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Publication numberUS3387164 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 4, 1968
Filing dateSep 21, 1965
Priority dateSep 21, 1965
Publication numberUS 3387164 A, US 3387164A, US-A-3387164, US3387164 A, US3387164A
InventorsAbernethy Robert R
Original AssigneeRobert R. Abernethy
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Rotating vane bulb
US 3387164 A
Images(1)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 1968 V R. R. ABERNETHY 3,337,164

ROTATING VANE BULB Filed Sept. 21, 1965 l Wm may 190152 21 12 ABIRNFIFY ATTORNEKS United States Patent 3,387,164 ROTATING VANE BULB Robert R. Abernethy, 240 Logan Ave., Bedford, Ohio 44014 Filed Sept. 21, 1965, Ser. No. 489,002 11 Claims. (Cl. 313-111) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A light bulb having a spindle mounted within the bulbous enclosure. An object for changing the visual effect of radiant energy given off by the filament, is mounted on the spindle in spaced relation from, and for rotation about the longitudinal axis of the spindle. A vane having a pair of silvered and blackened sides in back-toback relation, and moving in response to radiant energy from the filament, is attached to the object for rotating it.

This invention relates generally to lighting, and more particularly to lighting devices. Moreover, this invention is directed to a device for producing pulsations of light from a conventionally designed lighting device, e.g. a light bulb or fluorescent tube.

Flashes or pulsations of light are readily discernible and are used for example to warn of impending danger, e.g. flashing red and yellow lights, or to guide and direct, e.g. beacon lights used to guide ships or aircraft to their destination. Other uses for pulsating light includes it use in signs, eye catching displays and decorations, e.g. Christmas tree lights. Such pulsations of light are caused by interrupting the flow of electrical current to the lighting device, or by mounting a mechanical device on the device for breaking up the light rays, e.g. rotating vanes mounted on the exterior of the bulb or tube.

This invention provides anew and novel device for interrupting the light rays, a device which is integral with the lighting device and is not dependent on outside mechanical means.

Briefly stated, this invention is in a lighting device having means for emitting radiant energy surrounded by a light pervious enclosure sealing the radiant energy means from the ambient atmosphere. In accordance herewith, there is provided at least one vane mounted for rotation within the enclosure. Any suitable means might be used for mounting the vane within the enclosure. The vane is provided with at least one pair of sides in backto-back relation, one side of the vane being blackened and the other side being silvered. When radiant energy from the lighting device falls on the vane, it heats the blackened side more than the silvered side. Air molecules meeting the heated blackened side take up more energy than those meeting the silvered face. The molecules on the blackened side of the vane recoil harder than those on the silver side causing the blackened side on the vane to move away from the radiation. If a complete vacuum is created within the. enclosure and the friction at the ends of the rotating shaft is substantially eliminated, the silvered side of the vane would then move away from the radiation. This happens because the radiation has a slight pressure. The speed at which the vanes rotate is dependent on the radiant energy given off in the blackened and silvered areas of the vane.

The following description will be better understood by having reference to the annexed drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an embodiment of this invention;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of another embodiment of this invention;

ice

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of another embodiment of this invention;

FIG. 4 is a side view of another embodiment of this invention having a portion thereof cut away;

FIG. 5 is a side view of still another embodiment of this invention having a portion thereof cut away;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of still another embodi ment of this invention; and

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of still another embodiment of this invention.

Referring generally to FIGS. 1-5 and more particularly to FIG. 1, there is shown a conventionally designed Christmas tree light 10 comprising a socket 11, a filament 12 for giving off radiant energy secured to and extending from the socket 11, and a light pervious enclosure, e.g. glass bulb 13, surrounding the filament 12 and secured to the socket 11. This glass bulb 13 seals the filament 12 from the ambient atmosphere.

A shaft or spindle 14 is mounted within the glass bulb 13. The spindle axis preferably coincides with the longitudinal axis of the glass bulb 13. The spindle 14 may be fixedly or rotatably mounted within the glass bulb 13 by any suitable means.

A plurality of vanes, e.g. vanes 15, 16, 17 and 18, are mounted on the spindle 14 within the glass bulb 13. The vanes extend radially from the spindle 14 and, preferably, rotate in a plane normal to the axis of the spindle 14. The vanes are rotatably or fixedly mounted to the spindle 14 depending on whether the spindle 14 is fixedly or rotatably mounted within the glass bulb 13. Any suitable means may be used to secure the vanes to the spindle 14 or mount the vanes on the spindle 14 for rotation about its axis. Each vane has at least one pair of sides in back-to-back relation, one side being silvered and the other side being blackened. The opposing sides of the vanes 15-18 are alternately blackened and silvered. For example, the sides 19, 20, 21 and 22 of vanes 15, 16, 17 and 18, respectively, are blackened; the sides 23, 24, 25 and 26, respectively, of the same vanes are silvered. Any vanes hereinafter referred to are similar to the above described vanes 15-18.

As previously indicated, the energy radiating from the filament 12 heats the blackened side more than the silvered side. The air molecules meeting the black side take up more energy than those meeting the silvered faces causing the molecules on the blackened side to recoil harder than those on the silvered side, causing the blackened sides on the vanes to move away from the radiation. In this manner the vanes are caused to rotate about the spindle 14. If all air were removed from the bulb and the frictional forces of rotation were reduced, the silvered sides of the vanes would move away from the radiation and the vanes would rotate in the opposite direction. The vanes as they rotate break up the light rays radiating from the filament 12 producing a flickering" effect, i.e. pulsations of light rather than a steady flow of light emanating from the Christmas light 10. Such'an effect is very decorative when used, for example, in lighting displays at Christmas time.

Referring more particularly to FIGS. 2 and 3 there are shown various embodiments of this invention in conjunction with a standard light bulb generally indicated at 30. If the bulbous shaped enclosure 13 is white or transparent, a color wheel 31 may be mounted on the shaft or spindle 14 for rotation in a plane normal to the spindle axis. The color wheel 31 comprises a plurality of differently colored pie-shaped sections radiating from the center or hub of the color wheel 31, For example, sec tions 32, 33, 34, and 35 of the color wheel 31 may be colored blue, red, green and yellow, respectively. The light radiating from the bulb 30 is broken into different hues of these colors as the wheel 31 rotates. The color wheel 31 is caused to rotate by similar means, e.g. vanes 36, 37, 38 and 39, mounted and spaced around the wheels circumferential marginal edge 40.

Other vanes, e.g. vanes 15, 16, 17 and 18 may also be mounted on the shaft for rotating in a plane parallel to the plane of the color wheel 31. The vanes may be designed to rotate in the same direction or in a direction opposite to the rotation of the color wheel 31. The rotating vanes will produce the flickering effect.

This effect is also produced by a plurality of light reflecting and diffusing balls, e.g. balls 41 and 42, mounted for rotation about the axis of the spindle 14. The balls are, preferably, secured to the end of a shaft which is secured to the spindle 14, e.g. balls 41 and 42 are secured to shafts 43 and 44, respectively, which are secured to the spindle 14. In this particular embodiment, the spindle 14 is mounted for rotation within the bulb 30. The color wheel 31 is mounted for rotation about the rotating shaft or spindle 14 and rotates in either the same direction or in a direction opposite to the rotation of the spindle 14.

Another lighting effect is created by securing a plurality of lenses, either colored or uncolored, to the rotating vanes or color wheel. For example, lenses 45, 46, 47, and 48 (FIG. 3) are secured to and rotated with the vanes 15, 16, 17, and 18, respectively.

It may be desirable in some cases to extend the spindle 14 out of the bulbous enclosure 13 (FIG. 2). In order to accomplish this a conventionally designed dynamic vacuum seal 49 is provided where the spindle 14 passes through the enclosure. Any suitable device may be mounted on the shaft outside the enclosure 13. For eX- ample, a lamp shade or similar device surrounding the bulb 30 and bearing commercial advertising displays may be mounted on the spindle 14 for rotating about the bulb 30.

A pulley 50 may be mounted on the spindle 14 for driving a belt 51 for driving other mechanisms. In some cases it may be desirable to slow down the rotation of the spindle 14. Any suitable means may be used to accomplish this, e.g. a mechanical braking device or a solenoid valve 52, mounted outside the bulb 30 and coacting with the spindle 14.

The embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 4 is particularly well suited for use as a warning or flashing light or as a beacon light used, for example, at airports. A light shield 60 surrounding the filament 12 is mounted on the spindle 14 for rotation about the filament 12. The shield 60 is fixedly or rotatably mounted to the spindle 14 depending on whether the spindle 14 is fixedly or retatably mounted within the bulb 30. Any suitable means may be used to secure or rotatably mount the shield 60 on the spindle 14. The shield 60 is, preferably, cylindrical in shape having one end 61 closed and the opposing end 62 open. The shield 60 is impervious to light and has an opening 63 in its cylindrical wall 64. Radiant energy from the filament 12 is emitted through the opening 63 as the shield 60 rotates about the filament 12. The opening 63 may be provided with a colored lens if, for example, the bulbous enclosure 13 is colorless.

The light rays emitted from the opening 63 are intensified by a reflective shield .65 secured to the cylindrical 'wall 64 opposite the opening 63. The reflective shield 65 has a convex configuration for focusing the light rays and reflecting them through the opening 63. A plurality of configured vanes, e.g. vanes 66 and 67, are secured to, and circumferentially spaced around the inner surfaces of the cylindrical Wall 64. The vanes are similar to the previously described vanes and are provided to cause rotation of the shield 60 about the filament 12.

A transparent protective cover 68 for the bulb 30 may be provided, especially in cases where the bulb 30 is colorless and no lens or a colorless lens is provided in the opening 63. In such cases, the cover 68 may be colored, for example, red.

The embodiment of the bulb 39 illustrated in FIG. 5 is particularly suited for use in conjunction with dance floors where it is desirable to provide a colorful, subdued light. A shield 70 surrounding the filament 12 is mounted on the spindle 14 for rotation about the filament 12. Similarly, the shield 70 may be fixedly or rotatably mounted on the spindle 14. Any suitable means may be used to fixedly or rotatably mount the shield 70 on the spindle 14. The shield 70, preferably, has a spherical or bulbous configuration similar to bulb 30, and is composed of a plurality of differently colored pieces or chips, e.g. chips 71, '72, 73, and 74. The multicolored chips may be intermingled with black chips which are impervious to light, Thus, as the shield 70 rotates, multicolored dots the reflected throughout the room. A plurality of configured vanes, e.g. vanes and 76, for rotating the shield to, are mounted on the inner surfaces of the spherical or bulbous Walls 77 of the shield 70' adjacent the filament 12, and are arcuately spaced about the walls 77.-

The above-described embodiments of the invention are used in conjunction with an incandescent light-bulb. The embodiments of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7 are used in conjunction with fluorescent tubes, e.g. tube 80 (FIG. 6). A plurality of vanes, e.g. vanes 82, 83, 84 and 85, are fixedly or rotatably mounted on a spindle 86 which is fixedly or rotatably mounted within the fluorescent tube 80. The spindle 86 preferably coincides with the longitudinal axis of the fluorescent tube 80. The spindle 86 is mounted within the tube 80 by any suitable means, e.g. gas pervious discs or mountings 87. The vanes as they rotate in the tube 80 produce a similar flickering effect of the light. Fluorescent tubes utilizing the rotating vanes are particularly well suited for display devices, e.g. the exit sign 89 illustrated in FIG. 7. The flickering light caused by the rotating vanes within the tubes, e.g. tubes 91, 92 and 93 forming the word exit, attracts the eye and stimulates a person to action more quickly than a sign or display not having these flickering qualities. This type of lighting is particularly well suited to warn people of impending danger, or to direct their attention to, for example, an emergency exit.

This invention may be utilized in conjunction with fluorescent lamps to permit using, for example, low temperature phosphors which are cheaper to produce than the high temperature phosphors.

Light emission results from absorption of, and elfective excitation by radiant or corpuscular energy such as.

ultraviolet or infrared radiation, electrons, etc. The excitation is dilferent for different materials. Most phosphors, e.g. high temperature phosphor Zn SiO :Mn, require small amounts of activators to become luminescent. Emission is characteristic of the activator, but not of the same color for the same activator in different matrices. Thus, Mn can give green, yellow, orange, or red emission. Optimum amounts of the activator vary With the type of base material. Generally, matrices with low absorption of ultraviolet require large amounts of activators, e.g. .l% to 10% in silicates, phosphates. Those matrices with high absorption of ultraviolet require small amounts of activators, e.g. .00l% to .l% in sulfides.

Many phosphors, e.g. low temperature phosphors, CaSiO :Mn Pb and halophosphates donot absorb and respond to ultraviolet. In such cases,

it is necessary to use a second activator called a sensitizer to absorb the ultraviolet and pass the absorbed energy internally on to the first activator to make it emit its characteristic fluorescence. In the above mentioned low temerature phosphors Pb and Sb act as sensitizers.

The low temperature phosphors may be more readily excited and activated by coating a portion of the rotating vanes of this invention, with a sensitizer. Also, the amount of activators used, is substantially reduced when the rotating sensitized vanes are utilized, because the sensitized vanes emit corpuscular energy that will spread evenly to all fluorescent activators.

Thus there has been provided a new and novel apparartus for causing flickering and diffusion of the light, or pulsations of light. One of the big advantages for using rotating vanes, etc. mounted within the light bulb is that the bulbous enclosure acts as a protective cover and shield for the rotating mechanisms within the bulb. The rotating mechanisms are not exposed to the atmosphere or atmospheric conditions which may hinder or hamper their rotation.

Other modes of applying the principle of this invention may be employed instead of those specifically set forth above, changes being made as regards the details herein disclosed, provided the elements set forth in any of the following claims, or the equivalent of such, be employed.

It is, therefore, particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed as the invention:

1. In a light bulb having a socket, a filament for emitting radiant energy, and a light pervious bulbous enclosure sealing the filament from the ambient atmosphere, the improvement which comprises:

(a) a spindle mounted in the enclosure, the axis of the spindle coinciding with the axis around which the enclosure is formed;

(b) a color wheel containing a plurality of colors,

mounted on the spindle and rotating in a plane normal to the axis of the spindle; and

(c) at least one vane mounted on the color wheel, the

vane having at least two sides in back-to-back relation, one side being blackened and the other side being silvered, the vane coacting with radiant energy given off by the filament, causing the wheel to rotate.

2. The improvement of claim 1, wherein the spindle and the vane are mounted for rotation relative to each other.

3. The improvement of claim 1, which includes at least one other similar vane mounted on the spindle and rotating in a plane parallel to the plane in which the wheel rotates, the rotating vane breaking up the rays of radiant energy passing through the color wheel.

4. The improvement of claim 1 which includes at least one light reflecting ball mounted on the spindle and rotating in a plane parallel to the plane in which the color wheel rotates, and means for mounting the ball on the spindle.

5. In a light bulb having a socket, a filament for emitting radiant energy and a light pervious bulbous enclosure sealing the filament from the ambient atmosphere, the improvement which comprises:

(a) a spindle mounted in the enclosure, the axis of the spindle coinciding with the axis around which the enclosure is formed;

(b) a light impervious shield surrounding the filament and mounted on the spindle for rotating around the filament, the shield having an opening through which radiant energy from the filament is emitted; and

(c) at least one vane mounted on the shield and coacting with the radiant energy from the filament to rotate the shield, the vane having at least two sides in back-to-back relation, one side being blackened and the other side being silvered.

6. The improvement of claim 5, wherein a colored lens is in the opening in the shield.

7. The improvement of claim 5, which includes a colored, light pervious cover surrounding the bulbous enclosure and protecting it.

8. The improvement of claim 5, which includes a refiector mounted within the shield opposite the opening for focusing the radiant energy through the opening in the shield.

9. In a light bulb having a socket, a filament for emitting radiant energy and a light pervious bulbous enclosure sealing the filament from the ambient atmosphere, the improvement which comprises:

(a) a spindle mounted in the enclosure, the axis of the spindle coinciding with the axis around which the enclosure is formed;

(b) a light pervious shield surrounding the filament and mounted on the spindle for rotating around the filament, the shield including a plurality of multicolored chips; and

(c) at least one vane mounted on the shield coacting with the radiant energy from the filament for rotating the shield, the vane having at least one pair of sides in back-to-back relation, one side being blackened and the other side being silvered.

10. In a light bulb having a socket, a filament for emitting radiant energy, and a light pervious bulbous enclosure sealing the filament from the ambient atmosphere, the improvement which comprises:

(a) a spindle mounted within the bulbous enclosure;

(b) means for producing a changing visual effect of the radiant energy from the filament, said means being mounted on the spindle in spaced relation from the longitudinal axis of the spindle for rotation around said axis in a plane normal to said axis, and

(c) at least one vane secured to said means and moving in response to radiant energy from the filament, said vane having at least two sides in back-to-back relation, one side being blackened and the other side being silvered.

11. In a light bulb having a socket, a filament for emitting radiant energy, and a light pervious bulbous enclosure sealing the filament from the ambient atmosphere, the improvement which comprises:

(a) a spindle mounted within the bulbous enclosure;

(b) a shield mounted on the spindle and at least partially surrounding the filament, said shield being rotatable about the axis of the spindle;

(c) light pervious means associated with the shield for allowing radiant energy to pass from the filament through the shield; and

(d) at least one vane secured to the shield and moving in response to radiant energy from the filament, the vane having at least two sides in back-to-back relation, one side being blackened and the other side being silvered.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,290,749 1/1919 Hunt 313315 2,656,630 10/1953 McDonald 40-434 X JAMES W. LAWRENCE, Primary Examiner.

P. C. DEMEO, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1290749 *Nov 8, 1917Jan 7, 1919Edward J HuntAdvertising lamp and radiometer.
US2656630 *May 20, 1950Oct 27, 1953Jr Eugene F McdonaldAdvertising device
Classifications
U.S. Classification313/111, 313/578, 65/155, 40/581, 313/315, 40/441
International ClassificationH01K7/00, H01K7/06
Cooperative ClassificationH01K7/06
European ClassificationH01K7/06