US 3390439 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
APPARATUS FOR CROSS-LAYING FIBROUS MATERIAL Filed Oct. 21, 1965 F. KALWAITES July 2, 1968 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Air INVENTOR. fZAA/K M1 u A/rzs ATTORNEY APPARATUS FOR CROSS-LAYING FIBROUS MATERIAL Filed Oct. 21. 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 I NVENTOR.
5P4 flint 4175s ATTORNEY July 2, 1968 F. KALWAITES APPARATUS FOR CROSS-LAYING FIBROUS MATERIAL Filed Oct. 21, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,390,439 APPARATUS FOR CROSS-LAYING FIBROUS MATERIAL Frank Kalwaites, Somerville, N.J., assignor to Johnson & Johnson, a corporation of New Jersey Filed Oct. 21, 1965, Ser. No. 500,962 9 Claims. (Cl. 281) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Apparatus for the transverse laying of threads comprising two moving surfaces which diverge from a common point. Yarn is supplied to the common point and leader means on the moving surfaces encircle the yarn at this point. The leader means diverge and the thread is extended between leader means on the surfaces. When fully extended the threads in their transverse position are released from the leader means and conveyed away by an endless surface.
This invention relates to method and apparatus for cross-laying fibrous material, and more particularly, to method and apparatus for cross-laying threads at substantially any angle of from about 45 degrees up to and including 90 degrees to a moving surface.
Products, such as paper and nonwoven fabrics, have a long and a cross direction. As these products are made on a continuous basis, the long direction is the machine direction, that is, the direction in which the product is made. The cross direction is transverse to the machine direction, i.e., 90 degrees to the machine direction or what would be termed the width of the product. The majority of these products have good strength in the long direction but because of the nature of the manufacturing processes used, their strength in the cross direction is poor. One Way of improving the strength in the cross direction is to laminate the product with cross-laying materials, such as, a layer of threads with the threads placed at 90 degrees to the machine direction of the product.
Heretofore, there have been numerous methods and apparatus for cross-laying fibrous material, such as, strands, threads, webs, etc. However, most of these have their shortcomings in that the simple and uncomplicated machines do not lay the fibrous material at substantially 90 degrees but are limited to various angle lays. Those machines which have been developed for laying fibrous materials at substantially 90 degrees are either quite complicated or must be operated at relatively low speeds, hence, have considerable economical drawbacks.
Though the term threads will be used throughout the specification, this term is meant to include other similar materials, such as, strands, yarns, cords, filaments, and the like. Such threads may be made of either natural or synthetic material, such as, cotton fibers, the synthetic fibers, paper yarns, continuous filaments, etc. I have developed a new method and a simple apparatus for crosslaying threads at substantially 90 degrees or other angles to a moving surface at relatively high rates of speed.
In accordance with the present invention, my apparatus comprises two endless moving surfaces. These surfaces diverge from each other from substantially a common point. The yarn to be laid is fed to this common point. Mounted on the moving surfaces are leader means for substantially encircling the thread as it is fed to the common point. The leader means, one on each moving surface, substantially encircle the thread at substantially the same time and as the moving surfaces diverge, extend the thread between the leader means on the diverging surfaces. When the thread is fully extended by the leader means, the thread is gripped at its full extension by another moving surface which conveys the thread away from the diverging surfaces. The thread is simultaneously released as it is being conveyed away so that it is in a cross-laid configuration. If desired, the diverging moving surfaces may comprise two pair of parallel endless chains. Mounted between each pair of chains are a multiplicity of carrier bars, and on these bars are a multiplicity of carrier hooks. The hooks of one bar are aligned with the carrier hooks of all other bars. The parallel endless chains are positioned so that the paths of the carrier hooks intersect in a common plane. One pair of endless chains moves in a first diverging path from the common plane and the other pair of endless chains move in a second diverging path from the common plane, the second path being a mirror image of the first. The threads to be crosslaid are fed to the common plane. A thread is encircled by a hook moving in the first diverging plane. It is then encircled by a hook moving in the second diverging plane. As these hooks diverge, the slidably held thread is pulled from its feed means so that it extends between the carrier hooks without breaking as they diverge. This thread is then encircled by a carrier hook moving in the second diverging plane followed by being encircled by a carrier hook moving in the first diverging plane and again extended between said carrier hooks as they diverge. By alternating the plane in which the hook encircling the yarn moves, that is, by going from the first plane to the second, then the second back to the first, allows for substantially a -degree lay whereas if the planes were perfectly alternated, that is, first, second, first, second, a zig-zag lay is formed. When the threads are fully extended between diverging planes, at the outermost reach of the diverging planes, they are grasped at each end by a positive gripping means, released by the carrier hooks and conveyed away in the form of a sheet of cross-laid threads.
The invention will be more fully described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevation view of apparatus for carrying out the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a plan view of the cross-laying portion of the apparatus for FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a front elevation view of the apparatus shown in FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged front view of the carrier bar used in the apparatus shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 5-5 of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged view of the pin belt guiding means shown in FIGURE 2; and
FIGURE 7 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 77 of FIGURE 6.
Referring to FIGURE 1 of the drawings, the apparatus comprises three main parts: the thread feed means 20, the mechanism extending the threads in the crosswise direction 21, and the mechanism 22 for removing the threads from the cross-laying mechanism in the form of a sheet of parallel cross-laid threads. The thread feed means comprises a frame work 25 upon which are mounted bobbins 26. The bobbins are mounted so that the threads may be rapidly removed from the ends of the bobbins. The yarns are fed to the cross-laying mechanism which comprises a base frame 30 from which are mounted two upright frame posts 31 and 32 on the top of which is mounted the upper frame 33. Mounted vertically between the base frame and the upper frame are three shafts 34, 35 and 36. These shafts are mounted for rotation in bearings mounted in the upper frame and the base frame. One of the shafts 36 extends through the base frame and is connected to a suitable driving mechanism. Such driving mechanisms are well known in the art and hence are not shown in the drawing for the sake of clarity. As is more clearly shown in FIGURES 2 and 3, mounted at the upper portion of the shafts are sprockets 37, 38 and 39 and also mounted at the lower portion of the shafts are sprockets 40, 41 and 42. The sprockets at the upper portion are in line and the sprockets at the lower portion are in line. About the upper portion there is an endless upper chain 43, and about the lower portion an endless lower chain 44. Mounted between these chains are a multiplicity of carrier bars 45, an enlargement of which is shown in FIGURES 4 and 5. Mounted adjacent this mechanism is a mirror image of the mechanism. Corresponding parts in the mirror image have corresponding numbers. The mounting is such that the forward flights of the two mechanisms start from substantially a common point B and move in diverging paths about their respective outermost pulleys and then back to said common point.
The carrier bars FIGURES 4 and 5 comprise a stationary shell 60. Inside this shell mounted so that it will move up and down inside the shell is a rod 61. The front side of this shell has a slot 62 extending virtually the entire length of the carrier bar. Mounted on this rod extending out through the slot are a multiplicity of hooks 63. The number of hooks may be as desired. Mounted on the shell are a series of eyes 64. The eyes are mounted so that the opening 65 is extended substantially directly over the respective hooks. Mounted at the bottom of the rod, one on each side, are two plates 66 and mounted between these plates is a wheel 67 which rolls as the rod is being conveyed by the pair of endless chains to which it is attached.
In operation as the carrier bar'passes in its path, it is controlled by the pair of endless chains. As it approaches the common point in position A, the hooks and eyes are open, the roller is then activated by a cam bar 70 fastened to the bottom frame and as the carrier bar passes the common point to which the threads are fed, it is closed thus encircling the thread. It is preferred that pigtails or similar guide means be used to guide the threads directly to the carrier hooks and eliminate any wavering or slipping of threads. The carrier bar then passes in its diverging path while the hook leads the thread, thus pulling the thread off the feed means to point C at which point the roller falls off the cam bar opening the hook and eye and releasing the thread. The carrier bar is then returned to point A and the operation repeated. As may be seen in FIGURE 2, adjacent carrier bars on one pair of endless chains are positioned just between adjacent carrier bars of the opposite chains, so that as a hook and eye on one pair of chains encircle a thread, a hook and eye on the opposite pair of chains substantially immediately encircles that same thread. As these hooks and eyes diverge, a hook and eye on the second pair of carrier chains encircles the thread again and immediately a hook and eye on the other carrier chains encircles the same thread, and these hooks and eyes diverge so that a thread passes between two hooks and eyes on one pair of carrier chains, then passes over to two hooks and eyes on the opposite pair of carrier chains, and so forth. This allows for substantially a 90-degree lay of said threads. If desired, the hooks and eyes may be positioned alternately whereby the thread extends from a hook and eye on one path to a hook and eye on the opposite path and back and forth, thus forming a zig-zag type lay.
As the carrier bars with the hooks and eyes thereon reach the outermost reaches of the diverging paths of the endless chains, just prior to point C a pair of parallel pin belt conveyors 72 pass adjacent the outermost reaches, one conveyor being at the outermost reach of one set of carrier bars, and the other conveyor at the outermost reach of the other set of carrier bars. Along that portion of the pin belt conveyors passing adjacent the carrier bars, there is a pin belt guide. This guide, more clearly shown in FIGURES 6 and 7, comprises a frame 75 to which there is attached the stationary guide means 76, so that a stationary guide loop 77 is approximately in line with each hook of the carrier bar. Fastened adjacent this frame and from the frame is a rod 78. It is fastened from rings 79 from the frame and is movable in these rings. From this rod there are fastened the movable guides 86. The movable guides cooperate with the stationary guide to form closed loops 77. If the rod is moved upwardly, the loops open up and the pins 81 of the pin belt conveyor exposed. Mounted at the bottom of this rod is a wheel 82 which is in line with a roller wheel 83 fastened to the bottom of the carrier bar. The roller wheel is fastened on the shaft 84 at the bottom of the carrier bar, and as the carrier bar passes at its outermost reach, this roller wheel passes under the wheel 82 of the rod on the pin belt guide forcing the pin belt guide upwardly opening the loops. There are stops 90 on the rod to control its length of movement. As the roller at the bottom of the carrier bar opens the pin belt guide, the carrier bar continues its movement and places the cross-laid thread in between the pins on the pin belt conveyor. The guide is then closed and the wheel directly under the bottom of the carrier bar falls off the cam bar, opening the hook and eye, releasing its thread thereby depositing it in the pins of the pin belt conveyor. Though one type of pin belt guide means has been described, other types which will positively insert the yarns between the pins may be used. The threads are then conveyed upwardly and around the pulley 85 and downwardly to another pulley 86 as shown in FIGURE 1. As the pin belt conveyor is returned to the outermost reaches of the carrier bars, a forcing roller 87 pushes the threads oif of the pins onto a conveyor 88. This roller 87 keeps the threads taut at all times, and hence under control which greatly simplifies subsequent processing. The threads are in the form of a sheet of cross-laid threads on the conveyor and may be conveyed away for incorporation or lamination with other materials.
It is to be appreciated that though eight hooks and eyes are shown on the carrier bar, virtually any number may be used from one on up. If a very low number of books and eyes are used, of course, it is possible to place these simply on a chain belt rather than utilizing the pair of parallel chain belts. However, the use of the pair of parallel chain belts allows for more threads to be crosslaid giving greater speeds. The spacing of the carrier bars may be varied over wide limits depending on the configuration of the final desired threads. It is preferred that the spacing of adjacent carrier bars on one set of conveyors be positioned just inside the spacing of adjacent carrier bars on the opposite conveyors to obtain a substantially 90-degree lay. Furthermore, this type of spacing lessens the tension placed on the thread and eliminates -degree turns which may rupture the thread.
The number of hooks and eyes which encircle a thread as it passes from the common point to the outermost reaches of the carrier bars may vary depending on the strength of the thread used. The weaker the thread, the fewer the hooks and eyes used, and the less tension placed on the thread; however, this will slow down the production of the number of threads cross-laid, all other factors being the same.
The cross-laid threads may be laminated with various other materials to form desired end products. For example, cross-laid threads may be laminated between two pieces of paper to produce reinforced paper or between nonwoven fabrics to produce reinforced nonwoven materials.
Although all the various motors, pulleys, belts, gears, or like mechanical means including suitable framing, etc., have not been illustrated in the drawings or described in the specification for driving or supporting the various r0- tating cylinders, rolls, platforms, conveyors in their desired or required speeds or with the rotation indicated by the direct arrow, it is to be appreciated that such elements have been omitted to keep the drawings and the description succinct and to avoid the introduction of matters which are well known expedients in the art. The mechanical driving means and various frames which are used are conventional and merely involve the application of well known mechanical principles.
The above-detailed description of this invention has been given for clearness of understanding only. No unnecessary limitations may be understood therefrom as modifications will be obvious to those skilled in the art.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for laying threads in a transverse direction comprising: two pair of moving surfaces, a plurality of carrier bars mounted between each pair of moving surfaces, a pair of interengageable elements mounted on each carrier bar, the interengageable elements mounted on the carrier bars on one pair of moving surfaces lying in the same horizontal plane as the interengageable elements on the carrier bars mounted on the other pair of moving surfaces, said carrier bars moving in diverging vertical paths which meet at substantially a common point, means for supplying a thread to said common point in a straight path, means for engaging said interengageable elements to encircle the thread at said point whereby as said pairs of elements move in their diverging paths the thread is extended between the outermost reaches of said diverging paths, means for gripping the ends of said thread at said outermost reaches and conveying said thread away from said outermost reaches and means for disengaging said interengageable elements to release the thread.
2. Apparatus for laying threads in a transverse direction comprising: two pair of parallel endless moving surfaces, a multiplicity of carrier means mounted between each pair of moving surfaces, a multiplicity of pairs of interengageable elements mounted in a common line on each of said carrier means, the pairs on one carrier means being aligned with the pairs on all other carrier means, said two pair of parallel endless moving surfaces positioned so that the paths of said pairs of interengageable elements intersect in a common plane and follow diverging paths from said common plane, means for supplying threads to said common plane at each point where said pairs of interengageable elements in the common line meet, said common plane said yarn being supplied in a straight path, means for engaging the interengageable elements to encircle said threads whereby said threads are extended between pairs of interengageable elements at substantially the outermost reaches of said diverging paths, a pair of parallel endless belts having gripping means on the Surface thereof positioned vertically, one at the outermost reach of one pair of parallel endless moving surfaces and the other at the outermost reach of the outer pair of parallel endless moving surfaces, said gripping means engaging said threads at the outermost reach of said diverging paths and means for disengaging said interengageable elements to release said threads whereby said threads extend between said parallel endless belts and transverse to the movement of said parallel endless belts.
3. Apparatus in accordance with claim 2 wherein interengageable elements mounted on adjacent carrier means mounted on one pair of endless moving surfaces are alternately spaced with interengageable elements mounted on adjacent carrier means mounted on the other pair of endless moving surfaces.
4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 5 wherein said two pair of parallel endless moving surfaces are two pair of parallel endless chains.
5. Apparatus in accordance with claim 2 wherein said carrier means are a multiplicity of parallel bars extending vertically between a pair of parallel endless moving surfaces.
6. Apparatus in accordance with claim 2 wherein said interengageable elements are hooks and eyes.
7. Apparatus in accordance with claim 2 wherein the gripping means on the surfaces of the pair of parallel endless belts are pins.
8. Apparatus for laying threads in a transverse direction comprising: two pair of parallel endless chains, a multiplicity of carrier bars mounted between each pair of chains, a multiplicity of carrier hooks mounted in a common line on each of said carrier bars, the carrier hooks of one bar being horizontally aligned with the carrier hooks of all other bars, said pair of parallel endless chains positioned so that the paths of said carrier hooks intersect in a common plane and follow diverging paths from said common plane, means for supplying threads to said common plane at each point Where said carrier hooks in the common line meets said common plane, said yarns being supplied in a straight path, means for engaging said threads with said carrier hooks whereby said threads are extended between carrier hooks at substantially the outermost reaches of said diverging paths, a pair of parallel endless belts having pins on the surface thereof positioned vertically, one at the outermost reach of one pair of parallel endless chains and the other at the outermost reach of the other pair of parallel endless chains, said pins engaging said threads at the outermost reach of said diverging paths and means for releasing the carrier hooks from said threads whereby said threads extend between said parallel endless belts and transverse to the movement of said parallel endless belts.
9. Apparatus in accordance with claim 8 wherein horizontally aligned carrier hooks on adjacent carrier bars on one pair of parallel endless chains are alternately spaced with horizontally aligned carrier hooks on adjacent carrier bars on the other pair of parallel endless chains.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,015,174 1/1912 Gueffroy 156439 1,211,848 1/1917 Howard 156439 2,000,643 5/1935 Morton 281 XR 2,692,635 10/1954 Polley 156-439 2,962,080 11/1960 Hirsch l56440 3,156,027 11/1964 Wellman 28-1 2,743,596 5/1956 Noe.
ROBERT R. MACKEY, Primary Examiner.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,390 ,439 July 2 1968 Frank Kalwaites It is certified that error appears in the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 5, line 52, "outer" should read other Column 6, line 5, the claim reference numeral "5" should read 2 Signed and sealed this 25th day of November 1969.
WILLIAM E. SCHUYLER, JR.
Edward M. Fletcher, Jr.
Commissioner of Patents Att'esting Officer