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Publication numberUS3392848 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 16, 1968
Filing dateJun 6, 1966
Priority dateJun 6, 1966
Publication numberUS 3392848 A, US 3392848A, US-A-3392848, US3392848 A, US3392848A
InventorsBoulais Fred P, Johnson Carl B, Kennedy Mcconnell
Original AssigneeInterlake Steel Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pallet rack
US 3392848 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July' 16, 196s K 'MCCONNELL ET AL 3,392,848

' PALLET RACK Filed June 6. 1966 4 Sheets-Sheet l Car' Za/wwwa QQ/Wed zfaals'.

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@wie Mamef 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 m ya fiez/e fz Zon; /ezzzeafy /Vc @zef Gem /cfwgrzsow/ PALLET RACK QQ i real ,au @als K. MCCONNELL ET AL July 16, 1968 Filed June IH'WHIl July 16, 1968 K. MCCONNELL ET AL PALLET RACK 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed June 6, 1966 eey,

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PALLET RACK 4 Sheets-Sheet Filed June 6, 1966 United States Patent O 3,392,848 PALLET RACK Kennedy McConnell, Riverdale, Carl B. Johnson, Odell,

and Fred P. Boulais, Pontiac, Ill., assignors to Interlake Steel Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of New York Filed June 6, 1966, Ser. No. 555,351 18 Claims. (Cl. 211-176) ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE A connection between a beam and an upright having stud and keyhole connectors which can be reversed to provide interchangeable use of identical parts for both right and left hand connections.

This invention relates to the art of support structures commonly referred to as pallet racks and the connections between certain basic components of the pallet rack.

In U.S. Patent 3,070,237 issued Dec. 25, 1962 to Thomas I. Fullerton et al. is shown the basic type of pallet rack structure of which this invention is an improvement. In that p-atent is shown the type of pallet rack which employs vertical upright members spaced from each other by means of horizontal beams which join the upright members together. The horizontal beams are provided with studs at their ends which engage keyholes extending in vertical rows along the upright members for purposes of connecting the beams to the upright members. In addition, that patent shows a releasable locking means which, when engaged, prevents accidental displacement of a beam relative to the `upright members. The locking means is an integral part of the beam and is one which is used today on heavy duty pallet rack and the locking member serves `as a bearing means as well as a locking device.

For the sake of economy and when heavy duty applications are not involved, the locking means is commonly of a different type than that shown by the U.S. Patent 3,070,237. Instead, the locking pin is employed which is connected to one end of a leaf spring arm which has its other end either permanently secured or detachably mounted on the ends of the beam. The advantage of the detachable mounting is that it permits the locking pin arm to be removed and replaced readily if broken, Without removal of the beam from the pallet rack. When the arm is riveted or otherwise more permanently secured t-o the beam, removal of the beam from the pallet rack is usually required for repair.

Even with the detachable type of locking pin, there have been certain ditiiculties. These locking pins are ordinarily located on an end plate welded to the beam end. Because the beam connections to the upright must be made along both sides of the upright, each beam must be capable of both left-hand and right-hand connections to the upright. Although prior devices permitted such mounting, they -oftentimes have required the use of two different end plates, one for a right-hand connection and the other for a left-hand connection. This increases the manufacturing problems and requires a double inventory of similar parts. It is one of the important objects of this invention to provide a connection between a beam member and an upright member which employs a single end plate construction which can be used for either lefthand or right-hand connections.

In prior devices, it has been possible to invert the beam and connect it to an upright with the connecting studs in place, or substantially so, but with the locking pin improperly placed, although its outward appearance in- "ice dicates that the locking pin is properly assembed. It is another object of this invention to provide a locking pin end plate construction which provides a visual indicator when the beam is inverted and the locking pin is irnproperly positioned. Further, provision is also made for permitting the locking pin to be easily reversed -into positi-on to correct the condition.

In order toxaccomplish the `above objective, anend plate construction is provided which has two symmetrically positioned keyholes for accommodating the locking pin supporting arm in two different positions inverted relative t-o each other.

It is another object of the invention to provide keyholes for connecting the locking pin arm to the end plates, which keyholes have a recessed portion which permit the arms to be mounted in a non-protruding manner relative to the inside surface of the end plate so that there is no interference between the connecting portions of the arm with portions of an upright when the beam is connected to the upright. This aiords the advantage of permitting a convenient location of the keyholes for the locking pin arm without requiring accommodation of these keyholes to the location of non-interfering parts of the upright. On prior devices, With the connecting means of the locking pin arm protruding, it was necessary to have alignment of the locking means with a recess or opening in the upright.

Other objects and advantages of the invention should become apparent upon reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 shows a perspective View of a portion of an upright and an end portion of a beam in preparation for connecting the two members together;

FIG. 2 is a -rear elevation partially cutaway showing an upright member with beam portions connected from it extending in opposite directions;

FIG. 3 shows ya -beam portion of the same construction as shown on the left in FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 shows an enlarged `sectional view along the lines 4 4 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 'shows a perspective view of the locking pin lever employed in the connections of the beams -to the upright;

FIG. 6 shows an enlarged sectional view similar to FIG. 4 with the locking pin arm improperly positioned;

FIG. 7 shows an enlarged view corresponding to the left-hand portion of FIG. 2, except with the locking pin lever mispositioned as shown in FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 shows a left-hand connection of a beam and an upright having only a single row of keyholes;

FIG. 9 shows a right-hand connection of a beam to an upright having a single row of keyholes;

FIG. 10 is a rear elevation partially cutaway showing an upright member with beam portions connected from it in opposite directions similar to FIG. 2, except that an alternate be-am portion const-ruction is illustrated and;

FIG. 1l shows a sectional View along the lines 11-11 of FIG. 10.

As viewed in FIG. l, the basisy components of pallet rack are indiacted. They consist of an upright member or column 1 and a horizontal beam 2, Both the column 1 and the beam 2 are C-shaped in cross-section and are substantially hollow tubes. The particular structure shown is by way of example and many other cross-sectional shapes are possible. The 4upright member is provided with two side walls 1a and 1b and a front wall 1c.

one direction and the keyholes 3b being canted in the opposite direction. Each of the keyholes 3a and 3b is provided with an enlarged upper portion 3c connected to a downwardly extending elongated and convergent narrower portion 3d, each large portion 3c and a corresponding narrow portion 3d forming the keyhole shape.

The beam 2 is welded at its end 2a to an L-shaped wall 4a of an end plate 4. The wall 4a is connected along a corner 4b to another wall 4c at a right angle to it to provide the L-shape for the end plate 4. The wall 4c is provided with two head studs or connectors 5, one adjacent the top of the end plate and the other adjacent the bottom of it and they are of a rivet type which are secured to the wall 4c by means fo their narrow ends 5a being passed through openings in the wall 4c and peened over. These could just as well be welded or otherwise secured to the wall 4c.

The formation of the heads on the studs is by means of radially extended anges b which extend at a radius greater than the narrow main body portions 5c of the studs. The end plate 4 is connected to the upright 1 by inserting the heads 5b of the studs 5 through enlarged portions 3c of the first keyholes 3a with the heads 5b protruding behind the front wall 1c of upright member 1. The beam and its end plate 4 are then moved downward vertically to allow the body portions 5c of the studs to travel along the narrow portions 3d of the first keyholes 3a. The size of the enlarged portions 3c are such that the flanged heads 5b of the studs readily pass through them and the widths of the narrow portions 3d of the first keyholes are approximately the same dimension as the body portions 5c of the studs. As the studs 5 are lowered with the end plate 4, the flanged heads 5b are located behind the front wall 1c along the regions of the lower portions 3d so that the end plate is thereby connected to the upright 1.

With the narrow portions 3d sloped or canted in the direction as indicated in FIG 1, the studs 5, as they travel downwardly along the narrow portions 3d, draw the end plate 4 in a direction toward the side wall 1a of the upright member 1. In this way, a snug fit of the end plate 4 against the upright 1 is insured.

The end plate 4 has its wall 4c also provided with two second keyholes 6 which have enlarged portions 6a connected to narrower portions 6b. The second keyholes 6 accommodate a locking pin arm or lever 7 which is particularly shown in FIG. 5. This locking pin lever 7 consists of a strip of flat springy metal, such as spring steel, which has an outwardly turned upper end 7a which is used for facilitating manipulation ot' it. Its lower end is irregularly curved to provide a smooth bearing surface 7b which is hereinafter more fully described. Adjacent this portion 7b is a pin 8 which has a narrow body portion 8a connected by riveting or otherwise secured to the arm 7 and it has an enlarged head portion 8b formed by a radially extending ange larger in diameter than the body portion 8a. Adjacent the upper end 7a is a somewhat larger locking pin 9 which is likewise riveted or otherwise fastened to the arm 7. When the arm 7 is assembled to the end plate 4, the pin 8 is inserted through the enlarged portion 6a of a second keyhole 6 and the narrow body portion 8a of the pin 8 is guided along the narrow portion 6b of the second keyhole 6. This positioning of the pin 8 along the narrow portion 6b retains the arm 7 attached to the end plate 4 because the enlarged portion of the pin backs against the inner surface of the wall 4c in the regions along the narrow surface portion 6a. The bearing surface 7b is located so that it bears against the front surface of the wall 4c when the pin 8 is located in one of the second keyholes 6. The distance between the second keyholes 6 as related to the distance the locking pin 9 is located from the pin 8 is such that the locking pin 9 will align and pass through the enlarged portion 6a of the second keyhole opposite to the one in which the pin 8 is located when the pin 8 is bottomed in the end Of the narrow portion 6b. Since the second keyholes 6 are identical but oppositely positioned and located, the pin 3 can be removed from one and positioned in the other as desired so that the locking pin 9 can protrude in either enlarged portion 6a of either second keyhole 6.

When the end plate 4 is attached to the upright 1 by means of the two headed studs 5, their space from each other is the same as the spacing of every third first keyhole 3a or 3b so that there is a first keyhole 3a in between the two keyholes 3a engaged by the headed studs 5. The spacing of the second keyholes 6 withrespect to this in-between first keyhole 3a is such that the enlarged portion 6a of one of the second keyholes aligns with the enlarged portion 3c of a first keyhole 3a when the end plate 4 is fully attached to the upright 1 by means 0f the studs 5. With this arrangement, the locking pin 9 can protrude simultaneously through the enlarged p0rtion 6a of the one of the second keyholes 6 and the enlarged portion 3c of the first keyhole 3 with which it aligns.

As indicated in FIGS. l, 2 and 4, the locking pin 9 aligns with the enlarged portion 6a of the upper second keyholes 6 in the enlarged portion 3c of a first keyhole 3a when the pin 8 is located in the lower of the second keyholes 6.

The purpose of the locking pin 9 is to prevent inadvertent elevation of the beam 2 relative to the upright 1 which might happen by accidental movement of the forks of a lift truck or collision with other moving vehicles, or otherwise.

It should be noted that when the enlarged portion 6a of the upper of the second keyholes 6 aligns with the portion 3c of a first keyhole 3a, the enlarged portion 6a of the other of the second keyholes does not align with the enlarged portion 3c of any of the rst keyholes 3a. This indicates that the arm 7 can be assembled properly in only one way. If it is improperly inverted, it will as` sume a position as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 whereby the locking pin 9 will pass through an enlarged portion 6a of a keyhole 6, but it will not pass through an enlarged portion 3c of a first keyhole 3a because there will be no enlarged portion 3c in alignment with it. This condition is corrected by inverting the arm 7.

The significance of this is that the arm 7 will noticeably extend from the front surface of the wall 4c of the end plate 4 to provide a visual indicator that the arm 7 is improperly placed. The operator can then immediately determine the error and correct it. On other devices, it is possible to assemble a beam to an upright with a similar type of locking pin arrangement without any indication that there is an improper assembly. The result in such a situation is that the locking pin 9, or its counterpart, is then ineffective as the intended safety feature.

The other advantage of the arrangement shown by having the arm 7 reversible and symmetrical placement of the second keyholes 6 as shown, is that it permits the use of a single construction for the end plate 4 which can be inverted to provide a connection of this same end plate to either the left-hand or right-hand sides of the upright 1. In FIG. 2 is indicated how two beams are connected, one on either side of the upright 1. In FIG. 2 is indicated how two beams are connected, one on either side of the upright 1. In each case the arm 7 has its locking pin in the up position. However, both of the beams can be removed from the sides to which they are connected and inverted and interchanged with each other. When doing this, in order to get the benefit of the locking pin 9, it is only necessary to also invert the arm 7 relative to its particular end plate 4.

In this manner, there is provided a very simple means for interchangeability and versatility of parts because a single design of end plate 4 is used and the removable arm 7 is employed. If an arm 7 is damaged or broken, it can readily be replaced `with another. On prior art devices,

the varms of this type are not necessarily removable, but are riveted or otherwise secured to the beam member.

As indicated in FIGS. l and 3, the arm 7 can be pivoted on the pin 8 to move the locking pin 9 clear of an enlarged portion 6a of a second keyhole 6.

As also shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, each of the second keyholes 6 -have a coined or recessed portion 6c surrounding the narrow portion 6b. This recessed portion 6c is depressed relative. to the surface of the wall 4c by a dimension of at least the thickness of the flanged head 8b of the pin 8. In this way, the flanged head 8b can be mounted on the wall 4c in a non-protruding manner. With this arrangement, no special cutouts must be provided in the upright 1 to accommodate the travel of the pin 8 nor, in the alternative, is it necessary to insure that the pin 8 always aligns with at least a portion of a first keyhole 3a or 3b.in order to prevent interference of the pin 8 with portions of the upright 1 during assembly of the beam to the upright.

The first keyholes 3a have been distinguished from the firstkeyholes 3b only because of their difference in slope. Actually, the significance is that they 'are mirror images of each other and the first keyholes 3a accommodate beams connected on one side of the upright 1 while the keyholes 3b accommodate beams connected =on the opposite side of the upright 1.

In FIGS. 8 and 9 another embodiment of the invention is shown. Although identical beams and end plates as already des-cribed are employed, a different upright 9a is used..It has a single row of keyholes 10 which have enlarged upper portions 10a and narrower lower portions 10b, but they are not sloped one way or the other. With this arrangement, a beam can be connected from either side of the upright 9a by means of the single row of keyholes 10. In the first embodiment described, two rows of keyholes are employed on the upright 1 and, with that construction, it is necessary to employ one row for connection from one side 0f the upright and the other row for connection onthe other side. The main reason for two rows is to provide the tightening action obtained by having the second keyholes 3a and 3b oppositely sloped or canted. With the construction shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, the keyholes 10 do not provide this tightening action in either direction. If such an action is required, it is necessary to slope the holes in one direction or the other, but this may limit the ability to properly attach beams with the tightening action from both sides of the upright 9a.

Still another embodiment of the invention is shown in FIGS. l0 and 11. Whereas the previous embodiments shown indicate structures wherein the pin 9 was accommodated through aligned first and second keyholes where only a single second keyhole on the beam portion aligned with a single first keyhole on the upright 1, the structure shown in FIGS. l0 and 1l indicate an arrangement Whereby there can be simultaneous alignment of tWo pairs of first and second keyholes. The advantage of this arrangement is that the locking pin arm 11 can be employed in either the position shown in FIGS. 10 and ll or in and endto-end inverted position. In either case lthe locking pin 11a on it can pass through a second keyhole 6 aligned with a first keyhole 3a. As a practical matter, this constr-uction is completely foolproof because the locking pin 11a will always fit properly in a manner to be functional as a locking pin which prevents relative movement between the upright member 1 and a beam member 2.

The reason that there is alignment of two pairs of first and second keyholes is because the headed studs 5 are spaced from each other by a distance equal to the spacing of every fourth first keyhole 3a along the upright 1. Further, the spacing of the second keyholes from each other is such that their enlarged portions 6a are approximately equal to the increment of spacing between adjacent first keyholes 3a. Because the spacing of the second keyholes 6 is different than on the previous embodiments shown, the length of the locking pin arm 11 is longer than lche locking pin arm 7, and the spacing of the pin 8 from the locking pin 11a is also different. Otherwise, the construction is substantially the same as for the other embodiments. Further, it is apparent that the same end plate 12 can be used for either left-hand or righthand connections to an upright 1 so that a beam 2 can be inverted and reconnected with either of its ends connected by either a leftahand or right-hand connection. With this arrangement, the same locking pin arm 11 can be employed and it makes no difference in which end-toend position the locking pin arm 11 is connected.

Although the invention has been shown in all of its embodiments with horizontally positioned beams connected to vertical uprights, it is clear that the connections shown can be made between beams and upright members which are positioned at different angles and what is shown as an upright `could just as Well be a horizontal member and what is shown as the horizontal beam could be positioned as a vertical member. Further, even though the beam members are indicated as having connectors at both ends, they can just as well be cantilever type members with connectors at one end only. Also, they need not be actual beam members. Instead, they might just as well be relatively short supports in many different forms.

Although only certain embodiments of the invention have been shown and described, it should be understood that the invention can be Imade in many different ways without departing from the true scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

We claim:

1. In a connection between a beam and an upright comprising, a first row of substantially equally spaced first keyholes extending along the upright, a pair of headed studs secured to a plate portion on the end of the beam and spaced from each other by the same spacing as the distance between every third keyhole of said first row of keyholes, a pair of second keyholes in said plate portion along said end lof the beam, each keyhole being shaped -With an enlarged portion connected to a narrow portion, the spacing of the pair of second keyholes being such that the enlarged portion of one of the second keyholes aligns with the enlarged portion of one of the first keyholes when the pair of headed studs engage the narrow portions of two of the first keyholes.

2. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 1 characterized by, the spacing of the pair of second keyholes permitting the beam to be inverted and have its headed studs engaging the narrow portions of two keyholes of a second row of first keyholes extending alo-ng the upright with the enlarged portion of the other of said pair of second keyholes aligned with the enlarged portion of .one of the first keyholes of the second row.

3. In a connection between Ia beam and an upright as defined by claim 1 characterized by, said beam carrying a locking pin on the plate portion which extends through the aligned enlarged portion of said one of the second keyholes and the enlarged portion of said one of the first keyholes.

`4|. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 2 characterized by, said beam carrying a locking pin on the plate portion which can be repositioned on the beam to extend through either of said pair of second keyholes.

5. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 3 characterided by, said locking pin being connected to an elongated arm, said arm being connected to the plate portion on the beam by detachable means.

6. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 4 characterized by, said locking pin being connected to an elongated arm, said arm being connected to the plate portion on the beam by detachable means.

7. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim characterized by, said detachable means comprising a shouldered pin engaging either of the narrow portions of the pair of second keyholes so that the elongated arm can be reversed in position end to end.

8. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 6 characterized by, said detachable means comprising a shouldered pin removably engaging either of the pair of second keyholes so that the elongated arm can be repositioned end to end.

9. In a connection between a beam and an upright cornprising, a first row and a second row of substantially equally spaced first keyholes extending parallel to each other in a Vertical direction along the upright, a pair of studs secured to a plate portion on the end of the beam and spaced from each other by the distance between every third keyhole of the first and second row, a pair of second keyholes in the plate portion on the end of the beam between the pair of studs, each of the rst keyholes and the second keyholes being shaped with an enlarged portion connected to a narrow portion, the spacing of the pair of second keyholes from each other being less than the spacing of the enlarged portions of two adjacent first keyholes in a single row so that only a first of the pair of second keyholes can concentrically align with one of the first keyholes when the end of the beam is connected to the upright with the pair of studs engaged with two of the first keyholes along said first row, and a locking pin on the plate portion extending through said aligned keyholes.

10. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 9 characterized by, the second of said pair of second keyholes being positioned relative to the pair of studs so that it can concentrically align with one of the first keyholes of said second row to accommodate said locking pin when the beam is inverted and connected to the upright with the pair of studs engaged with two of the first keyholes along said second row, thereby permitting both right hand and left hand stud and locking pin connections of the beam to the upright with the same beam end.

11. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 3 characterized by, said locking pin being supported on an elongated arm having pin means for selectively detachably securing the arm in either of the pair of second keyholes, said locking pin being secured to -the elongated arm at a location from the pin means sufficient to permit the locking pin to concentrically align with the enlarged portion of the one of the pair of second keyholes which is not engaged by the pin means.

12. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 11 characterized by, said pin means having a headed ange at its free end which is larger than the narrow portions of the second keyholes so that the elongated arm is detachably secured in either of the second keyholes by means of the headed flange bearing against the regions of the rear face of the beam end immediately surrounding the second keyholes.

13. In a connection between a beam and an upright as defined by claim 12 characterized by, said regions being recessed relative to the general rear face of the beam by an amount at least equal to the thickness of the headed flange on the pin means to thereby permit non-protruding mounting of the pin means in either of the second keyholes relative to the general rear face of the beam.

14. An end fiange construction for use in connecting a beam member to an elongated member having at least one row of substantially equally spaced first keyholes, the end fiange being connected to one end of a beam member, comprising, a stud secured to the flange, a pair of second keyholes in the fiange, each of the first keyholes and the second keyholes being shaped with an enlarged portion connected to a narrow portion, the spacing of the second keyholes from each other being less than the spacing of the enlarged portions of two adjacent first keyholes so that only a first of the pair of second keyholes can concentrically align with one of the first keyholes when the end fiange is connected to the elongated member with said stud engaged with one of the first keyholes, said aligned keyholes accommodating a locking pin.

15. An end fiange construction as defined by claim 14 characterized by, the second of said pair of second keyholes being positioned relative to the stud so that said second keyhole cari concentrically align with one of the first keyholes to accommodate the locking pin when the beam is inverted and connected to the elongated member with the stud reengaged with another first keyhole, thereby permitting both right hand and left hand stud and locking pin connections of the beam to the elongated member while employing the same flange.

16. A connection between a beam member and an elongated member having at least one row of substantially equally spaced first keyholes, comprising, a connector secured to a plate portion on the beam member, a pair of second keyholes in the plate portion on the beam member adjacent the connector, the first keyholes and the second keyholes each being shaped with an enlarged portion through which a locking pin fits, the spacing of the second keyholes from each other being less than the spacing of the enlarged portions of two adjacent first keyholes so that only a first of the pair of second keyholes is concentrically aligned with one of the first keyholes when the connector on the plate portion on the beam member is connected to another of the first keyholes on the elongated member, said aligned keyholes accommodating a locking pin.

17. A connection between a beam member and an elongated member having at least one row of substantially equally spaced first keyholes, comprising, a connector secured to a plate portion on the beam member, a pair of second keyholes in the plate portion on the beam member adjacent the connector, the first keyholes and the second keyholes each being shaped with an enlarged portion through which a locking pin fits, the spacing of the second keyholes from each other relative to the spacing of the first keyholes from each other being such that at least one of the enlarged portions of the pair of second keyholes is concentrically aligned with one of the first keyholes when the connector on the plate portion on the beam meinber is connected to one of the first keyholes on the elongated member, said aligned keyholes accommodating a locking pin.

18. A connection between a beam member and an elongated member having at least one row of substantially equally spaced first keyholes comprising, a connector secured to a plate portion on the beam member, a pair of second keyholes in the plate portion on the beam member adjacent the connector, the rst keyholes and the second keyholes each beingshaped with an enlarged portion through which a locking pin fits, the spacing of the enlarged portions of the second keyholes from each other being substantially equal to the spacing of the enlarged portions of the first keyholes so that each enlarged portion of the second keyholes align with respective enlarged portions of first keyholes when the connector on the plate portion on the beam member is connected to one of the first keyholes on the elongated member, each pair of aligned keyholes accommodating a locking pin.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,838,352 12/1931 Anderson 211--176 XR 3,070,237 12/1962 Fullerton et al. 287-18936 3,055,462 9/1962 Steele 211-148 3,271,059 9/1966 Pearson 287-l89.36 3,273,720 9/1966 SeiZ 211-177 XR ROY D. FRAZIER, Primary Examiner.

W. D. LOULAN, Assistant Examiner.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification211/192, 248/221.12, 403/315
International ClassificationA47B57/50, A47B57/00
Cooperative ClassificationA47B57/50
European ClassificationA47B57/50