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Publication numberUS3391036 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 2, 1968
Filing dateDec 23, 1966
Priority dateDec 23, 1966
Publication numberUS 3391036 A, US 3391036A, US-A-3391036, US3391036 A, US3391036A
InventorsBryant Peter James Robert, Owen Albert Richard, Scanes Frank Sidney
Original AssigneeDefence Uk
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Riot control charges
US 3391036 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 3,391,036 RIOT CONTROL CHARGES Peter James Robert Bryant, Salisbury, Albert Richard Owen, Bridgwater, Somerset, and Frank Sidney Scanes,

Salisbury, England, assignors to the Secretary of State for Defence in Her Britannic Majestys Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, London, England No Drawing. Filed Dec. 23, 1966, Ser. No. 604,492

6 Claims. (Cl. 14919) The invention relates to methods for subduing or controlling agitated or aggressive people, such as rioters or lawbreakers, by means of chemical agents hereinafter called riot-control agents which are dispersed into the atmosphere.

British patent specification No. 967,660 describes riot control apparatus comprising a container which houses a charge containing a riot-control agent which is o-fluoro-, o-chloro-, o-bromo-, o-nitro-, o-cyanoor o-hydroxymalononitrile and which has means for emitting the charge so that it is dispersed in a particulate form into the surrounding atmosphere. In a preferred form of apparatus described the charge consists of an orth-o-substituted benzal malononitrile riot-control agent admixed in a self-combustible composition which evolves gas on combustion in which the ortho-substituted benzal malononitrile is entrained without complete decomposition, and suitable self-combustible compositions which may be admixed With the riot-control agent to form the charge are described. Such charges are most often composed of mixture of dry, powdered constituents which have to 'be used in a consolidated state in order to control their rate of burning. In practice, the consolidation by pressing or pelleting the powdered charge can only be carried out satisfactorily in a cylindrical mould and a strict limitation is consequently placed upon the design of the charge container. This design limitation often prevents containers intended for use as projectiles from being formed in the most advantageous shape; for example, a cylindrical hand grenade can be thrown only by a lobbing action, which restricts its range considerably. Furthermore, the packaging and storage of cylindrical containers is inefficient.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an ignitable or self-combustible riot-control charge containing one of said ortho-substituted benzal malononitrile riot-control agents which charge does not require conventional consolidation within a charge container, and which may be filled into a charge container of any desired shape. The present invention also aims at providing such charges which have sufiicient cohesive strength and inertness to be capable of use without requiring to be housed in a container.

According to the invention, an ignitable or self-combustible riot-control charge comprises o-fluoro-, o-chloro-, o-nitro-, o-cyanoor o-hydroxy-benzal (alternatively named benzylidene) malononitrile admixed with a polyester resin to yield a charge which may be formed into any desired shape and subsequently hardened to a solid, cohesive mass.

The ignitable charge in addition preferably contains an oxidising agent and a combustible organic fuel for example, lactose, sucrose or wheat starch. A small quantity of a stabilizer may be included, for example a metal oxide or carbonate, and also an inert absorbent material such as kaolin may be added in minor proportion to avoid local drowning of the charge owing to melting of one of the constituents.

The oxidising agent is preferably an inorganic oxidising agent such as a nitrate, chlorate or perchlorate and the proportion of oxidising agent is chosen to give the ignitable charge a desired rate of burning. A large excess of oxidising agent over that proportion required for com- 3,391,036 Patented July 2, 1968 ice plete combustion of the charge is undesirable as the charge would then be objectionably friction sensitive.

The polyester resin is preferably one which will set i.e. cure, at temperatures below about 60 C. and most conveniently at room temperature in a reasonably short period of time i.e. up to about four hours. A typical polyester resin which may be used in the riot-control charge provided by the present invention consists of 30% styrene and 70% of a polyester consisting of linear condensation products of propylene glycol with phthalic or maleic acid. However, a wide variety of commercially available polyester resins may be used includes A250, 262/32, and 2591 (British Resin Products Ltd.); SR17438, 17449, 18979, 19095, 19229 (Bakelite Ltd); Crystic 189, 195, 197 and Marco 5B.28D (Scott B-ader and Co.

The curing of the polyester resin may be initiated by a peroxide catalyst such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide. A suitable commercially-available catalyst is Cello'bond X7764 (British Resin Products). A promoter such as cobalt naphthenate may be used advantageously and a suitable commercially-available promoter is Cellobond X7761 (British Resin Products).

The polyester resin may replace part or all of the proportion of fuel provided in self-combustible charges described in British patent specification No. 967,650 in addition to acting as a binder for the other charge ingredients.

When admixed with the said ortho-substituted benzal malononitrile derivatives and any desired additional ingredients, the polyester resin yields a charge which is initially in a plastic condition and which consequently may be readily filled into containers of any shape and therein finally set to a solid charge. This solid charge has better storage characteristics than prior charges since the polyester resin tends to encapsulate and thus protect the other ingredients of the charge from the storage environment. Furthermore, the resistance of the new charges to water is improved by the resinous coating, and the hazards,

from dust for example, of handling these charges are much reduced.

The ignitable charges provided by the present invention are solid when set and have considerable cohesive strength owing to the presence of the polyester resin and it is clearly within the scope of the present invention to provide unconfined free-burning blocks of resin-bonded charges which are water-proof, require no special packaging and are strong enough to be propelled 'by conventional methods.

A typical example of a process for preparing the ignitable charges provided by the invention will now be described.

The finely-divided solid components of the charge are sieved to remove objectionable aggregates and weighed quantities are mixed by hand or in a drum mixer and the mixture is sieved once more. An excess of the polyester resin is then weighed out and a catalyst and any promoter required is added at this stage. The correct amount of catalysed resin is then poured into a mechanical mixer (for example, a Beken Duplex Mixer) and the mixed solid components are added. Mixing is carried out for at least 15 minutes to yield a plastic composition which may be filled into a container of any desired shape by any suit-able method (e.'g. hand-stemming, pouring or extrusion chosen to suit the viscosity of the plastic composition).

A typical composition range by weight for ignitable charges in accordance with the invention is as follows:

Percent o-Substituted benzal malononitrile 25-40 Polyester resin 15-30 Oxidizing agent 20-35 Oxidizable fuel 0-15 Other conventional additives. including inert ipsor ents such as kaolin, may be included in the :narges.

Particular examples of ignitable charges will now ae described. Proportions are given as percentages b weight.

Example 1 tirrcen o-Chloro benzal malononitrile -1 Polyester resin (British Resin Products $162.32; .5 Potassium chlorate oxidizing agent q Lactose fuel Kaolin This charge has a burning rate or 0.15 cmm sec. and disperses into the atmosphere unchanged up to about 90% of its o-chloro-benzal malononltrtle content.

Example 2 tutcent o-Chloro benzal malononitrile u Polyester resin British Resin Product's A262/32l ,8! Potassium chlorate oxidising agent -J This charge is a slower burning charge than that or Example 1 (having a burning rate of 0.015 a cmfi sec.) in which conventional fuel has been replaced completely by polyester resin.

Example llllt'tlfinl o-Chloro-benzal malononitrile N Polyester resin (British Resin Product's A262/32) .0 Potassium chlorate oxidising agent ,J Lactose fuel The burning rate of this composition is 0.67 1,. cm.-=sec.

Example 4 ttrcen o-Chloro-benzal malononitrile to Polyester resin {British Resin Products A262/32l .0

Potassium chlorate oxidising agent -1 Kaolin The burning rate of this composition iS 0.015 cms sec.

liixample 5 o-Chloro-benzal malononitrile Polyester resin (British Resin Product's A262/32 Potassium chlorate oxidising agent -1 Lactose fuel The burning rate of this composition 0.052 2.. emf sec.

Example 6 tlrcent o-Chloro-benzal malonomtrile .ti

Polyester resin {British Resin Products A262. 32) Potassium chlorate oxidising agent Lactose fuel mposition 1 Percent wopnen resin 37.5 rdener 7.5 tutllin 10.0 i tassium :nlorate 45.0

.Iupcopnen Resorcmal Resin is manufactured by Leicester m Lovell and Company Ltd.

lllglipmposltion 2 Percent ll'uacopnen resin 37.5 rtrdener 7.5 tittassium :nlorate 55 t ed Phosphorus 50 ife claim:

w ll! tgnitable or self-combustible riot-control compotttpn which comprises, o-fiuoro-, o-chloro-, o-bromo-, 0- :u;ro-. ul-cyano-. pr o-hydroxy-benzal malononitrile ad- .nlxed with a polester resin.

tn tgnitable r self-combustible riot-control comsition which comprises by weight about -40% 0- .oro-. a-cnloro-. p-bromo-, o-nitro-, o-cyano-, or o-hyuxy-malononltrile, about 15-30% polyester and about oxidising agent.

A composition as claimed in claim 2 and in which lltll oxidising agent is potassium chlorate.

ll. A composition as claimed in claim 2 and in which and polyester resin consists by weight of about 30% i5 ttyrene and about of the linear condensation prodtcts from propylene glycol and phtthalic or maleic acid.

A composition as claimed in claim 2 and which contlns up to l5% by weight of an oxidisable fuel.

A. composition as claimed in claim 5 in which said is lactose.

l llleferences Cited 11 WITED STATES PATENTS H.335 #3967 White et al. 1674O lENJAMIN PADGETT, Primary Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3314835 *Apr 20, 1965Apr 18, 1967Northrop Carolina IncSmoke generating compositions
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3856933 *Sep 8, 1970Dec 24, 1974Dow Chemical CoPyrotechnic disseminating system
US4115167 *Nov 11, 1974Sep 19, 1978The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyCastable binder for cast plastic-bonded explosives
US4777032 *Aug 14, 1986Oct 11, 1988Societe Nationale Des Poudres Et ExplosifsPaper distributing an active compound on burning, and a pyrotechnic distributor using such paper
DE2320103A1 *Apr 19, 1973Oct 31, 1973Ispra Israel Prod Res Co LtdHomogene, schaeumbare, zu traenen reizende zubereitung
DE3418116C1 *May 16, 1984Sep 5, 1985Feistel Pyrotech FabPyrotechnic charges for generating an irritant action
WO2016097826A1Dec 19, 2014Jun 23, 2016TubitakO -chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (cs) based self-combustible pyrotechnic compositions which have low ignition temperatures
U.S. Classification149/19.5, 514/520, 149/19.7, 424/42, 424/40, 149/117
International ClassificationC06D7/00
Cooperative ClassificationY10S149/117, C06D7/00
European ClassificationC06D7/00