the passage on each side of the metering space 18. Each constricting wall section 28, 29 extends from a point near the top 24 of the waist-high pass-age side walls 14 down to a point adjacent the top of one of the novel foot space restrictors 20.
As seen in FIG. in the preferred embodiment two vertical pivot shafts 38 are set in bearings 40 inside the covering of each side wall 14 and adjacent each other and adjacent the midpoint of the metering space 18. When the constricting wall sections are in their unconstricted mode, the passage wall surfaces 36 of the constricting wall sections 28, 29 extend axially along the passage direction in opposed directions from each of the adjacent pivot shafts 38. In the constricted mode, the passage wall surfaces 36 of the constricting wall sections 28, 29 rotate approximately 45 in the preferred embodiment to enclose the metering space 18 and constrict the passageway 10.
After much study, it has been determined that there are many advantages to be gained from constrictable wall sections which swing only 45 from the side wall before meeting the opposing wall section. This geometry has the following advantages:
(a) It reduces wall section cycle times by 50% or more compared to paired wall sections travelling 90 or 75% in the case of a single wall section travelling 90.
(b) The physical displacement of wall sections is reduced by half, reducing danger zones for passenger safety.
(c) The geometry eliminates mechanical leverage tending to increase crushing force as doors reach fully closed position.
(d) The 45 relationship acts as a closing valve for anyone trying to push into the metering space as the force is exerted principally toward the pivots, and any angular force is in the closing direction.
(e) The physical arrangement in which the wall sections come closed with 90 between them and 45 'between each wall section and each side wall present a barrier of some depth as well as height to protect against vaulting or crawling beneath by unauthorized persons.
Since it is desirable to have as little inertia as possible to increase the speed of operation and to safeguard the passenger from harm if he is accidentally struck by a door, the constricting wall sections 28, 29 are made as light as possible. In the preferred embodiment it has been found practical to make the wedge shaped sections 28, 29 out of formed and welded light-weight aluminum sheet using perforated aluminum sheet for the top and bottom sections. This sheet is formed into a wedge shaped hollow structure with two flat sides 36, 37 terminating at a blunted edge 42 and connected at the other end by a cylindrical surface 44. It has been found that the weight can be further decreased by removing most of the sheet metal from the side 37 of the wedge opposite the passage wall surface side 36.
In the preferred embodiment it is also found necessary to reinforce the two sides where they meet at the edge portion 42 of the wedge 28, 29. The edge of this wedge shaped reinforced constricting wall sections 28, 29 is then permanently affixed to one of the vertical shafts 38 by welding or one of the other methods well known in the sheet metal art. In order to avoid harm to a nonlegitimate passenger who may be barred by the constricting wall sections, the constricting wall sections are covered with multi-layer coverings 46 using foam rubber, plastic and upholstery lmaterial arranged in such a way as to cushion the section and to enhance its appearance.
When the two pairs 28', 29 of constricting wall sections in the preferred embodiment are mounted on their respective shafts and rotated to the constricted position, the passage wall surfaces 35 of the four constricting wall sections 28, 29 form a diamond shaped enclosure around the metering space 1S. This is clearly illustrated in FIGS. 6a, 6b and 6c,
In order to rotate the constricting wall sections 28, 29 in the preferred embodiment, a turning arm 48 has been welded to each of the vertical pivot shafts 38, and this arm has been connected through a clevis 50 to a shaft 52 att-ached to the piston of a double acting air cylinder 54 pneumatically powered and controlled by a four-way solenoid control valve 55. It has been found practical to affix the double acting cylinders 54 to the side wall frame 22 in such a manner that the cylinders 54 are parallel to the main axis of the passageway 10 in order to conserve space and allow the passage side wall 14 to be narrow and streamlined. Each passageway 10 in the preferred embodiment contains a power actuation air cylinder 54 for each constricting wall section 28, 29.
The opposed foot space restriction structures 20 in the metering space, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, are an innovation which has been carefully engineered and designed so as to effectively bar the passage of more than one passenger in side-by-side relationship without interfering with the peculiar shape or physical characteristics of a legitim-ate passenger such as an individual carrying a suitcase -or bulky packages, or a mother and small child. The foot space restriction structure has proved to be a real advancement over the prior .a'rt in that it very effectively forces the passengers to pass in single tile without placing any other restrictions on them at all. A restriction placed any place else in relation to the passengers body as in the prior art tends to 4make it difficult for husky people, people with bulky physical configurations or people carrying bulky objects to pass.
The foot restrictions in the preferred embodiment have the following dimensions which have proven by theory and experiments to be very satisfactory for this purpose: faking a section of FIG. 4 through the passageway at the center of the restrictors, the width of the passageway between the restrictors at floor level is 12 inches and the width of the passageway between the restrictors at the top of the restrictors is 20 inches Where the tops of the foot space restrictors are 15 inches a-bove the floor level. They also have beveled lead-in edges to prevent the passenger from tripping over any obstruction. These dimensions, especially the l2 and l5 inch dimensions, are relatively critical as in the slope of the restrictors as determined by all of the above dimensions.
The recognition devices associated with the automatic passageway fall into two broad categories: fare acceptor devices which recognize the insertion of the proper fare entitling the customer to passage; and sensing devices which determine the location of the customer in the passagew-ay.
While the preferred embodiment contains a ticket accepting device 53 at the entrance to the passageway 10, any form of coin or token acceptance or recognition devices may be located at the entrance to the passageway so as to determine whether the person approaching the passageway is legitimately entitled to passage.
Sensing devices in the form of foot treadles 60, 61, 62, 63 and photocells 65, 66, 67 are disposed along the passageway 10 in the preferred embodiment although various other sensing devices such as infrared, capacitor, and magnetical radiation sensing devices or the like `may be used. Since the passageway disclosed in the present invention is suitable for bidirectional use, an outer 60, 63 and inner 61, 62 set of foot actuated pressure treadies have been disposed along the floor of the passageway. One treadle 60 of the outer set has been disposed immediately before the passageway 10 and the other treadle `63 is located immediately after the passageway 10. The inner set 61, 62 is loc-ated in the metering sp-ace 1S. Treadles 62 and 63 are used for travel in one direction and treadles 60 and 61 are used for trave-l in the other direction. The foot treadles may be of a well known form and may utilize a exible mat cove-ring parallel strips of commercially available pressure operated switch tape which completes a circuit if pressure is applied at any point along the tape.
Various combinations of photocells may be used. In the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 5 a photocell 66 has been used in the metering space, and photocells 65 and 67 have been used adjacent the entrance and exit of the automatic passageway.
The information from the fare acceptor and sensing devices is transmitted to the computer register 68 which controls the ope-ration of the constricting wall sections 28, 29 and actuates them in phase with the movements of the legitimate passenger. This c-omputer register includes a ticket credit register 7G and an in-transit register 72, as shown in the block circuit diagram of FIG. 8. These registers are basically electronic counters with logic inputs which will actu'ate the constricting wall section actuation solenoids either directly or through logic circuits. Logic circuits as referred to herein include c-onventional circuits in the computer field such as those referred to by the names of AND circuits, OR circuits, NOT circuits, etc., and combinations of such circuits.
The 4computer register 68 is assembled out of cornmercially available electronics components according toI -presently known electronics hardware packaging techniques. In an experimental model of the passageway, the electronics packagesy for the computer register were distributed in the passaffe side walls in spaces where it would not interfere with the mechanical operation and yet would be easily accessible. These registers 70, 72 keep tr-ack of entitlement to pass-age and location in the passageway of each passenger. Each register will hold open or will open a pair of constricting wall sections 28'. 29 when the passenger has paid the fare or in some way identified himself as being entitled to pas-sage and has met other predetermined conditions.
It is to be understood that the automatic passageway 19 is capable of operating in many different modes. In the preferred anode described in this application for reasons which will be described later, the quiescent state of the constricting wall sections when no fares are inserted is for both the entry 28 and exit 29 sets of constricting wall sections to be in the constrictcd state. Orf course, it is also possible to o-perate the passageway with both sets of constricting wall sections in theI unconstricted state with no fares inserted, or to operate with the entry 28 constricting wall sections unconstricted and the exit 29 wall sections constric-ted or vice versa. However, for the purposes of illustration and simplication, the description which follows will refer to the operation of the circuitry in the preferred mode. In each mode dynamic submodes are also possible. In the prefer-red mode of operation the passageway operates in two submodes-single passenger sub-mode and rush hour submode-and automatically switches from one to the other in response to the passenger volume.
When the automatic passageway is in use, it can be approached by a single patron who will deposit his fare in the fare acceptor 58 and receive an unhindered passage through the passageway, or it may be approached during the rush hour by a group of passengers who will form themselves into a line in order to pass single file through the gate. While the-re is only .a single passenger, there is no need for a memory device which will remember the number of fares inserted, but during rush hour conditions where many fares may be inserted by anxious passengers pushing to pass through, it is useful for the apparatus to lremember the number of fares inserted so that all who have inserted a fare and are entitled to passage may pass through.
The ticket credit register 70 keeps a record of the number of passengers who a-re entitled to pass through the gate at any given time. During rush hour conditions this number is continually increasing because of additional fares being inserted, and is decreasing because of people passing completely through the metering space and actuating the in-transit register 72 to send a subtraction signal to the ticket credit register 70. In addition to its memory function, the ticket credit register 70 also serves to automatic-ally alter the operation of the automatic passageway between the single passenger submode and the rush hour submode. In the rush hour submode of operation, the passage I() remains unconstricted as long as there is a predetermined number of ticket credits (normally, two credits) in the ticket credit register 70. In the single passenger submode the ticket credit register 70 controls only the entry set 28 of constricting wall sections with the irl-transit register controlling the exit set 29 of constricting wall sections. However, in the rush hour submode the ticket credit register 70 controls both sets 28', 29 of constricting wall sections, and the `in-transit register 72 is used only for the functions of con'rming that a passenger has passed completely through the autom-atie passageway and subtracting a ticket credit from the ticket cre-dit register 70 to indicate this.
The in-transit register 72 transfers ticket credit along with the passenger as he enters the metering space by registering a ticket credit when actuated by the central metering space sensors 61, 62, 66 and by subtracting a ticket credit from the ticket credit register 70 at the same time. In the single passenger submode, the in-transit register 72 effectively controls the metering of the aloneness of the passenger by controlling the closing of the entry set 2S of constricting wall sections through the ticket credit register 70 and by controlling the opening of the exit 29' set of constricting wall sections directly. It also responds through sensors 63, 67 to the fact that a passenger has completely passed through the passageway l@ and thus resets itself for the next passenger.
Ticket credit register 70 and in-transit register '72 may be standard commercially available binary set-and-reset shift registers similar to that disclosed on pp. 15-54 to l5-56 of Handbook of Semiconductor Electronics, edited by Lloyd P. Hunter and published in 1956 by McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Such devices are also described on page 240 of Arithmetic Operations in Digital Computers, R. K. Richards, published 1955 by D. van
Nostrand Company, Inc. Such devices are old and wellknown to those skilled in the art.
As shown in the block diagram of FiG. 8, the ticket, coin or token recognition device 74 feeds a signal through a decoder 76 -which feeds an appropriate counting signal to the ticket credit register 70. If one fare has been inserted, the single passenger counter block 75 of the ticket credit register 70 will store a credit of one ticket. If three tickets have been inserted, the additional passenger counter block 77 of the ticket credit register will count up to three and store a creditV of tickets equal to the number of tickets minus one.
The ticket credit register has two outputs 78, 80 corresponding to its two submodes of operation, single passenger and rush hour.V The first output 78 operates from the single passenger counter block 75 and the additional passenger counter block 77 if any number of ticket credits from one on up appear in the register. This output operates the solenoids 56' controlling the first set of constricting wall sections 2S and is operative during both the single passenger and the rush hour submodes. The second output Sti operates from the additional passenger counter block 77 and operates the solenoids 56', 57 of both sets of constricting wall sections 28', 29' and controls the rush hour submode of operation; however, it is not operative unless two or more ticket credits appear in the ticket credit register 70. The second output 89 operates the solenoids 56 of the first set of constricting wall sections directly and operates the second set 57' through an OR logic element 82 which may be one of several elements or circuits well known in the computer art.
Thus a passenger approaching the passageway will insert a ticket and the ticket credit register 70 will cause the rst set 28 of constricting Wall sections to open or remain open if they are already open. If two or more passengers insert tickets, the ticket credit register will operate in the rush hour submode and cause both the first 28' and second set 29 of constricting wall sections to open or remain open if already open until that number of passengers has passed into the metering space 18.
The in-transit register 72 is actuated by a passenger who has passed into the metering space 18 of the automatic passageway 1t? past the first set 28 of constricting wall sections. In the metering space 18 he will have actuated one or both of the sensing devices located in this space. One of these devices is the foot pressure operated treadle 62 above and the other is a photocell and photocell amplifier 66, also described above. When actuated, each of these devices feeds a signal into an OR logic element 84 of conventional design.
The output signal of this OR element 84 is then fed as one of the input signals into an AND logic element 86 of conventional design. The other input to the AND logic element is the out-put signal from the first output 78 of the ticket register 70. Thus if there is ticket credit in the ticket credit register and if the passenger is in the metering space 18 past the first set 28' of constricting sections, the AND gate 86 will give an output signal SS which sets the in-transit register 72 to record the fact that the passenger is in the process of passing through the automatic passageway.
When the in-transit register 72 is set, it indicates that a ticket credit is present corresponding to the passenger in the metering space 18, and therefore this passenger is entitled to further passage. In the set position the in-transit register gives an output signal 90 which performs a dual function. The first function of thein-transit register output signal on lead 90 is to provide a count-down signal on lead 92 to the ticket credit register 70 which subtracts a credit from this register to complete the transfer of the ticket credit from the ticket credit register 70 to the intransit register 72. The second function is holding the exit constricting wall sections 29' in the unconstricted position through the OR logic element 82 connected to the actuation solenoids 57', or placing them in this position if they are constricted. This allows the passenger to continue all the way through the automatic lpassageway'l unhindered.
As the passenger passes out of the passageway he will break a light beam 64 focused on a photocell 67 near the end of the passageway and should also step on a foot treadle 63 located just outside the automatic passageway on the exit side. The photocell 67 feeds a signal through an amplifier 93 to a NOT logic element 94 of conventional design which will give an output signal 96 when the light beam is remade after the passenger passes cornpletely through. This NOT output signal 96 feeds into an OR logic element 98 which has as its other input the output of the foot treadle 63. Thus either or both of these signals will indicate that the passenger has passed completely through and out of the automatic passageway and give an output 162 from the OR logic element 98.
This OR element output 192 serves to reset the intransit register 72 indicating that no one is in the metering space of the passageway who is entitled to pass. Thus, if there are less than two credits in the ticket credit register, the eXit set 29 of constricting wall sections constrict to bar the passage of unauthorized persons. Of course, when there is a single credit in the ticket credit register 70, the er1-tire in-transit register cycle occurs again and the exit wail sections open as soon as the passenger corresponding to the ticket credit enters the metering space.
During rush hours the passageway will remain open continuously since a line of persons will continuously keep the ticket credits at two or more.
`While the passageway may be programmed to remain open when there are few or no patrons using it, this mode of operation is not the most satisfactory because it requires the wall sections to constrict and block the passageway if a patron attempts to pass, but has not inserted his fare. It may prove to be very discomforting both psychologically and physically to a lone person approaching an apparently open passageway to have this passageway constrict so as to bar his passageway, since if he were running or walking very quickly, it is conceivable that the constricting walls might bring him to a jarring halt. Therefore, in the nonrush hour situation where the lone patron is more common, it has been found more satisfactory to keep the passage wall sections in the constricted position so as to indicate that a fare is needed for passage through the passageway.
In this mode of operation, the circuitry described above causes the entry set 28 of constricting Wall sections to unconstrict when the patron inserts a fare. Since there are less than two credits in the ticket credit register, the exit set 29 of constricting wall sections remain closed until the patron reaches the metering space 18. At this time he actuates a sensor 62 or 66 which causes the entry wall sections 28' to again constrict and also causes the exit wall sections 29 to unconstrict after metering the passenger for aloneness for an instant in the metering space 18 between the two sets of constricted Wall se'ctions 23', 29. After the patron passes completely out of the automatic passageway, the exit wall sections 29 return to their constricted position.
Of course, by adding more logic circuitry and by changing various portions of the logic circuitry, the automatic passageway must be given different modes of operation suitable to specific situations in which it is to be used. Also various special circuits may be added as safety features to prevent entrapment of passengers and to facilitate their release. Various more Sophisticated circuits may be used to make the passageway more impenetrable to cheaters in special situations where the cost is justified.
In experiments carried out in the London subway, it has been found that this passageway handles rush hour tratiic in a very efcient manner with higher speed capabilities than any prior art devices. It is attractive to the passengers because of its unhindered passage and makes attendants unnecessary. It has been found to be so effective in stopping the nonlegtimate passenger attempting to slip through with a legitimate passenger that a spacing of an inch of two between the previous legitimate passenger and the nonlegitimate passenger is enough to separate them by barring the nonlegitimate passenger. Since spacings of less than this are obtainable only by two persons walking in lock-step, only obvious cheaters can hope to slip through.
When the automatic passageways are to be used with a zone fare system which requires the passenger to present a fare or ticket in order to gain access, it is desirable to have some or all of the automatic passageways in a station capable of bidirectional use. In this bidirectional mode they may be set for use as either entry or exit automatic passageways in order to meet passenger load requirements. Since the passageway is substantially symmetrical, it is only necessary to close the reversing switches shown in FIG. 8 or provide suitable automatic switching circuitry so as to make the ticket acceptor '74' at the other end of the passageway the operative acceptor and to make the previously unused foot treadles 60 and 61 and photocell 65 operative in place of the ones at the opposite end of the passageway.
Other embodiments which have been constructed by the inventors herein employing the principles of the present invention include an automatic passageway in which barriers of the type shown in the present drawings always operate so the passageway is closed at one point and is open at another point along its length. With reference to FIG. 6c of the drawings, this may be accomplished by physically securing or electrically operating the two constricting wall sections on each side of the passageway together. The two constricting wall sections on each side of the passageway may then assume a clamshell configuration, and perform a metering function as they rock back and forth together.
Other arrangements which may be used include automatic passageways utilizing a single set of constricting wall sections, automatic passageways utilizing constricting wall sections with the vertical pivot shafts placed at the ends of the passageway instead of adjacent the metering space, automatic passageways with one set of vertical pivot shafts placed in the metering space and another set placed near one end of the passageway, automatic passageways using constricting wall sections and movable barriers of differing sizes and shapes, and other variations of the embodiment `described herein. The principles described herein have also been used by the inventors herein in constructing automatic passageways utilizing movable barriers in single and multiple configurations of the turnstile type including one experimental configuration utilizing two sets of opposed turnstiles extending into the passageway. Of course, many of these experimental embodiments did not have the advantages of the constricting passage wall coniguration described in detail herein, but they did illustrate the wide range of application of the novel principles described in the present disclosure.
It is to be understood that the above described arrangements are illustrative of the application of the principles of the invention. Numerous other arrangements within the scope of the invention may be devised by those skilled in the art. Thus by way of example and not of limitation various shaped constricting wall sections may be used, and various types of logic circuitry and sensors may be used to advance the passengers ticket credit along with the passenger so as to correlate the passenger and the ticket Various types of coin acceptors and ticket handlers may be used to indicate entitlement to passage. Various sizes of passageways and constricting wall sections may be used in situations with differing security requirements and in other situations. In addition, for automatically switched bidirectional mode use, the depositing of a fare at one end may energize circuitry and apparatus which blocks acceptance of a fare at the other end until the first depositor has passed through the passageway. This circuitry and apparatus also switches the passageway to the proper directional mode of operation for passage in the direction of travel by the first fare depositor. Accordingly, from the foregoing, it is evident that various changes may be made in the present invention without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A structure for controlling authorized passage of persons through a barrier, comprising moveable entrance and exit barrier members forming a space therebetween, barrier operating means, first passenger location sensing means within said space, second passenger location sensing means at the exit side of said exit barrier members, passage authorization recognition means adjacent the entrance side of said entrance barrier member, and circuit means `connected to said passenger location sensing means, of said barrier operating means and to said passage authorization recognition means to enable said entrance and exit barrier members to sequentially open and close as a function of passage authorization acceptance and sensed motion of the passenger through the barrier.
2. In the apparatus of claim 1, a passageway between said entrance and exit barrier members having a pair of cooperating foot space restrictors to permit passage of only one person at a time.
3. In the apparatus of claim 1, said circuit means including a register connected to said passage authorization recognition means to store the number of authorized passages, to said passenger location sensing means to reduce the number of authorized passages stored as a passenger traverses the barrier, and to said entrance barrier to close said entrance barrier when the number of authorized passages stored is reduced to zero.
4. In combination:
movable entrance and exit barrier means extending into said passageway and defining a space therebetween;
barrier operating means;
passage authorization recognition means adjacent the entrance side of said entrance barrier means, first passenger location sensing means between said entrance and exit barrier means, second passenger location sensing means adjacent the exit side of said exit barrier means; and
circuit means connected to said barrier operating means,
said passage authorization recognition means and said iirst and second passenger location sensing means to permit the unhindered passage of passengers presenting the proper passage authorization and denying the passage of passengers not presenting the proper passage authorization.
5. The combination of claim 4 in which the circuit means includes:
means for providing a rst registration indicating the receipt of a valid fare from a first passenger; means for providing a submode of operation in response to said iirst registration;
means for indicating the presence of a passenger in the passageway;
means for providing additional registrations indicating the receipt of other valid fares from succeeding passengers before the irst passenger has actuated said indicating means; and
means for changing the submode of operation to facilitate the passage of succeeding passengers through the passageway in response to said additional registrations.
6. The combination of claim 4 in which the circuit means includes a ticket credit register and an in-transit register.
7. The combination of claim 4 in which the movable barrier means have several submodes of operation and in which the circuit means cooperates with said barrier and passage authorization receiving means for automatically altering submodes of operation in response to customer flow.
8. In combination:
entrance and exit movable barrier means extending into said passageway;
barrier operating means;
foot space restrictor means defining a substantially reduced fioor width disposed along said passageway between said entrance and exit barrier means;
first customer recognition means between said entrance and exit movable barrier means, second customer recognition means adjacent the exit side of said exit barrier means; and
circuit means for cooperating with said entrance and exit barrier means and said first and second customer recognition means energizing said barrier operating means to permit the unhindered passage of customers presenting the proper fare and denying the passage of persons not presenting the proper fare.
9. The combination of claim 8 including a metering zone and side walls on each side of said metering zone in which the foot space restrictor means -comprise smoothly tapered surfaces extending downwardly from each side wall to substantially reduce the floor space in said metering zone.
10. A structure for controlling authorized passage of persons through a barrier comprising:
a passageway defined by substantially vertical sidewalls;
foot space restricting means including tapered sections extending downwardly and inwardly to the vicinity of the floor of said passageway on each of said sidewalls to define a substantially reduced floor width whereby passengers through said passageway are forced to walk in single file, but little restriction is imposed upon bulky passengers or articles carried by said passengers; and
an obstacle in said passageway movable between passage opening and passage closing positions.
11. The structure as set forth in claim 10 wherein the foot space restricting means further includes tapered surfaces for progressively reducing the width of said passageway to avoid injury to passengers traversing said passageway.
12. A structure for controlling authorized passage of persons through a barrier comprising:
a passageway defined by sidewalls;
barrier members movable between passage opening and passage closing positions;
passage authorization recognition apparatus;
a foot space restriction extending inwardly from each sidewall to the proximity of the iioor to substantially reduce the width of the floor space;
sensing apparatus adjacent said foot space restriction to detect presence of a person in said passageway; and
circuit means connected to said passage authorization recognition apparatus and said sensing apparatus to control operation of said barrier members.
13. An automatic passageway for railroad stops or the like for providing entry and exit through a barrier to legitimate customers so that they may pass through without touching or being touched by any turnstile type apparatus, said automatic passageway comprising:
a passageway including side walls through a barrier;
said passageway side walls having constrictable Wall sections disposed along both sides of said passageway and arranged into sets of opposed constrictable sections;
a metering space disposed along said passageway and adapted to allow the presence of a preset number of customers;
said metering space having an upper portion and a lower portion;
foot space restriction means adapted to form the boundaries of the lower portion of said metering space;
a first set of said constrictable side walls disposed at one end of said metering space and a second set disposed on the other end; said constrictable wall sections adapted to be substantially flush with said side walls in their unconstricted position and to form the boundaries of the upper portion of said metering space in their constricted position;
circuit means for controlling the actuation of said first and second sets of constrictable wall sections and in phase with the movements of the individual customers through the metering space without exerting a force on said passengers;
recognition means including first customer position sensing means between said first and second sets of constrictable wall sections and second customer position sensing means on the exit side of said second set of constrictable wall sections for actuating said register means in response to predetermined conditions corresponding to the characteristics and actions of legitimate customers;
power means connected to said register means for actuating said first and second sets of constrictable wall sections and independently of forces applied directly to said access, exit and recognition means by said customers.
14. The combination of claim 13 in which the constrictable wall sections have a substantially wedge shaped configuration with a vertical pivot shaft afiixed along the thin edge to allow a pivotal constricting motion not exceeding 60 of the Wall section into the passageway.
1S. The `combination of claim 13 including a metering zone and side walls on each side of said metering zone in which the foot space restrictor means comprise smoothly tapered surfaces extending downwardly from each side wall to substantially reduce the fioor space in said metering zone.
16. The combination of claim 13 in which the circuit means includes:
means for providing a first registration indicating the receipt of a valid fare from a first customer; means for providing a submode of operation in response to said first registration; means for indicating the entry of a customer into the metering zone; means for providing additional registrations indicating the receipt of other valid fares from succeeding customers before the first customer has entered the metering space; and means for changing the submode of operation to facilitate the passage of succeeding customers through the passageway in response to said additional registrations.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 220,624 10/ 1879 Jorgensen .32-2
417,141 12/1889 Brady. 1,606,782 11/1926 Hedley et al 39-2 1,688,709 10/1928 Hedley et al 39-3 1,724,932 8/1929 Hedley et al 194-6 X 3,063,179 11/1962 Aurer 39-1 3,150,454 9/1964 Staples 39-1 3,169,329 2/1965 Powers 26S-62 X 2,795,875 6/1957 Nutter et al 256-1 X DAVID I. WILLIAMOWSKY, Pri/nary Examiner. HARRISON R. MOSELEY, Examiner. DENNIS L. TAYLOR, Assistant Examiner.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,386,202 June 4, 1968 John B. Crews et al.
It is certified that error appears n the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 3, line 68, "passge" should read passage Column 10, line 19, "while" should read where Column l4, line 18, "of" should read to Signed and sealed this 9th day of December 1969.
Edward M. Fletcher, Jr. WILLIAM E. SCHUYLER, JR.
Attesting Officer Commissioner 0f Patents
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|U.S. Classification||49/35, 49/264, 49/45|
|International Classification||G07F17/14, G07F17/00|