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Publication numberUS3389044 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 18, 1968
Filing dateFeb 21, 1966
Priority dateFeb 21, 1966
Publication numberUS 3389044 A, US 3389044A, US-A-3389044, US3389044 A, US3389044A
InventorsLoomis Thomas H
Original AssigneeThomas H. Loomis
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Playing table bed and method of fabrication therefor
US 3389044 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 18, 1968 'r. H. LOOMIS 3,339,044

PLAYING TABLE BED AND METHOD OF FABRICATION THEREFOR Filed Feb. 21, 1966 3 INVENTOR. THOMAS H. LOOM/S United States Patent 3,389,044 PLAYING TABLE BED AND METHGD 0F FABRICATION THEREFOR Thomas H. Loomis, P.O. Box 71, Canton, Conn. 06019 Filed Feb. 21, 1966, Ser. No. 528,905 7 Claims. (Cl. 161-94) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A bed for billiard tables and the like comprising a slab of cementitious material molded directly to the covering cloth therefor and a method of forming the same. The method is characterized in that the cementitious material is formed and set directly against the backing surface of the cloth to ultimately cover the bed. As a result, during formation the cementitious material penetrates the interstices of the backing surface of the cloth and forms a direct bond therewith. The interstices in the backing surface of the cloth also function to permit the cementitious material to breathe and, thus, result in the formation of a dense support surface for the cloth free of occluded voids.

The present invention relates to a playing table bed and a method of fabrication therefor. In its more specific aspects, the invention is directed to a bed for the playing of carom games, such as billiards, and the method of fabricating such beds from an artificial slate-like material having playing cloth adhered in continuous contact with the surface thereof.

In the billiard table art, it has been standard practice to provide professional quality tables with slate beds having playing cloth stretched thereover. The beds in this type of table are typically fabricated of a plurality of slate sections meticulously joined together. After this joining, the playin cloth is precisely stretched over the bed by highly skilled workmen. Tables of this type must be initially assembled at the location where they are used and, typically, disassembled and reassembled Whenever this location is changed. This is required because of the extreme weight of such tables and beds and the necessity that the beds and the cloth stretched thereover meet precise standards of quality. As a result, such tables prove very expensive both in the initial installation and in maintenance. Naturally, in addition to the expense resulting from installation and maintenance, such tables are inherently expensive because of the relatively high cost of the natural slate beds employed therein.

Billiard tables provided with slate beds are also characterized as being extremely heavy. This characteristic has the advantage that it provides table stability, but the disadvantage that it greatly limits table mobility.

In an efiort to avoid the disadvantages inherent to billiard tables provided with slate beds, various alternative bed materials have been employed. These materials have taken the form of wood compositions, such as plywood and pressed wood; plastic compositions; and, various cementitious compositions. All of these materials have the shortcoming, however, that they are incapable of providing a playing surface of professional quality. In addition, beds formed of such materials also have the disadvantage that they require the stretching of cloth thereover subsequent to bed formation. It is here noted that the attachment of cloth so applied, regardless of the bed material, is typically effected only around the periphery of the bed. As a result, the cloth stretched over the playing surface is relatively susceptible to tearing during billiard play.

It is, accordingly, a principal object of the present invention to provide a playing table bed and method of fab- 3,389,044 Patented June 18, 1968 ice rication therefor which overcomes the disadvantageous characteristics of prior art playing table beds. Another object of the invention is to provide a playing table bed formed of a molded cementitious material which has a playing surface of professional quality.

A further object of the invention is to provide a playing table bed having playing cloth adhered in continuous contact therewith, which cloth is thus highly tear resistant.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a method of fabricating playing table beds which eliminates the requirement of applying: playing cloth to the bed surface subsequent to formation of the bed. With respect to this object, it is another object of the invention to provide a method of fabricating playing table beds in condition to be installed in table frames, without requiring machining of the bed.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide a method of fabricating molded playing table beds from cementitious material which employs the playing table cloth to avoid the occlusion of voids in the playing surface of the bed. With respect to this object, it is a related object of the invention to provide a method of fabricating molded playing table beds which employs the playing cloth as a parting agent on the mold.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a method of forming high quality playing table beds as integral units which are adapted to be installed and moved without the employment of highly skilled labor. With respect to this object, it is a related object of the invention to provide playing table beds which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, install and maintain.

The method of the present invention basically comprises: stretching playing cloth over a. platen having a smooth surface; providing a closed boundary extending outwardly from the smooth surface and around at least a portion of the cloth stretched thereover; depositing a fluid cementitious material on the exposed surface of the cloth confined in the boundary; setting the cementitious material to effect its hardening and adherence to the cloth upon which it is deposited; and, removing the cloth and cementitious material integrally from the platen.

The bed of the present invention comprises, broadly, a rigid slab having a smooth level surface; a playing cloth stretched over the slab and having a backing surface in continuous contact with the smooth level surface of the slab; and, means contiguously adhering: the backing surface of the cloth to the smooth level surface of the slab. The details of the inventive method and bed and the foregoing and other objects will become more apparent when viewed in light of the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view, partially in section, exemplifying apparatus that may be employed in the inventive method and the formation of a bed thereby;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken on a plane designated by line 2-2 in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken on a plane designated by line 33 in FIG. 2; and,

FIG. 4 is a perspective view illustrating a modification which may be employed in the method exemplified by FIG. 1.

Referring now to the drawings, the numeral 10 therein designates exemplary equipment which may be employed in practicing the inventive method. The equipment 10 comprises a platen 12 having a smooth upper surface 14 with stretching and securing grooves 16 (see FIG. 2) formed therein and extending therearound; boundary defining side boards 18 and 20 movably mounted on the platen 12; and, fastening and stretching strips 22 and 24 adapted to be removably received in the grooves 16. The side boards 18 and 20 are mounted on the platen surface 14 by support brackets 26 for movement between the solid and phantom line positions illustrated in FIG. 2. Each of the brackets 26 comprises: a hinge support 28 secured to the platen 12; an arm 30 pivotally mounted at one end to the hinge support 28 and fixedly secured at the other end to the side board supported thereby; a pedestal 32 fixed to and extending upwardly from the support 28; a clamping arm 34 pivotally mounted on the pedestal 32 for movement in a horizontal plane; and, a clamping screw 36 threadably received through the arm 34. In operation of the bracket 26, movement of the side boards between the solid and phantom lines illustrated in FIG. 2 is accomplished by the following steps: loosening the screw 36; swinging the clamping arm 34 to the phantom line posi tion; and, swinging the arm 30 to the phantom line position. Returning the side boards to the solid line position from the phantom line position is similarly accomplished by the following steps: swinging the arm 30 to the solid line position; swinging the clamping arm 34 to the solid line position; and, tightening the clamping screw 36 into engagement with the arm 30. Attention is here directed to the fact that tightening of the screw 36 against the arm 30 functions to force the side boards towards the surface 14 of the platen 12.

When employing the aforedescribed equipment in the practice of the inventive method, a billiard cloth 38, having a playing surface 40 and a backing surface 42 is first stretched over the platen surface 14 and secured in place through utilization of the strips 22 and 24. The cloth 38 employed in the method may be of relatively conventional nature, so long as the backing surface 42 thereof is provided with exposed interstices. The interstices are designated by the numeral 43 and can best be seen in the en larged view of FIG. 3. As can be seen from FIG. 2, the cloth 38 is stretched over the platen 12 with the playing surface 40 juxtaposed to the platen surface 14 and the backing surface 42 exposed. FIG. 2 also illustrates the manner in which the strips 24 are engaged with the cloth 38 and the grooves 16. Although not illustrated, it is to be understood that the strips 22 are similarly engaged with the cloth and mating grooves in the platen. After the cloth 38 is stretched over the platen 12, the initial set-up for the method is completed by positioning the side boards 18 and 20 in the solid line upright condition illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2.

The completion of the foregoing steps provides the initial set-up or mold for the inventive method. Specifically, a mold is provided having a lower surface defined by the backing surface 42 of the cloth 38 and side boundaries comprised of the boards 18 and 20. After the initial set-up has been so provided, the next step of the inventive method comprises depositing a fluid cementitious material, designated in its entirety by the numeral 44, within the mold. This material should be capable of penetrating, at least partially, the interstices 43 in the cloth 38 and setting up to a hard state.

After the cementitious material 44 has been deposited so as to assume the shape defined by the side boards 18 and 20, the next step of the method comprises setting the material up to a hard state. This step is, in turn, followed by a final step which simply comprises removing the material and the cloth 4t integrally, from the platen 14. The latter step is accomplished by swinging the side boards 18 and 20 to the retracted position; removing the strips 22 and 24; and, sliding or lifting the set-up cementitious material, with the cloth 33 adhered thereto, from the platen 14.

It is here noted that the setting of the cementitious material directly on the cloth 38 functions to adhere the lower surface of the material to the backing surface of the cloth. This results because the material penetrates the interstices of the cloth (see FIG. 3) prior to setting. Setting of the cementitious material directly on the cloth also has the advantage that the cloth permits breathing of the material in contact therewith and, thus, prevents the occlusion of voids in this material. Yet another advantageous characteristic resulting from setting of the cementi- 4- tious material directly on the cloth is that the cloth functions as a parting agent to facilitate removal of the material from the surface 14 of the platen 12.

The cementitious material employed in the present invention is preferably a magnesium oxychloride cement. This type of cement, which is commonly known as Sorel cement has been found ideal for use in the inventive method because of the high quality surface which it provides. A preferred formulation of oxychloride cement for use in the inventive method is formulated as follows, per 144 cubic inches of volume thereof:

(1) 1 lb. 4 oz. MgO molecular weight 40.32;

(2) 1 qt. MgCl 231/2" Baum;

(3) 2 oz. tale;

(4) 8 oz. pozzalana; and,

(5) 2 /2 lbs. of ground silica, 100 mesh.

In the above formulation, the inclusion of pozzalana provides an improved product of greater density, surface hardness and durability. Insofar as this inclusion is concerned, it has been found that the addition of pozzalana to the amount specified by 8 ounces creates a proportionately even harder surface.

The mixing procedure for the foregoing formulation is relatively conventional. In this procedure, the MgO and MgCl are first combined and mixed until all dry material is a smooth mass (typically for a period of five minutes). After the MgO and MgCl are mixed, the tale and pozzalana are then added and mixed. The mixing is then completed by addition and mixing of the silica.

Although the foregoing formulation may be used for the entire thickness of the cementitious material employed in the inventive method, it has been found preferable to use this formulation only to a thickness (typically /4 inch) suificient, upon the setting thereof to a hard state, to resist destruction as the result of the playing of carom games on the playing surface of the cloth. A first layer of such a thickness is designated by the numeral 46 in the drawings. When such a first layer of limited thickness is employed, it is allowed to take on an initial set, typically in the neighborhood of 150 minutes, and then the depositing step of the method is completed by applying a second layer of cement over the first layer to a thickness sufficient, upon the setting thereof to a hard state, to impart support to the first layer. The second layer, designated by the numeral 43 in the drawings, preferably has the same formulation as the aforedescribed first layer, with the addition thereto of an amount of coarse aggregate sufficient to augment its strength. This aggregate may take the form of any substantially nonabsorbent material, such as quartz flakes or gravel.

When using magnesium oxychloride cement in -the inventive method, it has been found that the final removal step may be effected after the cement has taken on an initial set of approximately twelve hours at an ambient temperature of 72 F. It is to be understood, however, that the setting times and temperatures may be varied, so long as the bed has hardened to a state wherein it will not be damaged by removal from the platen.

Referring now to FIG. 4, therein is illustrated a modification of the inventive method which includes forms to effect the formation of pockets in a bed simultaneously with its molding. These forms are exemplified by a protrusion 50 secured to and extending inwardly from the side board 2!). Although only one protrusion 50 has been illustrated, it is to be understood that any number and shape of such protrusions could be provided on the side boards 18 and 20 to effect the formation of pockets in a bed being molded. These pockets would typically take the form of those which are provided on pool tables.

To conclude, from the foregoing description it is believed apparent that the present invention enables the accomplishment of the objects initially set forth herein. In particular, a method of fabricating billiard table beds is provided which results in an accurately dimensioned bed having playing cloth adhered in continuous contact therewith. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not intended to be limited to the specific details illustrated and described, but rather as defined by the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A method of fabricating a bed for the playing of carom games and the like, said method comprising:

(a) stretching playing cloth, having a backing sur face with exposed fluid permeable interstices therein capable of permitting breathing therethrough and a playing surface opposed to said backing surface, over a platen having a smooth surface, with the playing surface of said cloth in contiguous contact with the smooth surface of said platen and the backing surface of said cloth exposed;

(b) providing a closed continuous boundary extending outwardly from the smooth surface of said platen and around at least a portion thereof and the cloth stretched thereover;

(c) depositing a fluid cementitious material on the backing surface of said cloth within said boundary, said material being capable of penetrating the interstices of said surface, at least partially, and setting to a hard state;

(d) permitting said fluid cementitious material to penetrate into the interstices of said backing surface to form an integral contiguous bond therewith while breathing therethrough;

(e) setting said fluid cementitious material deposited on said backing surface to a hard state, thus adhering said material to the backing surface of said cloth, said setting being effected without penetration of said material through the playing surface of said cloth so that said surface may act as a parting agent between the platen and cementitious material; and,

(f) removing said cloth and the cementitious material adhered thereto integrally from said platen.

2. A method according to claim 1, wherein said cementitious material comprises a magnesium oxychloride cement.

3. A method according to claim 2, wherein said cement, per 144 cubic inches of volume thereof, is formulated of:

(l) 1 lb. 4 oz. MgO molecular weight 40.32;

(2) 1 qt. MgCl 231/2 Baum;

(3) 2 oz. tale;

(4) 8 oz. pozzalana; and,

(5) 2 /2 lbs. of ground silica, 100 mesh.

4. A method according to claim 1, wherein said cementitious material comprises a magnesium oxychloride ceof carom games on the playing surface of said cloth, said layer having the following formulation per 144 cubic inches of volume:

(1 1 lb. 4 oz. MgO molecular weight 40.32;

(2) 1 qt. MgCl 23l/2 Baum;

(3) 2oz. talc;

(4) 8 oz. pozzalana; and,

(5) 2 /2 lbs. of ground silica, mesh;

(b) permitting said first layer to take on an initial set; and,

(c) applying a second layer of cement to said first layer to a predetermined thickness sufiicient, upon the setting thereof to a hard state, to impart support to said first layer, the formulation of said second layer corresponding to that of said first layer with the addition thereto of a predetermined amount of coarse aggregate sufficient to augment the strength thereof.

5. A method according to claim 1, including providing forms on said boundary to effect the formation of pockets in said cementitious material upon the depositing thereof on the backing surface of said cloth within said boundary.

6. A bed for playing carom games and the like comprising:

(a) a playing cloth stretched in a planar orientation and having a playing surface on one side thereof and a backing surface on the other side thereof, said backing surface having interstices formed therein and opening therethrough;

(b) a rigid slab having a planar surface disposed in juxtaposed contiguous contact with the backing surface of said cloth to effect the support thereof; and,

(c) texture formed directly in the planar surface of said slab in intimately penetrating contact with the interstices of the backing surface of said cloth to form a bond therewith.

7. A bed according to claim 6 wherein said slab is formulated of a composition comprising, per 144 cubic inches of volume:

(1) 1 lb. 4 oz. MgO molecular weight 40.32;

(2) 1 qt. MgCl 231/2 Baum;

(3) 2 oz. tale;

(4) 8 oz. pozzalana; and,

(5) 2 /2 lbs. of ground silica, 100 mesh.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,055,788 9/1962 Stanhope et al. 156247 2,740,162 4/1956 Knight 264-257 X 1,036,277 8/1912 Lawrenz 2738 857,581 6/1907 Boyle 264314 ROBERT F. BURNETT, Primary Examiner.

M. A. LITMAN, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US857581 *Jan 23, 1907Jun 25, 1907Monolithic Duct CompanyMethod of molding hollow objects from cement.
US1036277 *Oct 16, 1911Aug 20, 1912William F LawrenzBilliard-table.
US2740162 *Nov 12, 1952Apr 3, 1956Knight Clarence KMolding of a smooth surfaced reinforced cementitious slab
US3055788 *Mar 21, 1958Sep 25, 1962American Metal ProdMethod of bonding heat-hardenable backing materials to woven low friction materials
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3876202 *Aug 6, 1973Apr 8, 1975Marion J AllisonOutdoor pool table
US6945533 *Nov 17, 2000Sep 20, 2005Salerno James MGaming cloth and device for securing cloth to gaming table
Classifications
U.S. Classification442/59, 473/29, 473/31, 473/30, 264/316, 264/257
International ClassificationA47B13/08, A63D15/00
Cooperative ClassificationA63D15/00, A47B13/086
European ClassificationA63D15/00, A47B13/08D