US 3386216 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
3,386,216 HE ERECTION 10mm,
C. ZWICKERT June 4. 1968 'PARTITIONING ELEMENTS, IN PARTICULAR FOR T 0F DISMANTLABLE AND REMOVABLE PARTIT Fixed Jan. 15, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 M W T E NM mu M m2 5 June 4, 1968 c. ZWICKERT 3,386,216 PARTITIONING ELEMENTS, IN PARTICULAR FOR THE ERECTION OF DISMANTLABLE AND REMOVABLE PARTITIONING Filed Jan. 15, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet z IN VE NTOR CHHRLE s z w ICKERT I WMMM June 4, 1968 c. ZWICKERT 3,386,216
PARTITIONING ELEMENTS, IN PARTICULAR FOR THE ERECTION OF DISMANTLABLE AND REMOVABLE PARTITIONING Filed Jan. 15, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet :s
INVENTOR CHARLES ZWHZKERT UWMW W M June 4, 1968 c. ZWICKERT 3,386,216
PARTITIONING ELEMENTS, IN PARTICULAR FOR THE ERECTION I OF DISMANTLABLE AND REMOVABLE PARTITIONING Filed Jan. 15, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR CHARLES Zwlc/(ERT United States Patent 3 356 216 PARriTroNiNc ELEMhNis, EN PARTECULAR not:
THE ERECTIGN 0F DISMANTLABLE AND RE- MOVAELE PARTHTIUNING (Charles Zwicirert, bis Rue Jean-Sacred, Noisy-le-Sec, Seine, France Filed Jan. 15, 1965, Ser. No. 425,844 Ciaims priority, application France, Jan. 17, 3364,
960,681; June 4, 1964, 977,935
14 Claims. (Ci. 52-2tl5) This invention relates to partitioning elements. In particular, it relates to elements which may be assembled to form removable and readily dismantlable partitioning which may be erected where desired without screws, nails or other fixing means, and which may contain, where necessary, wires and electric cables or pipes for the circulation of industrial fluids.
It is possible by virtue of the invention to erect partitions with remarkable sound-proofing properties, although a partition with a given surface area is considerably lighter than a brick-built partition of identical surface area.
The partitioning elements according to the invention essentially comprise panels, components by means of which the panels are assembled and materials for filling the empty spaces which may be left after the partitions have been erected.
The assembly components according to the invention generally consist of two types of shaped sections, namely substantially flat frame sections, one surface of which is formed with a central groove and two lateral grooves, all three grooves extending longitudinally and opening in the same direction, and substantially flat lateral sections with a longitudinal edge which is adapted to co-operate with one or the other of the lateral grooves formed in a base.
According to the invention, the aforementioned components are intended to co-operate with substantially prismatic panels, of which at least one end is designed in such a way that it readily fits into the central groove of a base, preferably with a minimum of play.
According to one advantageous feature of a preferred embodiment of the invention, the thickness of a panel, at least at some areas of that part of the panel which is to be covered by the lateral sections fitted into the lateral grooves of the base, of which the central groove receives one end of the panel, should be such that the panel exerts on the lateral sections between which it is positioned, a pressure great enough to lock the lateral sections in position.
According to the invention, erection of a partition comprises fitting together any desired number of basic assemblies, consisting of a panel or a group of panels arranged adjacent one another between two parallel frame sections, in the central grooves engaged by the corresponding ends of the outer panels of the group of panels mounted between the bases.
According to the invention, the panels of one assembly may be connected to the basic assemblies by means of posts mounted between the frames with the aid of suitable jacks supported on the bottom of the central grooves of the bases, the arrangement being such that each post is received by a recess formed in the adjacent sides of two adjacent panels or two groups of adjacent panels.
The spaces confined by the frame sections and the lateral sections mounted in them are only partially occupied by the ends of the panels and of the posts or jacks mounted in the bases, so that these spaces may be used to accommodate cables or various types of piping, and the gaps left after they have been fitted may be filled according to the invention with glass wool or any other suitable sound-proofing material.
3,385,215 Patented June 4, 1968 These and other features of the present invention will be better understood with the aid of the following description of embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 shows a frame, the lateral sections mounted in the lateral grooves of the frame and one end of a panel fitted in the central groove of the frame, seen in section along a plane perpendicular to the major length of the base;
FIGURE 2 is a section through a panel which has been mounted in a frame by means of a jack;
FIGURE 3 is a horizontal section through a post positioned between two adjacent panels at the same level of a vertical partition;
FIGURE 4 is a perspective view of the lower end of a vertical partition constructed in accordance with the invention;
FIGURE 5 is a perspective view of the upper end of a vertical partition constructed in accordance with the invention, and
FIGURES 6 and 7 are partial perspective views showing how a door may be assembled from the partitioning elements according to the invention.
The partitioning elements according to the invention are shown in FIGURE 1. They comprise a frame 1 cooperating with lateral sections 2 and 2' and with a panel 8.
The frame is formed with two identical lateral grooves 3 and 3 adapted to receive the thickened edges 2a and 2a of the detachable lateral sections 2 and 2. In addition, the frame comprises two symmetrical longitudinally extending ribs 4 and 4- which form a central groove or channel 5. Finally, it may be of advantage to provide the shaped section comprising frame 1 with supports 6 and 6' consisting of projections extending beyond the bottom of the frame. The shaped section or frame may be completed by shock-absorbing cushions such as strips 7 of synthetic material, for example the cellular polyvinylchloride commercialized under the trademark Klegecel by Kleber Colombes, a French society, and quoted in the first edition, published May 1958, of the encyclopedia Techniques de llngnieur in the section Matieres Plastiques, adhesively secured to the bottom of the frame 1 between the supports 6 and 6'.
The prefabricated panels, such as 8, which are adapted to be assembled by elements Such as 1 and 2 to form a partition, comprise on at least one of their edges a central projection 8a adapted to fit into the groove 5 formed in the base. The thickness of the panel 8 preferably corresponds to the distance between the grooves 3 and 3' of the base. Thus, in order to position the panel, it is sufficient to engage the longitudinal projection 8a in the central groove 5. The lateral sections 2 and 2' are then lowered into position in the lateral grooves 3 and 3. These lateral sections may advantageously be provided with cushions 9 of a plastics or synthetic material on that side which comes into contact with the panel. In addition, to facilitate the dismantling of these lateral sections, it may be of advantage to provide shoulders such as 2b enabling a tool to be supported on the lateral sections.
The lateral grooves 3 and 3 and the central groove 4 in the frame 1 are preferably of substantially U-shaped cross section, as shown quite generally in the drawings, but it would be possible within the scope of the invention to modify the shape of the grooves as desired.
At least one of the lateral grooves may, for example, be slightly widened (as a result of which the groove would have a straight, slightly V-shaped cross section), so that the detachable lateral section readily positioned in this groove because it is widened may be readily removed from it in the absence of the panel, but remains locked against one side of the groove under the pressure 3 exerted on the lateral section by the panel when it is placed in position.
In one very simple embodiment, this widening is ob tained, for example, by inclining that edge of the groove closest to the axis of the frame very slightly towards the inside of the frame.
It would even be possible in accordance with the invention to provide the grooves and those parts of the lateral sections and/or of the panels which cooperate with them, with corresponding shapes in order to ensure that these parts become wedged in the grooves when fitted in them.
By so arranging the elements described above, longitudinal passages and It) are left between the central and lateral grooves and may be used to accommodate electric cables, telephone cables or various types of piping symbolised by the reference 19.
It may be of advantage to facilitate the positioning of the panels by means of jacks, one example of which is diagrammatically illustrated in FIGURE 2. This jack comprises a threaded rod 11 engaged in a tube 12 which itself is arranged inside a panel 13. At the end of the threaded rod, there is a plate 14 which bears against the bottom of the base in the groove 5. In addition, the nut 15 on the threaded rod rests on a plate 16 in contact with the edge of the panel. An equalizer spring 17 may be provided inside the tube 12 between the end of the threaded rod 11 and the bottom of the bore in which the tube is accommodated. The partition is kept upright by screwing the nut 15 on the threaded rod so as to transfer the strain to a fixed structure 18 through the frame 1.
In order to ensure the cohesion of the partitions con sisting essentially of panels and bases, the lateral sections mainly serving to cover the joints by which the panels are connected to the bases, and to form covers for the spaces such as 10 which are filled with a packing, it is advisable to use horizontal and/or vertical beams which rest on the bottom of the bases either directly or indirectly through jacks, and which are anchored in recesses formed in the adjacent surfaces of juxtaposed panels.
FIGURE 3 is a horizontal section through such a beam 20 accommodated in recesses 21 and 22 formed in the abutting faces of two adjacent panels 23 and 24'.
The frame sections, lateral sections, panels, beams and jacks are components by means of which it is possible in accordance with the invention to erect partitioning as easily as with the components of a construction set.
One embodiment of such a partition is shown in FIG- URES 4 and 5 which show the lower end and upper end, respectively, some parts of the constituent components of the partition having been removed in order more clearly to show the structure of the partition.
In FIGURE 4, the base of the partition is generally dcnoted by the reference 25. This base is preferably in one part, but it may also consist of a number of base sections arranged end to end.
Panels juxtaposed in line and in columns are mounted on this base. For example, FIGURE 4 shows those parts of two panels 26 and 27 forming the beginning of one line of panels extending over the entire length of the partition.
Mounted between these two panels is a vertical beam 28 which is accommodated in corresponding vertical recesses formed in each of the abutting faces of the two panels.
The beam 28 is mounted on a vertical jack 29 consisting of a threaded rod 2%, a nut 29b and a base 2% locked in the central groove of the base 25.
The lower ends 26:: and 27a of the panels 26 and 27 are also introduced, preferably with a slight clearance, into the central groove of the base 25.
A vertical beam 31 is also visible in FIGURE 4 at left-hand side of the panel 26.
As shown in this figure, the left-hand side of the puttilion (and the same applies as regards the right-hand side) is bordered by a vertical support 32 anchored in the side of this partition.
This vertical Support 32, which may consist of a single support or a number of supports arranged end to end, receives in its central groove 33 either the edge of one or several panels or, as shown in FIGURE 4, the ends of horizontal jacks, such as 34, of the same design as the jack 29.
The lateral sections 35 and 316, 37 and 38 which are mounted in the lateral grooves of the horizontal base 25 and of the vertical support 32 cover the joints between the panels 26 and 27 and these bases.
According to the invention, each lateral section comprises one edge pressed into one lateral groove of a base, and one edge resting against a panel.
The lateral sections are readily positioned by simply pressing the corresponding edge of the lateral section into the groove in which it is to be accommodated. This operation is made even easier in the embodiment under dis cussion since the edge in question has a convex form.
Once a lateral section has been introduced into a lateral groove of a base, it may be removed by hand even if a panel is already in position in the central groove of the base. Its removal would only become difficult if there were two lateral sections in position on either side of the panel because, in this case, the panel would exert on the lateral sections a pressure high enough to lock them in the positions which they occupy. In this case, which would correspond to a completed partition, the lateral section may be forced out by exerting pressure on the shoulder provided on its visible face, for example, the shoulder 35a of the lateral section 35 and the shoulder 37a of the lateral section 37.
The references 39, 4t) and 41 denote electric cables extending through the partition, the first two of which pass through the space left between the panel 26 and the lateral section 36, whilst the cable 41 extends through a vertical groove formed in a panel 26 along the post 31.
After the bases have been positioned, the panels and beams assembled, the cables and pipes installed and the lateral sections mounted on one side only of each panel, the empty spaces left in the regions surrounded by the lateral sections may be completely filled with a material having sound-proofing properties, for example mineral wool, a fraction of which is denoted by the reference 42.
The upper ends of the vertical beams 28 and 31 and, in particular, a spring-operated tightening jack 29 which co-operates with the jack 29 for installing the beam 28, are visible in FIGURE 5 which shows the upper left-hand end of the partition, the lower left-hand end of which is shown in FIGURE 4.
This figure also shows the base or bases 25 which border the top of the partition, and a horizontal jack 34' acting on the vertical beam 31. Packing material is denoted by the reference 43 while an electric cable is denoted by the reference 44.
The references 45 and d6 denote adjacent panels which are the upper panels of columns of panels of which the base panels are the panel 26 and the panel 27, respectively.
It will be understood that these columns which, in the present case, consist of a number of panels may in certain cases only consist of a single panel.
It is pointed out that, in spite of its complex structure, a partition of the type shown in FIGURES 4 and 5 is sound proof by virtue of the fact that it always contains a compact part acting as a sound-absorbing screen between the two sides of the partition.
This compact part either consists of the panels or of the beams or of the compacted filling or packing material.
The partition according to the invention is normally erected between substantially flat and parallel surfaces, for example the floor and ceiling of a room, the cohesion of its constituent elements being ensured by the play between the beams and the jacks which enable the partition to be, as it were, stretched.
The shape of the panels and of the lateral sections is a matter of choice. Although the most simple shapes are generally preferred, any other shape may be used tosatisfy aesthetic requirements.
The panels may be simply arranged edge to edge, as is the case with the panels 26 and 27, 45 and 46, of which the edges 26a and 27a, 45a and 46a are flush with one another, but the panels may even partly overlap one a other or may be interlocked. The panels may be rectilinear, polygonal or, in some cases, oval.
The lateral sections preferably have rectilinear edges, but it may be desirable to form them with a corrugated edge or any other form of edge.
The lateral sections may of course be drilled where desired, for example to receive switches, sockets, etc. A socket 47 fitted in the lateral section 35 has been shown by way of example in FIGURE 4.
The panels may be of simple or complex design in the sense that they may consist of a single component or several assembled components. One panel may, for example, consist of two components, the first of which co-operates with a base, while the other forms the greater part of the panel and is joined to the first.
An example of a typical type of panel is the panel 26 (FIGURE 4) which comprises a lower wooden portion 26a, a central wooden portion 26b and an upper portion 260 consisting of a bonded material between two sheets of wood 26d and 268.
Any other suitable natural or synthetic material whether of fibrous, cellular or granular structure, plastics or metals may of course be used to make the panels.
The beams or posts which, according to the invention, are used as partitioning elementn, may at the same time act as a means for joining adjacent panels and as a means for stiflening or strengthening the partitions when they are assembled with the aid of jacks. These two functions are of course independent of one another. Thus, in the partition shown in FIGURES 4 and 5, the post or beam 28 simultaneously acts as a connection between the panels 26 and 27 and as a tensioning element between the bases 25 and 25, of which the tension may be adjusted by means of the jacks 29 and 29, while the post or beam 31 acts only as a tensioning means between these two bases and between the support 32 and the panels 26 and 45.
The functions between vertically adjacent panels may be performed by horizontal beams, in which case each beam may be used to join two vertically adjacent panels or two vertically adjacent rows of panels, or by vertical beams supported in vertical cavities actually formed in the panels of a column of panels.
The beams shown in FIGURES 4 and 5 are only examples of means of connecting two adjacent panels, and it would be possible to use any other connecting means without departing from the scope of the invention; instead of rectangular or square beams, it would be possible, for example, to use H-sections, in which case two adjacent panels would be anchored between the branches of the H.
Generally, the word beam is intended to cover any suitable means by means of which it is possible to produce horizontal or vertical tics in a partition consisting of panels, frames and lateral sections.
The use of beams is not of course absolutely necessary for the erection of partitions according to the invention, and the use of panels adapted to interlock laterally with one another may render the use of beams superfluous which is further assisted by the fact that the jacks or any other tensioning means may act both on the beams and on the panels themselves.
It should be noted that these tensioning means which are particularly easy to use when combined with equaliser springs such as 17 (FIGURE 2), are only necessary in cases where it is desired to erect a partition stretched vertically and/ or horizontally between two anchoring surfaces, for example a floor and a ceiling, as in the embodiment shown in the FIGURES 4 and 5.
If the partition is intended to have one free edge, there is no need to use tensioning means as far as this edge is concerned.
The beams may be made from any suitable natural or synthetic material; they may be made of metal, and may comprise a wooden core.
The frame and the lateral sections are preferably made from aluminium alloys which enable these sections to be inexpensively fabricated with satisfactory dimensional accuracy, but it would of course be possible to use any other materials without departing from the scope of the invention.
The partitioning elements according to the invention are particularly useful by virtue of the fact that they enable partitions to be erected without any difiiculty between surfaces which are irregular or not exactly parallel, as frequently encountered in practice. By means of the cushions 7 (FIGURE 1) which may consist of Klegecel or any other sufiiciently flexible material, and the aforementioned jacks, it is possible to absorb the irregularities and non-parallelism of the surfaces between which the partition is mounted, whilst all the means used to absorb these irregularities may be covered by the lateral sections which cover the joints between the panels and the bases.
Among the other advantages of the elements according to the invention, it should be noted that the lateral sections fitted in the lateral grooves of the frames are locked in their assembled positions solely by means of the panels which exert a pressure on the lateral sections between which they are positioned.
The cushions which, like the cushions 9 (FIGURE .1), are inserted between the lateral sections and the panels and which transmit the pressure exerted by the panel to the lateral sections, compensate the surface irregularities or uneveness of the opposite sections of the panels and/ or of the lateral sections. Because such a cushion is present, a lateral section may, for example, be caused to bear simultaneously against the faces of two adjacent panels and the face projecting beyond the aforementioned faces of a shaped section arranged at the joint between these two panels.
In addition, the lateral sections may be readily detached without any need to move the panels or to adjust the means for tensioning the partitions.
The partitioning elements according to the invention need not only be used for the erection of walls, they may also be formed quite generally with openings to accommodate for example, doors and windows.
FIGURES 6 and 7 illustrate how a door unit may be fitted into a partition erected with the partitioning elements according to the invention.
These figures show the right-hand corner of the frame of a door bordered by two plates 48 and 49 connected at right-angles by means or" an L-shaped angle iron 59.
In FIGURE 6, the references 51 and 52 denote two of the panels of the partition in which the door is mounted. The panel 52 is mounted in the central groove of the plate 48, while the panel 51 co-operates with the plate 49.
The hinges on which the door swings may be fixed to one of the vertical posts of the door frame, in the manner shown in FIGURES 6 and 7 which illustrate, for example, the upper hinge 53 of the door fixed to the plate 49 by means of a wooden block 54 arranged in the space between the central groove 49a and one of the lateral grooves 49b and 49c of the plate 49 with the aid of screws whose heads and tails are respectively denoted by the references 5511 (FIGURE 6) and 5512 (FIGURE 7).
The references 56 and 57 (FIGURE 6) denote the profiles against which or in the immediate proximity of which the door comes to rest when closed.
These profiles may be fitted into position by means of tenons screwed to the plates 48 and 49, as shown in FIGURE 6 in which one of these tenons Ed is screwed to the plate 48 on the one hand and fitted into the groove formed in the shaped section 57 on the other hand, the arrangement being such that the shape of this groove enables the head of the tenon to be wedged in it.
It will be noticed that the arrangement referred to above enables the door to be mounted on either side of the shaped sections 56 and 57 by accordingly choosing the groove 49b or 490 of the plate 49 which accommodates the hinges, such as 53, which themselves are of conventional design.
The lateral section, which has to be mounted in the groove 4% of the plate 49 and which is only partly shown at 59, the remainder of the lateral section having been removed in order more clearly to show the mounting of the hinge 53, is formed near this hinge with a cut-out corresponding to the part 5317 of the hinge, such that when the lateral section is placed in position, only the art 53a of the hinge projects from the lateral section.
The door itself has only been partly shown in FIG- URES 6 and 7 which illustrate only one part 60 of this door, the remainder having been omitted for the sake of clarity.
As already mentioned earlier on, the foregoing description shows that it is possible by means of the partitioning elements according to the invention to erect, as easily as with the components of a construction set, a simple partition comprising panels mounted in a framework consisting of base plates and any other type of partition derived from it by using connecting elements between the panels, elements for stretching the partition and inner frames constructed with the aid of bases ac tually inside the partition.
What is claimed is:
1. Partitioning elements intended in particular for the erection of dismantlable and removable partitioning, comprising panels, frame elements for these panels and detachable lateral sections co-operating with the frame elements and with the panels to cover the connections between the panels and the frame elements; said frame elements comprising shaped sections each having one face formed with a central groove and two lateral grooves, the three grooves of each frame element extending longitudinally of the latter and in laterally spaced relation with each other, and opening outwardly in the same direction; said lateral sections comprising shaped sections each having a longitudinal edge fitting into either of said lateral grooves; said panels comprising at least one edge fitting into said central groove; the thickness of said panels, at least in those areas of the panels which face the lateral sections when said panels and lateral sections are mounted in said frame elements, being such that said panels exert, on the lateral sections between which they are placed, a pressure suffioient to wedge the edges of said lateral sections in said lateral grooves of said frame elements.
2. Partitioning elements according to claim 1, in which at least some of said lateral sections are formed with a shoulder on that surface thereof exposed when said panels and sections are mounted in said frame elements, to facilitate dismantling of said lateral sections.
3. Partitioning elements according to claim 1, in which at least some of said lateral sections are provided with cushions on those parts which engage a panel.
4. Partitioning elements according to claim 1, in which said longitudinal edges of at least some of said lateral sections have a transversely convex form to facilitate positioning and removal of said lateral sections. a
5. Partitioning elements according to claim 1, in which at least some of said frame sections are provided with supports on one face opposite that which is formed with said grooves, said supports comprising two projections extending from said one face of said frame, and a shockabsorbing cushion adhesively secured to said frame and nested between said projections.
6. Partitioning elements according to claim 1, wherein at least some of said panels are provided with a recess along a lateral edge, said partitioning elements further comprising posts fitted into the facing recesses of a pair of laterally adjacent panels and constituting joining means by means of said laterally adjacent panels maybe laterally inter-connected.
7. Partitioning elements intended in particular for the erection of dismantlable and removable partitioning, comprising panels, frame elements for these panels and detachable lateral sections cooperating with the frame elements and with the panels to cover the connections between the panels and the frame elements; said frame elements comprising shaped sections each having one face formed with a central groove and two lateral grooves, the three grooves of each frame element extending longitudinally of the latter and in laterally spaced relation with each other, and opening outwardly in the same direction; said lateral sections comprising shaped sections each having a longitudinal edge fitting into either of said lateral grooves; said panels comprising at least one edge fitting into said central groove; said thickness of these panels which face the lateral sections when said panels and lateral sections are mounted in said frame elements, being such that the panels exert, on the lateral sections between which they are placed, a pressure sufiicient to wedge the edges of said lateral sections in said lateral grooves of said frame elements; at least some of said panels being provided with joining means forming interengageable projections and recesses facing edges of ad jacent panels, by means of which said facing edges extending along may be laterally inter-connected.
8. A partition comprising at least one panel mounted in two frame elements, the edges of the panel in contact with the frame elements fitting into a central longitudinally arranged groove in each frame element and two lateral elements associated with each frame element and fitting int-o grooves on either side of the central groove and extending out from the frame element parallel to and in close contact with the faces of the panel, the frame sections being in contact with two substantially fiat and parallel surfaces between which the partition is mounted, and tension means which keep the aforementioned frame elements in contact with the aforementioned surfaces.
9. A partition according to claim 8, in which said tension means comprises jacks arranged in the central grooves of the frame elements.
10. A partition according to claim 8 in which said tension means comprises jacks arranged in the central grooves of the frame elements and acting upon the panels.
11. A partition according to claim 8 in which said tension means comprises jacks arranged in the central grooves of the frame elements and acting on posts which are accommodated in recesses formed in the edges of the panels and which function as joining means between adjacent panels.
12. A partition, according to claim 8, wherein longitudinally extending spaces are provided between said panels and said lateral elements for receiving electric wires and the like.
1?. A partition, according to claim 8, wherein said panels, said frame elements and said lateral elements define spaces, and sound-absorbent material filling at least some of said spaces.
14. A partition comprising at least one panel mounted in two frame elements the edges of the panel in contact with the frame elements fitting into a central longitudinally arranged groove in each frame element; two lateral elements associated with each frame element and fitting into grooves on either side of the central groove and extending out from the frame element parallel to and in close contact with faces of the panel; and a door 9 10 assembly associated with the partition and having hinges 2,787,812 4/1955 Long 52-586 X which are mounted on a block placed between the central 2,830,684 4/ 1958 Bancroft 52-498 groove and one of the lateral grooves of one of the 2,934,800 5/1960 Hasbrouck 52-498 X frame elements. 3,092,219 6/ 1963 Young 52241 X 3,169,281 2/1965 Clements 52--476 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 0 98 E JZ S PATENTS rance.
1,999,741 4/1935 SChllltZ 5 0 23 194 Great Britain.
2,000,243 5/1935 Manske 52242 X 2,70 ,541 4/ 55 Crown 52-403 X 10 JOHN E. MURTAGH, Primary Examiner.