US 3393542 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 23, 1968 A. CREPINSEK ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK 9 Sheets-Sheet l Filed May 2S, 1965 July 23, 1968 A. cREPlN SEK 3,393,542
ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK Filed May 28, 1965 9 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Alois Crap/hse# ATTORNEYS v July 23, 1968 A. CREPINSEK ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK 9 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed May 28, 1965 INVENTOR. Ala/'s Crep/hselr A Harneys A. CREPINSEK ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK July 23, 1968 9 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed May 28, 1965 INVENTOR. Alois repl'nsek BY M YW Attorneys July 23, 1968 A. cREPlNsEK 3,393,542
ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK Filed May 28, 1965 9 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR. Ala/'s Crepinsek A rtorneys July 23, 1968 A. CREPINSEK 3,393,542
ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK Filed May 28, 1965 9 Sheets-Sheet 6 mi INVENTOR. l; A/o/s Crep/'nse/r L 56o BY Attorneys July 23, 1968 A. cREPlNsEK ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK 9 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed May 28, 1965 INVENTOR. A /o/'s Crepinsek A Horny/5 July 23, 1968 A. cREPlNsEK 3,393,542
ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK Filed May 28, 1965 9 Sheets-Sheet 8 INVENTOR. Ala/'s Creplhsek Attorneys July 23, 1968 A. cREPlNssEK 3,393,542
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR CK United States Patent O 3,393,542 ROTARY CYLINDER LOCK Alois Crepnsek, Los Gatos, Calif., assignor to 777 Lock & Engineering Corporation, Campbell, Calif., a corporation of New Jersey Filed May 28, 1965, Ser. No. 459,644 11 Claims. (Cl. 70-358) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A rotatable plug and cylinder lock with two rows of tumbler pins positioned in the plug and housing on each side of the longitudinally extending key slot which is -provided in the plug such that the axis of the key inserted into the key slot substantially coincides with the axis of the plug. The key is provided with recesses on both sides thereof for simultaneously receiving the inner ends of the tumbler pins. In one embodiment of the invention, the axes of all of the tumbler pins are parallel and in other embodiments they are tilted away from each other varying amounts. The tumbler pins in each of the two rows are arranged in pairs and one of the pins of each pair are provided with means to prevent the rotation thereof on their axes. In another embodiment of the invention the pins of each pair are disposed at acute angles with respect to each other, or they may be parallel to each other and disposed at an acute angle with respect to the side of the key which is provided with angular recesses adapted to beengaged thereby.
This invention relates to a different type of key and cylinder lock assembly for door and similar type locks.
Accordingly, it is the principal object of this invention to provide a new type of key and cylinder lock assembly which provides greater security than the conventional type of unit.
Another object of the invention is to provide a precision type of lock and cylinder assembly which is more versatile than the prior assemblies, and can be interchangeably used with locks previously manufactured for use with the conventional type of cylinder lock assembly.
It is another object of this invention to provide a at key with the cylinder lock assembly which has many more times the possible combinations than the conventional type cylinder assembly and which is no larger than the conventional type assembly.
A further object of this invention is to provide a flat key which can be used in such assembly and which cannot be copied as is the case with a conventional type key.
It is also an object of this invention to provide a cylinder lock assembly which operates with a plain flat key requiring no special type key blanks for master type keys.
Another object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock assembly wherein the key may be inserted in the key slot and operate the lock cylinder irrespective of the position of the top and bottom side of the key.
Another object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock which uses a simple master key rather than the complicated key blanks used at present.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a jimmy proof and pick proof cylinder lock assembly.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock key which is much more diicult to duplicate than the conventional type keys.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a 3,393,542 Patented July 23, 1968 ICC cylinder core and lock assembly which uses more pins than the conventional type of cylinder lock assembly.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock assembly using circular cross-section pins which are disposed adjacent each other in relatively sliding engagement, and which prevent each other from rotating.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a set of core pins and matching cylinder pins which have matching circular surfaces corresponding to the section of the arc of the outer cylinder core surface which they intersect.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a plurality of longitudinal rows of core pins which engage the side surface of a flat key.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a cylinder core pin having a flat cylinder pin engaging surface.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock assembly wherein a key having depressions is used to engage the core pins projecting into the key slot.
Another object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock assembly wherein core pins have a conical key engaging forward end.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock assembly wherein the core pin axes are disposed in a plane perpendicular to the key axis at varying angles with the side face of the key.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock assembly having core pins which engage both sides of the key.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a key and cylinder lock assembly wherein guide slots with angularly inclined side faces are used.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a cylinder lock assembly wherein spherical balls mounted in the key engaging end of the core pins are used to engage the depressions in the key.
A further object of this invention is to provide a rotatable lock and cylinder assembly key of great versatility, which can be inserted in a slot with either of two edges facing upward.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a precision manufactured lock and key assembly wherein a plurality of pin tumbler rows simultaneously engage and cooperate with the key surface.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of a preferred embodiments thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which- FIGURE 1 shows an exploded view in perspective of my cylinder lock invention.
FIGURE 2 shows a horizontal cross-section through my lock assembly with the key in position in the lock.
FIGURE 3 shows a cross-section view along line 3--3 of FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 4 is a side elevation of the key used in FIG- URES l, 2 and 3.
FIGURE 5 is a top view of the opposed rows of double tumbler pins as they would appear in Iposition 4within the cylinder lock assembly when held in correct position by a proper key.
FIGURE 6 is a view along line 6 6 of the pins as they would appear in the assembly.
FIGURE 7 is an end face view of a pair of upper and lower tumbler pins.
FIGURE 8 is a further modification of a series of pins showing an interlocking feature arrangement.
FIGURE 9 is a modification of a pin assembly.
FIGURE 10 shows a cross-sectional view of a pin in the cylinder plug engaging the edge of a key shank.
FIGURES 11 through 13 are cross-sectional views through the cylinder plug assembly showing various tumbler pin arrangements.
FIGURE 14 is a cross-sectional view of another modification of this invention along line 14-14 of FIGURE 15.
FIGURE 15 is a side cut-away view showing a key in the cylinder plug assembly.
FIGURE 16 is an additional modification of this invention showing pins disposed at an angle to the side face of the key.
FIGURES 17 and 18 show two other modifications of this invention in ross-section wherein an angled slot is used in ythe cylinder plug to match the key.
FIGURES 19 through 26 show various key and pin arrangements with the side faces of the corresponding keys shown.
FIGURES 27 and 28 show two additional modifications in cross-section of this invention.
FIGURE 29 shows a key in side elevation and FIG- URES 30 through 33 show sections therethrough.
FIGURE 34 shows a side elevational view of a part -of a key, and FIGURES 35 through 37 show appropriate sections therethrough.
FIGURE 38 shows another type of key in side elevation, and FIGURES 39 and 40 show sections therethrough.
FIGURES 41 shows a cross-section of a notched key blank.`
FIGURES 42 shows the key blank of 42 in section after depression have been cut therein.
FIGURES 43 shows a cross-section of another type of slotted key blank, while FIGURE 44 shows this blank with depressions cut therein.
FIGURE 45 shows a third type of slotted key blank in section, `while FIGURE 46 shows this blank with depressions out therein.
Referring particularly to the drawings, FIGURES 1, 2, 3, and 4 refer to the same modification of this invention, wherein like numbers designate like parts.
A key K having a head 10, and a shank portion having side faces 12 and 14, and upper and lower edges 16 and 18 is shown in FIGURE 1 and in FIGURE 4.
The end of the key is shown at 20', and the key has an upper series of depressions cut in the face 12 as shown in FIGURE 4. These depressions in the upper row, namely 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34 and 36, are directly above a lower row of depressions, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, and 52, which are vertically aligned therewith.
`A cylinder plug 60, has a fa-ce plate 62 which has a slot 64 to receive the shank of the key. The face plate 62 is of greater circumferential dimension than the cylinder plug so that an upwardly extending abutting shoulder piece 65 is provided.
The cylinder plug 60 is shown in FIGURE 1 with a plurality of longitudinally' extending openings 66 which are disposed radially in the cylinder and extend from the outer surface thereof through to the key receiving slot 64 which extends through the entire length of the cylinder plu-g 60. A lower set of pin tumbler -receiving passages 68 are disposed immediately below the upper pin tumbler receiving passages 66 and are disposed parallel thereto.
A plurality of upper follower pin tumblers 70 are slidably received in these passages and as shown in FIG- URE 2 have tips 72 which extend into and engage the depressions in the key shank.
This can clearly be seen from FIGURE 2, which shows a horizontal section through the assembly of FIGURE 1 with the key inserted therein. FIGURE 3 shows a section along line 3-3 of FIGURE 2 which also illustrates the action of the pins in the assembly.
As can be seen from FIGURE 3, the conical key engaging surface 72 of pin 70 along line 3 3 of FIGURE 2 engages the conical depression 28 in the key. When this happens, it can be seen that the rear arcuately curved surface 74 of pin 70 aligns with the circular arcuate segment of the cylinder plug 60, and thus does not interfere with rotation thereof.
Similar action can be seen for the lower set of follower pin tumblers 76 which have a conical engaging surface 78, and an arcuate rear surface 80..
Disposed on the other side of the cylinder plug 60, is a set of pin tumbler receiving passages 82 Iwhich slidably receive the upper set of follower pin tumblers 84. These tumblers have a conical key engaging yface 86 and also have an arcuate segmental face 88.
A plurality of lower follower pin tumbler passages 90 is disposed immediately below the above-mentioned pin tumbler passages 82, and slidably receive lower set of follower pin tumblers 92. These members also have a conical front face 94 and an arcuate rear face 96.
iThe cylinder housing 98 has a front face plate 100 with a radially extending shoulder section 102 which engages a plate 104 of the lock into which the entire assembly is inserted. This can clearly be seen in FIG- URE 2.
The cylinder housing has an annular bore 106 which extends longitudinally therethrough to receive the cylinder plug assembly 60 in close fitting rotatable engagement.
A plurality of radial driver pin tumbler passages 108 extend through the cylinder housing 98 to the bore 106. These passages are aligned with the upper follower pin tumbler passages 66 in the cylinder plug 60.
An upper set of driver pin tumblers 110 are slidably received in these passages. As can be seen in FIGURES 2 and 3, these members have an arcuate forward face 1'12 which matches the arcuate rear face 74 of the upper set of follower pin tumblers. A recess 114 is provided in the rear of the tumblers 110 to receive theI spring 116 which urges both the driver pin tumblers and the follower pin tumblers inwardly toward the key receiving slot 64.
A lower set of driver pin tumbler passages 118 are disposed in the cylinder housing 98 immediately below and parallel to the upper driver pin tumbler passages 108. These passages 118 receive the lower set of driver -pin tumblers 120. Similar to the upper set of driver pin tumblers, the lower set of tumblers has an arcuate forward face 122, and a recessed rear portion 124 which receives a compression spring 126.
Referring now to FIGURE 2 and FIGURE 3, a plurality of upper driver pin tumbler passages 128 extend radially through the housing and in registry with the follower pin tumbler passages 82. Driver pin tumblers 130 having an arcuate Aforward face 132 and a recess 134 for receiving the spring 136 are shown. A lower set of driver pin tumbler passages 138 are disposed immediately ibelow the driver pin tumbler passages 128. The lower driver pin tumbler members 140 have an arcuate forward face 142 and a rear recessed section 144 to receive the compressing spring 146. These passages 138 are in alignment with the follower pin tumble-r passages 90.
As can be seen in FIGURE 2, the sets of pin tumblers are shown in staggered relation so that a rather narrow width key shank can be used with depressions that have a considerable depth.
FIGURE 5 shows a set of staggered upper and lower pin tumbler follower units as they would appear in the assembly with the location in the slot of a proper key. It should be noted that there is a considerable number of arrangements that can be provided, and this gives many more times the possible combinations with a ygiven cylinder plug and key than the conventional type of key units which use only a four of five pin arrangement.
'FIGURE 6 is a section View along the line 6 6 with the addition of the driver pin tumbler units to illustrate the ope-ration thereof. In both of these figures the elements shown are designated with like numerals of the corresponding parts in FIGURES 1 through 4.
FIGURE 6 and FIGURE 7 both illustrate an arrangement used for circular cross section pin tumblers to prevent relative rotation thereof. A longitudinal groove 148 is cut along the bottom surface of the upper follower pin tumbler 70. The lower pin tumbler units 76 'have an upwardly extending tongue 150 which is slidably received in this groove, and have an adjacent cut-away section as 152 on either side thereof.
In FIGURE 8 a modification of the pin tumbler arrangement is shown in a cylinder plug portion 154. A plurality of overlapping pin tumbler receiving passages 156 are shown. Tumbler passage 158 at the left hand end of the row has a special arcuate section 160. A plurality of circular tumbler members having an arcuate cut out section 164 are all of similar cross-section, and the arcuate cut out section 164 matches the arcuate section 160 in tumbler passageway 158. These arcuate sections match the diameter of the pin tumbler members so that a uniform cross-sectional pin tumbler may Ibe used for all of the pin tumbler passageways.
FIGURE 9 shows another modification of this invention for a pick proof lock assembly, wherein a cylinder plug 166 having a follower pin tumbler passage 168 is shown. A special form of pin tumbler unit 170 having a reduced rear section 172 is disposed in this passageway.
A cylinder housing 174 having a driver pin tumbler passageway 176 is aligned with follower pin tumbler passageway 168. A driver pin tumbler 178 having an arcuately shaped forward face 180 and a recessed rear section 182 is disposed in alignment with the follower pin tumbler 170. A compression spring 184 is disposed in the passageway 176 and received in the recessed section 182 for biasing the driver pin tumbler into engagement with the reduced section 172 of the follower pin tumbler.
Referring to FIGURE a variation of this invention is shown wherein a cylinder plug 186 having a key receiving slot 188 of non-uniform cross-section receives a key 190. The key has an arcuate curved section 192 at one edge, and a conical depression 194 at the other edge thereof. This arrangement is different from the arrangements discussed previously since the key itself provides an edge 192 which also coacts with the cylinder plug 186.
The opposite side of the cylinder plug 186 has an annular passageway 196 into which the upper edge of the key containing conical depression 194 protrudes. This passage also receives the follower pin 198 having a conical engaging surface which engages the conical depression 194.
FIGURE 11 shows another modification of the invention wherein a cylinder plug 202 has a key receiving slot 206. A pair of lower and upper longitudinally extending ridges 204 and 208 extend into the key slot 206 to engage the fiat side of the key 210 which has grooves 212 and 214 which fit and slidably engage the ridges 206 and 208 respectively.
An upper follower pin tumbler passageway 216 receives the follower pin tumbler 220 which has a conical front face 222 for engaging the key depression.
The lower pin tumbler 224 has a conical engaging surface 226 which engages the slot 227 in the key 210.
As with the previous modifications, the driver pin tumbler 228 is aligned with the upper pin tumbler passage 230 while the lower driver pin tumbler 232 is disposed in the lower driver pin tumbler passageway 234.
Corresponding follower pin tumblers 236 and 238 are shown in dotted outline and engage the other side face of the key 210. In this modification vertical pin tumbler 240 and a lower vertical pin tumbler 242 are shown engaging depression 244 in the upper surface of the key, and depression 246 of the lower side of the key. This gives many more additional possible combinations, and illustrates the Versatility of applicants unit.
In FIGURE 12, a different modification showing pin tumblers inclined at an angle to the side of a key is shown. The cylinder plug 312 has also another modification involving a fiat engaging surface of the pin tumbler and also of the cylinder plug. This modification -shows an extremely accurate and precision fit arrangement.
The cylinder plug 312 has a `fiat side wall 254 on one side and a corresponding fiat wall 256 on the other side thereof. A key slot 258 extends therethrough. The cylinder plug 312 has an upper pin tumbler passageway 262 inclined at an angle with the plane normal to the side of the key slot, in which the follower pin tumbler member 250 having a conical key engaging surface 266 and a fiat rear face 268 is received. The lower follower pin tumbler passageway 270 is also inclined at an angle extending upwardly toward the key, and contains follower pin tumbler 272 with its conical key engaging surface 274 and a fiat rear face 276. Both faces 268 and 276 are precision machined so that their edges meet exactly at the edge of the arcuate surface of the cylinder plug 312. The cylinder housing 280 has a downwardly extending driver pin tumbler passageway 282 which has its longitudinal axis aligned with the follower pin tumbler passageway 262. The driver pin 284 is also precision machined s-o that its front face accurately matches the rear face 268 of the follower pin 264.
The lower driver pin tumbler passageway 286 is aligned with the follower pin tumbler passageway 270 and slidably receives the driver pin tumbler 288.
The key 290 is fitted within key slot 258 and has a conical depression 292 which accurately receives the conical face 266 of the follower pin 250. Similarly, the conical depression 294 receives the conical surface 274.
In this instance there must be an accurate fit between the conical depressions and the engaging face of the follower pin tumblers, since if there is not, the rear face of the follower pin tumblers will extend outwardly a sufiicient distance to interfere with and engage the periphery of the surface of the driver pin tumbler passageway 282, or the driver pin tumbler passageway 286.
The modification shown here permits a key to be reversed in position, since the depressions 296 and 298 are oriented in an identical fashion and diagonally oppo-site to the conical depressions 292 and 294.
FIGURE 13 shows another type of lock assembly in cross section showing a cylinder plug 300 having a -key slot 302 in which a key 304 of substantially rectangular cross-section is disposed. The key has a lower conical depression 306, and an upper conical depression 308. It will be noted that this key is reversible.
The cylinder plug 300y has a flat surface 310l disposed between the upper and lower pin tumbler passages 314 and 320. A pin tumbler 315 having a conical face 316 engages the front face 308. The pin 315 disposed in the pin tumbler passage 312 is provided with a fiat rear face 318 which terminates evenly with the arcuate edge of the plug 300.
Similarly, the lower pin tumbler passageway 320 has a pin tumbler 322 having a forward conical face 324 which is in direct engagement with the conical surface 306 of key 304.
The rear faces 318 and 326 of the follower tumbler pins 315 and 322, respectively, are directly aligned with the rear faces 330 and 334 of driver pins 328 and 332, respectively, as well as with the face 310 of the rotatable cylinder plug 300.
The cylinder housing has a driver pin tumbler 328 having a fiat planar surface 330 which accurately fits face 318 of tum-bier pin 315. The lower driver tumbler pin 332 has a forward fiat face 334 which engages the rear fiat face 326 of the lower follower tumbler pin 322. This modication is a rather simple straight forward one where no angular arrangement is involved, and only a double row of pins on one side of the key is used.
It is merely necessary to place the key in the slot either side up, and the key will operate the lock. It should be noted that all of the locks using the pin tumbler arrangement shown are precision made and a variation of several thousandths of an inch is sufficient to cause interference between the tumblers and the relatively movable surfaces and thereby interfere with rotation of the cylinder plug in the cylinder housing.
A still further modification of this invention is shown in FIGURES 14 and 15, where a lock is provided for small units such as locker doors and other units requiring small and simple assemblies.
In this modification FIGURE 14 is a section along line 14-14 of FIGURE 15 showing a cylinder housing 340 having an offset circular bore 342 and a radially extending driver tumbler pin passageway 344. A cylinder plug 346 has a key slot 348 adjacent the far end thereof, whereby a convex sided key 350 coacts on one side with the circular arcuate portion of bore 342 and on the other side with the arcuate surface 348 of the cylinder plug 346.
The key has a lateral series of depressions 356, 358, 360, and 362, as shown in FIGURE l5. The pin 358 is supported in the passageway 350 and engages the depression 356.
-In FIGURE 15, a cut-away view showing the key is shown. Note that in FIGURE 15 on the key, there are shown dotted outline of depressions on the far side of the key corresponding to the depressions in direct view. This is a reversible feature of the key, since the apex of all of the depressions on one side of the key is displaced laterally the same distance with respect to the other side.
A shoulder 362 on the top edge of the key and a lower shoulder 364 on the lower edge of the key provide for reversible engagement and correct positioning of the key itself. If the key is inserted `with the bottom side up, the shoulder 364 will hold the key in an outward position so that the depressi-ons on the other side will register with the pin tumbler engaging surfaces.
FIGURE 16 shows a further modification of this invention wherein pin tumbler elements are shown in single rows on each side of a key.
A circular cylinder plug 368 having a substantially rectangular key receiving slot 370 for receiving key 372 is shown.
Another modification of this invention is shown in cross-section in FIGURE 17, wherein a rotatable cylinder plug 398 has a key slot 400. The slot has angularly inclined projecting ridges 402, 404, and 406. This modification shows the manner in which the lassembly would be locked in the absence of a key which fits the slot 400.
The follower pin tumbler slot 408 slidably receives the pin tumbler 410 having a conical key engaging surface 412 and a flat rear surface 414. The driver pin turnbler 416 is shown disposed within the follower pin tumbler slot 408 which prevents rotation of the cylinder plug 398.
In dotted outline, the laterally displaced pin tumbler receiving passage 4.18 for the follower pin tumbler 420 is shown. The flat surface 422 of the cylindrical plug 398 should be noted. This is a similar locking arrangement to that mentioned previously.
In this modification there is shown in dotted outline the follower pin passage 424 which slidably receives the follower pin tumbler 426. The fiat surface 428 of the cylinder plug 398 is also shown and used for the upper engaging pin in this modification. The cylinder housing 430 has the cylinder follower passages 432 and 434, the
latter being shown in dotted outline. The driver pin tumbler 436 is shown in phantom outline as blocking relative rotation between the cylinder housing 430 and the cylinder plug 398. The driver pin tumbler passageway 438 is shown in dotted outline. The pin tumbler 439 is shown in this passageway. The angular orientation of the passageways with respect to the key receiving slot should be noted. The angular disposition of these members and of the ridges in the key receiving slot make the copying of the key extremely difficult.
In FIGURE 18, a housing 440 having elongated crosssection with arcuate side walls 442 and 444 is shown. The annular bore 446 is cut therethrough. In this modification a straight lateral crossing bore 448 is drilled to act as the driver pin tumbler passageway.
The cylindrical plug 450 having a key receiving slot 452 is shown with angularly disposed ridges 454, 456 and 458.
The follower pin tumbler bore 460 receives the follower pin tumbler 462. This bore and pin are disposed at an angle as with several previous modifications. This design is a simple straight forward one in which a simple drilling operation permits the creation of a closed end driver pin tumbler bore 448.
Manufacture of this assembly is simplified by drilling the bore 448 straight through from the side of the housing 440.
In FIGURE 19, a cylinder plug 464 has a key slot 468 with two protruding ridges 470 and 472. An upper follower pin tumbler passageway 474 and a lower follower pin tumbler passageway 476 on one side oppose in laterally offset relation follower pin tumbler passageways 478 and 480. Pin tumblers 482, 484, 486, and 488 are respectively slidably disposed in these pin tumbler passageways.
A key 490 having lateral slots 492, 494, 496 and 498 `cut therein is disposed in the key slot 468. Referring to FIGURE 30, the upper longitudinal slot 492 is shown to contain conical depressions 500, 502, 504 and 506. The lower longitudinal groove or slot is shown to contain slots 508 and 510. It is to be noted that conical depression 512 in groove 498 is disposed in alignment with conical depression S00. A similar arrangement for conical depressions 508 and 516, 514 and 504 and 510 and 518 is also shown. This enables the key to be inserted with its top edge either up or downwardly disposed. Similarly, FIGURE 21 shows a cross-sectional arrangement of cylinder plug 520 wherein the left handed set of pin tumblers 522 and S24 are disposed at an angle to the side face of the key. Tumblers 526 and 528 are also disposed at a different and smaller angle to the side face of the key 532.
FIGURES 23 and 24 show a pair of opposing pin tumblers 534 and 536 which engage a key 538. Note in this instance that the pin tumblers rather than being circular in cross-section are disposed in a somewhat elliptical cross-sectional shape. The depression 540 conforms to the rounded forward shape of the pin 534.
In FIGURES 25 and 26, a simple reversible arrangement is shown wherein the cylindrical plug member 550 has an upper row of pin tumblers disposed parallel to a lower row of pin tumblers. FIGURE 25 shows the upper pin tumbler S2 and the lower pin tumbler 54 engaging one side of the key 558, which is disposed in the slot 556 of the cylindrical pin tumbler 550. Note that the conical depressions 560 and 562 match each other.
Still further modification is shown in FIGURE 27. This showing is somewhat like FIGURE 11, but the depressions are cut at an angle and through the angularly inclined longitudinally extending ridges of the key slot. The cylinder housing 57 0 supports the cylinder plug 572. On the right side of the View, the paired pin tumblers 574 and 576 are disposed above the pin tumblers 578 and 580. The key is shown with angled slots 582, 584, and 586 which cooperate with the adjacent pin tumblers. As shown pin tumblers 574 and 578 respectively cooperate with angled slot 582 and with depression 588. The slot 586 corresponds with the slot 582.
In FIGURE 28, another modification showing a single lateral set of upper and lower pin members using ball engaging members is shown. Referring particularly to this figure, the cylinder housing 590 has a bore having a closed end drilled through from one side of the cylinder housing to accommodate driver pin tumbler 594. A lower parallel passage 596 is also drilled laterally through the housing to provide a closed end receptacle for the driver pin tumbler 598. The cylindrical annular passage 600 accommodates the cylinder plug 602 which has the longitudinal key receiving slot 604. In this modification, the key receiving slot has ridges `606 and 608. The cylinder plug has a follower pin tumbler 610 having a forward semi-spherical surface 612 for receiving a ball member 614. A lower pin tumbler follower member 616 having a ball receiving surface 618 for ball 620 is shown. The key 622 has a conical depression 624 for receiving the ball `614 on one side thereof, while diagonally disposed on the other side of the key is a corresponding depression 626. It will be noted that the groove 628 engages the ball 620 while groove 630 and 632 engage the ridges 608 and 606 of the cylinder plug 602. The disposition of the grooves in the key is such that -groove 628 and 630 are positioned so that either will match with ridge 608 of the cylinder plug 602. In this way the key is reversible in that either the top or bottom edge of the key may be inserted facing upward. It will be noted that plugs 634 and 636 are disposed in the outer end of the bores 592 and 596 to close the openings.
FIGURE 29 shows a key in side elevation, While FIG- URE 30 shows a longitudinal cross-section through the upper row of depressions along line 30-30. It will be noted from the disposition and alignment of the depressions in this key that the key is reversible since the key face 242 has diagonally corresponding rows of depressions.
FIGURE 31 is a section taken along line 31-31 of FIGURE 29 showing the upper depression 644 and its angular orientation with respect to the face of the key, and also showing the corresponding diagonally disposed depression 646 on the other side of the key which matches the depression 642 to provide for reversibility of the key.
The section taken along line 32-32 of FIGURE 29 is shown in FIGURE 32, showing the disposition of the holes 648 and 650 which are inclined at a different angle to the faces of the key than the depressions 644 and 646. The shallow depressions 652 and 654 are also shown at a small angle to the normal faces of the key.
In FIGURE 33, which is a section along line 33-33 looking back into the key, the depressions are disposed in a direction perpendicular to the normal face of the key. It will be noted that these angular variations give considerably more possible combinations to a key unit, while at the same time the feature of reversibility of the key can be kept.
FIGURE 34 shows a key 670 having a face 672 in which the depressions are of varying depth, and several of the sets of follower pins are of varying width. An upper row of depressions such as 674, 678 and 680 are shown superimposed on an upper laterally extending groove 682.
The lower row of depressions 684, 686 and 688 are aligned with and superimposed on the lower groove 690.
FIGURES 35 through 37 are sectional views respectively taken along lines 35-35, 36-36, and 37-37 of the key 670 of FIGURE 34. It will be noted that the depressions and also the slot surfaces are disposed at an angle to the normal faces of the key. This key is also a reversible one.
FIGURE 38 and FIGURES 39 and 40 show a simple one row one side three pin key, such as would be used in small locks. The key 694 has arcuately curved side faces 696 and 698, and a single row of conical depressions 700, 702 and 704. A corresponding laterally displaced set of depressions is shown in dotted outline on the other side of the key.
Stops 706 and 708 provide for correct positioning of these depressions with respect to the engaging pin tumblers.
FIGURE 39 shows a sectional View along line 39-39 of the key.
FIGURE 40 shows a bottom view of the key of FIG- URE 8 showing the stop shoulder 708 and the flat bottom i 10 surface 710. Rounded front edges 712 and 714 are also shown.
FIGURES 41 through 46 show various grooved key blanks in cross section, and their appearance in section after depressions have been cut therein.
FIGURE 41 shows a cross sectional view of a key blank 800 having angularly inclined slots 802, 804 and 806.
FIGURE 42 shows the same blank with matching conical depressions 810 and 812. It will be noted that the slots and the depressions are on each side of the key, are matched so that this key is reversible. The angular inclination of the slot to the vertical face of the key is indicated by the angle C. Similarly, the angular inclination of the axis of the depression 810 with respect to the face is shown by the angle D.
In FIGURE 43 is shown a cross sectional view of the key having slots inclined at a different inclination than those of the key blank of FIGURE 4l. :In this key the angularly inclined grooves are 814, 816, 818, and 820. Note that they are substantially parallel and that this blank is reversible.
FIGURE 44 shows the depressions 822, 824, 826 and 828 which are cut in the blank and have a central axis which coincides with the axis of the grooves. This ligure clearly brings out the rather complex form that a key using this arrangement can take.
In FIGURE 45, a key blank 830 is shown having differently inclined slots cut therein. The s-lot 832 is inclined to the right, while the slot 834 is inclined to the left. Slot 836 and 838 are also inclined at different inclinations and correspond respectively to slots 834 and 832. The slots are shown as being inclined at angles E and F to the plane passing through the vertical face 840 of the key blank 830.
FIGURE 46 shows conical depressions 842, `844, 846 and 848 which has a central axis inclined at an angle also to the side faces of the key. Conical depression 846 is inclined at an angle G t0 the vertical plane passing through the side face 840, while the depression 848, and the corresponding depression 842 on the other side of the face are inclined at an ang-le H to the vertical plane passing through the side faces of the blank. Upper depressions 850 and 852 are also cut in the top and bottom faces of the blank at an angle to the vertical axis passing through key blank 830.
It will be noted that the combination of angularly inclined grooves and angularly inclined slots provides a multitude of additional combinations.
Operation In FIGURES 1 through 4, the double row of pins from each side of the key receiving slot 64 engage depressions in the key faces 12 and 14 so that the rear arcuate surfaces 74, 80, 88 and 96 coincide with the circumferential arc of the cylinder plug 60 to permit rotation of the plug. This modification shows a reversible key arrangement wherein diagonally opposed depressions on opposite sides of the key face are diagonally disposed so that the key may be inserted with either end up, and the engaged follower pin tumbler members will be pressed outwardly to the point where their rear face will be exactly aligned with the cylindrical plug surface.
When the key is withdrawn from the key receiving slot 64 the driver pin tumblers under urging of their corresponding compression springs will be pressed inwardly so that the driver pin tumblers extend into the follower pin tumbler passageways to prevent relative rotation of the cylinder plug 60 with respect to the cylinder housing 88 the cylinder plug 60 in the cylinder housing bore 106 is also within a few ten thousandths of an inch. With this precision arrangement of the parts, a several thousandths of an inch movement of the pin tumbler members will cause an interference between the pin tumbler and the adjacent pin tumbler passage to prevent rotation of the pin tumbler cylinder 60.
Referring to FIGURES 2 and 4, it will be seen that several of the depressions, such as 2S and 30 overlap each other slightly. This will cause no interference since the key is reversible and the adjacent depressions are for use with pin tumbler elements on opposite sides of the key. This staggered arrangement of opposing pin tumbler assemblies provides for a more compact arrangement, and with the double row of elements provides for a very large number of possible combinations.
It might be pointed out that with the conventional type of lock having eight pins, having ve different steps or depths, there are approximately sixty-ve thousand theoretical combinations. With the present assembly, the number of possible theoretical combinations increase manyfold, so that there are over one billion possible combinations with a pin arrangement as shown.
In FIGURE-S 6 through 9, the relative disposition of the opposed groups of upper and lower pin tumbler member is shown for a circular cross-sectional follower pin tumbler with an arcuate rear face. In order to prevent rotation in such units, FIGURE 7 shows a tongue and groove arangement between the upper and lower follower pin tumbler units. This will prevent relative rotational movement between these members and will hold the rear faces in the exact alignment necessary in the precision assembly contemplated.
With respect to FIGURE S, a non-rotating arrangement employing the pin tumbler members of a row in nonrotating side by side engagement is shown. It can be seen that due to the interlocking chordal anrangement between adjacent pin tumbler members there is no possibility of relative rotation thereof.
FIGURE 9 shows a pick-proof type of arrangement whereby the driver pin tumbler has a reduced rear section to preclude picking.
The modications of FIGURES 12 and 13 use another aspect of the invention in that the rear face of the follower pin tumblers, such as face 268 of follower pin tumbler 264 of FIGURE l2 is flat, and there is a flat matching surface on the corresponding driver pin tumbler 284. The chordal surfaces 254 and 256 of the cylinder plug 250 are flattened to match the adjacent flat surface 268 of the pin tumbler 264 when in operative position so that it is possible to rotate the cylinder plug 250 without causing interference of this surface and the side surface of the driver pin tumbler 284. This flat chord form for the pin tumblers and the matching flattened surface on the cylinder plug provide for a precision fit assembly, since contrary to the usual type of chamfered circumferential edge at the rear of conventional type pin tumblers, allowing several thousandths of an inch play, no such play is allowed in this assembly. Consequently, if there is an error of several thousandths in the key fitted into the lock, the dat edge of either the driver pin tumbler or the follower pin tumbler will cause engagement with the adjacent pin tumbler passage. With the chamfered edge in such an assembly there would be no interference, so that this absolutely flat surface with no chamfered edge on the pin tumbler provides for an additional precision fit requiring extra accuracy in making the key, and also presenting additional difficulties in making an operable copy of the key.
With all of these keys, it should be noted that it is extremely difcult to copy the keys, and that existing key making facilities will be entirely inadequate to making copies or duplicates thereof.
An additional complicating feature shown in FIGURE l2 is the disposition of the pin tumblers at an angle to the face of the key. With this particular type of arrangement the exact angle of inclination of the depression must be copies, making it still more difficult to obtain a workable copied key. These factors greatly increase the security of a lock assembly using these arrangements.
An additional feature of applicants invention shown in FIGURE 17 and most of the figures thereafter, as well as in FIGURE ll, is a ridge and groove arrangement, wherein the planar face extending along the length of the key and key receiving slot has depressions that are cut therealong. An additional feature of this arrangement is the angular disposition of the slots, and in some instances also the depressions making it still more diicult to obtain .a workable copied key.
It should be noted that all of these arrangements are possible with a compact cylinder lock assembly which can be received and work with existing manufactured locks, it only being necessary to substitute this new type of rotary cylinder lock assembly for the old conventional types.
With regard to accuracy it can be pointed out that this type of cylinder assembly can be made with Very close tolerances, sometimes as small as several ten thousandths.
With regard to the angles of the depressions as shown in FIGURES 45 and 47, the angle shown may vary as little as 2 or 3 degrees from the normal 90 value and be effective in changing the combination of the lock. `I have found that inclinations as much as 35 or 45 from the normal line to the plane passing through the side faces of the dat key have been used.
While the invention has been described in connection with different embodiments thereof, it will be understood that it is capable of further modifications, and this application is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention following, in general, the principles of the invention and including such departures from the present disclosure as come within known or customary practice in the art to which the invention pertains, and as may be applied to the essential features hereinbefore set forth and fall within the scope of the invention or the limits of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. A rotary cylinder lock assembly comprising a cylindrical housing having an elongated radially extending tu'mbler pin receiving passage, a cylinder plug rotatably disposed in said cylindrical housing and also hasving an elongated radially extending tumbler pin receiving passage, said plug also having a longitudinal key receiving slot therethrough, said elongated tumbler receiving passage through said cylinder plug opening into said key receiving slot and being aligned therewith, said tumbler pin receiving passages of said cylindrical housing and said cylinder plug being adapted to be aligned, driver tumbler pins slidably disposed in said radially extending tumbler pin passage of said cylindrical housing, tumbler pins of varying length disposed in the radial tumbler pin passsage of said cylinder plug, said driver pins being arranged in a row and adjacent pins in said row having means engaging each other to prevent rotation thereof on their axes, said tumbler pins in said cylinder plug also being arranged in a row so that pins thereof are adapted to oppose driver pins Iwhich are adapted to be aligned therewith, and adjacent pins in said row in said plug also having means engaging each other to prevent rotation thereof on their axes, the outer ends of said pins in said plug and the inner ends of said driver pins being contoured to match the cylindrical outer surface of said plug.
2. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock of the type having a cylindrical housing with a rotatable plug therein, an elongated substantially flat key comprising two opposite sides and two opposite edges and having depressions on said opposite sides thereof for receiving the inner ends of tumbler pins that are positioned in the rotatable plug, said plug being rotatable in said cylindrical housing when the key is inserted into a longitudinally extending slot in said plug so that the key depressions receive the inner ends of the tumbler pins in said plug, the improvement comprising a first group of tlwo rows of tumbler pins in each said housing and said plug, the pins in said plug being adapted to simultaneously engage depressions in one side of the key, a second group of ltwo rows of tumbler pins in each said housing and said plug, the pins of the second group in said plug being adapted to simultaneously engage depressions in the other side of said key, the pins in each of said groups are substantially cylindrical and arranged in pairs, one of the pins of each pair being positioned above the other, the pins of each pair in said plug being in the salme hole and one thereof being recessed and receiving part of the other to prevent the pins turning on their axes, said rotatable plug being positioned in said cylindrical housing 'with the longitudinal axis of said plug corresponding with the longitudinal axis of said cylindrical housing.
3. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock as set forth in claim 2, further characterized in that the tumbler pins of the first group are offset from the tumbler pins of the second group so that the pins of the second group comprise one pair less than those of the first group.
4. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock as set forth in claim 2, further characterized in that the pins of said second group are offset with respect to the pins of said rst group, and said key is provided with two sets of depressions on each side, one set of depressions cooperating with the pins in said plug when said key is inserted in one orientation, and the other set cooperating therewith when the key is turned 180 degrees and inserted into said plug.
5. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock as set forth in claim 2, further characterized in that the key and key slot in the plug are provided with mating ridges and recesses which are aligned with predetermined pins positioned in said plug.
6. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock as set forth in claim 2, further characterized in that the outer ends of the tumbler pins of each pair of pins in said plug are rounded off in the opposite directions and the rounded off surfaces thereof are flush -with the round outside surface of said plug.
7. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock as set forth in claim 6, further characterized in that the inner surfaces of the tumbler pins of each pair of pins in said housing are arcuate to match the outside surface of said plug.
8. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock of the type having a cylindrical housing 'with a rotatable plug therein, said housing having spring-biased tumbler pins and said plug having tulmbler pins opposing the pins in said housing, an elongated substantially flat key comprising two opposite sides and two opposite edges and having depressions on said opposite sides so that the inner ends of tumbler pins that are positioned in the rotatable plug may be received therein on either side of the key, said plug being rotatable in said cylindrical housing when the key is inserted into a longitudinally extending slot in said plug so that the key depressions receive the inner ends of the tumbler pins in the plug, an improvement for increasing the security of said lock comprising means requiring extra accuracy in making said key, therefore presenting difliculty in making an operable copy of said key, said means comprising providing flat surfaces to the abutting ends of the opposing pins and the peripheral surface of the plug in the region of the pins carried thereby being flattened oi segmentally forming at least one at chordal surface, the pins carried by said plug being arranged in a row and said segmental iiattening extending the total length of said row, the plane of said attened segment coinciding with the plane between said abutting ends when the key is inserted into its slot to operate the lock.
9. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock as set forth in claim S, further characterized in that said housing and said plug are each provided with at least two rows of pins 'which are parallel, the pins in said plug all engaging the key on one side.
10. A rotatable plug and cylinder lock as set forth in claim -8, further characterized in that said housing and said plug are each provided with at least two rows of pins and the pins of lone row being disposed at an angle with respect to the pins of the other row, said plug having two areas of segmental flattening, one of said areas being in the region of one of said rows and the other one of said areas being in the region of the other of said rows.
11. A rotary cylinder lock assembly comprising a cylindrical, housing having an elongated radially extending tumbler pin receiving passage, a cylinder plug rotatably disposed in said cylindrical housing and also having an elongated radially extending tumbler pin receiving passage, said plug also having a longitudinal key receiving slot therein, said elongated tumbler pin receiving passage through said cylinder plug opening into said key receiving slot and being aligned therewith, said tumbler -pin receiving passages of said cylindrical housing and said cylinder plug being adapted to be aligned, driver tumbler pins slidably disposed in said radially extending tumbler pin passage of said cylinder housing, tumbler pins of varying length disposed in the radial tumbler pin passage of said cylinder plug, and said passages through said cylindrical housing and said cylindrical plug each having scalloped side walls comprising a series of parallel undulations, the individual opposed -undulations being adapted to slidably receive at least one tumbler pin therebetween so that a series of said tumbler pins is adapted to be positioned side-by-side in each of said passages, the adjoining pins of each of said series of pins being dovetailed by cutting a section out of one to tit the contour of the other whereby rotation of the pins on their axes is prevented.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 457,753 8/ 1891 Taylor 70378 2,158,501 5/1939 Gutman 70-37'8 X 2,166,690 7/-1939 Neckerman 70-35 8 2,555,316 6/1951 Cerf 70-375 X FOREIGN PATENTS 1,073,320 3/ 1954 France.
802,222 2/1951 Germany.
421,715 12/ 1934 Great Britain.
763,028 12/ 1956 Great Britain.
410,793 8/ 1945 Italy.
260,517 7 1949 Switzerland.
344,637 3/ 1960 Switzerland.
372,947 12/ 1963 Switzerland.
MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner.
EDWARD C. ALLEN, Examiner. P. TEITELBAUM, Assistant Examiner.