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Publication numberUS3394766 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 30, 1968
Filing dateOct 27, 1966
Priority dateMar 11, 1966
Publication numberUS 3394766 A, US 3394766A, US-A-3394766, US3394766 A, US3394766A
InventorsLouis Lebelle Jean
Original AssigneeLouis Lebelle Jean
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for emplacing elongated rigid members into the soil selectively in a vibratory mode or in a percussive mode
US 3394766 A
Abstract  available in
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 30. 1968 J, LEBELLE 3,394,766

APPARATUS FOR EMPLACING ELONGATED RIGID MEMBERS INTO THE SOIL SELECTIVELY IN A VIBRATORY MODE OR IN A PERCUSSIVE MODE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Oct. 27. 1966 INVENTOR.

22 JEAN LOUIS LEBELLE laysclnsleriv,

ATTORNEYS July 30, 1968 J LEBELLE 3,394,766

APPARATUS FOR EMPLACING ELONGATED RIGID MEMBERS INTO THE SOIL SELECTIVELY IN A VIBRATORY MODE OR IN A PERCUSSIVE MODE Filed Oct. 27, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 W m m TL 0 NE E8 1., a m w W 5 w L N A w a m Y 4 B MM ATTORNEYS ":1 A II United States Patent 3,394,766 APPARATUS FOR EMPLACING ELONGATED RIGID MEMBERS INTO THE SOIL SELEC- TIVELY IN A VIBRATORY MODE OR IN A PERCUSSIVE MODE Jean Louis Lebelle, 35 Rue Gounod, Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine, France Filed Oct. 27, 1966, Ser. No. 589,943 Claims priority, application France, Mar. 11, 1966, 61,208/66 Claims. (Cl. 17349) The present invention relates to an apparatus for emplacing elongated rigid members into the soil. The apparatus is operated selectively in a vibratory mode or' in a percussive mode.

It is the primary object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for use in the field which can with the use of the same set of rotating eccentric weights emplace elongated rigid members into the soil by use of two types of forcevibratory force and percussive force and which can alternate as desired between the employment of these different forces during a single emplacing operation, i.e. during the insertion into the soil of one elongated rigid member.

The apparatus of the present invention may be used to drive stakes, posts, sheet piling, H-bearing piling, pipe bearing piling, timber and concrete piling and pipes. The apparatus can also emplace hollow structural elements which are driven into the ground and which are later filled with concrete or sand. The aforesaid apparatus is particularly well suited to force hollow elongated soil samplers into the soil, such samplers recovering a core of soil from many feet below the ground level.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus of the character described for emplacing rigid members into the soil wherein the type of force imposed on the member can be easily and immediately altered in accordance with the type of soil encountered by the driven end of the member. For non-cohesive soils such as sand, silt, gravel, mud and waste, the vibratory mode is employed. For cohesive soils such as clay, the percussive mode is utilized. These soils may occur both above the water line and submerged. In either case, the present apparatus may be advantageously used. Moreover, when in a single descent of a rigid member, both cohesive soil and non-cohesive soil are found at different levels, the apparatus can be varied in its mode to achieve the most effective manner of emplacement.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus of the character described for emplacing elongated rigid members into the soil wherein the apparatus includes means for extracting the emplaced members from the soil.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus of the character described for emplacing elongated rigid members into the soil wherein longitudinal segments of the member being emplaced can pass axially through a passageway in the apparatus, whereby the apparatus can be positioned at any desired point along the length of the member and whereby when a segment of a member is partially driven into the soil, another segment of said member can be attached to the top of the partially-buried segment in tandem fashion.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus of the character described for emplacing elongated rigid members into the soil wherein the apparatus can be mounted on a truck and which will thereupon constitute a self-contained unit which is portable and can be moved and set up at various locations with speed and ease.

Other objects of the present invention in part will be obvious and in part will be pointed out hereinafter.

3,31%,766 Patented July 30, 1968 It is known in the art to sink elongated rigid members into the soil by vibratory force, or, more specifically, by a cyclically reversing force exerted on the member along the long axis of the member. This force materially reduces the effort required to drive the member into soil and the member can be sunk into the soil by its own weight combined with the weight of the apparatus fixed to it. Apparatus of this type includes a pair of like weights, with each weight being fast to and eccentrically oriented with respect to a different shaft. The shafts are mounted to rotate about parallel spaced axes in opposite rotational directions at the same angular velocity. The axes lie in a common plane perpendicular to the long axis of the member. The shafts are motor driven. When the apparatus is fixed to an elongated member and the weights are spun in phase to exert an axial vibratory force, the apparatus vibrates the member so as to cause the member to sink in the manner described. Reference is made to copending application Ser. No. 535,479, filed Mar. 18,, 1966 showing an apparatus of such general nature.

Apparatus for driving elongated members into the soil by percussive force are also well known. Typical of these are pneumatic hammers and steam-operated pile drivers. In such an apparatus, a hammer repetitively strikes the elongated member (or an anvil fixed to the member), each below being directed downwardly onto the member and each below advancing the member into the soil.

The present invention discloses an apparatus which carries out both of the aforesaid member-emplacing functions in a single unit and uses the same set of rotating eccentric weights as the actuator for either selected function. More specifically, the present apparatus employs a carriage and a frame. The carriage includes a pair of like weights, and means mounting the weights on the carriage for opposed rotative movement about parallel axes. The axes lie in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the member. The weights are eccentric with respect to their axes, and are motor driven. The carriage has a clamp by which it may be firmly secured to the member. When the clamp secures the carriage to the member and the weights are spun, the phased rotation of the eccentric weights causes the carriage to exert a vibrational force on the member and the member sinks by its own weight and the weight of the apparatus. The vibratory force materially lessens the friction between the member and the soil. The vibratory apparatus has its primary value in sinking the member when the same encounters noncohesive soils.

In the percussive mode of operation, the carriage constitutes a reciprocating hammer. To this end, the carriage is mounted for reciprocal movement on the frame parallel to the longitudinal axis of the elongated member. A spring system suspends the carriage in a location intermediate the ends of its stroke. The frame constitutes the anvil for the hammer, and the frame has a clamp by which it may be firmly secured to the member. In the percussive function, the frame is firmly secured to the member by its clamp, and the clamp of the carriage is open. When the weights now are spun, the carriage will reciprocate vertically upwardly and downwardly. Its stroke is achieved by the vibratory force of the rotating eccentric weights interacting with the spring suspension system. At a point in its downward stroke, the carriage, that is, the hammer, strikes the frame, that is, the anvil, the hammer in repose being closer to the anvil than the carriage is to the top of the frame. A sharp downward impact force is transmitted through the frame to the member advancing it into the ground. It will be appreciated that in both modes, the eccentric weights are rotated and supply the actuating force, be it for the vibratory mode or the percussive mode. The mode is chosen by which one of the two clamps is actuated-if only the carriage clamp is actuated, the vibratory mode ensues and if only the frame clamp is actuated, the percussive mode follows. In the said vibratory mode, the frame floats on the carriage, since at this time the frame is not directly attached to the member. Conversely, in the percussive mode, the carriage floats on the frame since only the frame is directly aflixed to the member. If both clamps are actuated the apparatus functions in the vibratory mode.

The present invention accordingly consists in the features of the construction, combination of elements and arrangements of parts which will be exemplified in the apparatus for emplacing elongated rigid members hereinafter described and of which the scope of application will be indicated in the appended claims.

In the accompanying drawings in which is shown one of the various possible embodiments of the invention:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the apparatus of the invention mounted on a truck;

FIG. 2 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary axial crosssectional view of the apparatus taken substantially along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary axial crosssectional view of a soil sampler which is suitably used with the present apparatus; and

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 4-4 of FIG. 2.

Referring now in detail to the drawings, the reference numeral denotes the apparatus for emplacing elongated rigid members into soil by selectively utilizing a vibratory mode or a percussive mode both of which are actuated by the same eccentric weights. A length of such a member is shown in FIG. 2, the same constituting an elongated tubular section M having a longitudinal axis AA. Said axis will as a rule be vertical, although the apparatus may be used to drive members at an angle into the ground. For convenience, said axis will be considered to be vertical in detailing the apparatus.

In FIG. 1, the apparatus 10 is shown as mounted on and transported by a four wheel truck 12 which can carry the apparatus from site to site. Auxiliary equipment such as a diesel motor driven hydraulic pump P is also carried by the truck 12 to make the apparatus part of a selfcontained self-powered unit well adapted for portable field use.

The apparatus includes a carriage 14. The carriage constitutes a hollow box-like structure including a top wall 16, a bottom wall 18, said Walls being parallel, horizontal and vertically spaced, a pair of side walls 20, 22, a front wall 24 and a rear wall 26.

The carriage 14 carries a pair of like weights, respectively, 28, 30 and means mounting said weights 28, 30 on the carriage. The mounting means includes a pair of parallel horizontally spaced shafts 32, 34, the shaft 32 being associated with the weight 28 and the shaft 34 being associated with the weight 30. Each of said shafts is mounted for rotation on the carriage by conventional bearings (not shown), and the axes of said shafts are parallel, horizontally spaced and lie in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis AA of the member M. Each weight has a hub through which its associated shaft passes and keys 36, 38 join, respectively, the shaft 32 to the weight 28 and the shaft 34 to the weight 30 for respective common rotation. Each weight is mounted eccentrically with respect to its shaft and the centers of mass of the weights are at mirrored angular orientations with respect to their shaft so that the weights spin up and down concurrently about their axes. Each shaft has a large diameter spur gear fast thereto, the shaft 32 mounting the spur gear 40 and the shaft 34 mounting the spur gear 42. The spur gears mesh, thereby permitting the shafts to rotate only in opposed rotative directions at the same angular velocity.

Motor means drives the shafts 32, 34. For this purpose an electric or hydraulically driven motor 44 is mounted on the carriage and has an output shaft which constitutes the shaft 32 and a similarly driven motor 46 mounted on the carriage has an output shaft which constitutes the shaft 34. Said motors 44, 46 are kept in synchronization by the meshing of the spur gears 40, 42. Energization of said motors rotates the eccentric weights 28, 30 on parallel axes at the same angular velocity in opposed directions. The weights reach their high points simultaneously. This rotation of the eccentric weights exerts a vibratory force on the carriage 14 axially of the member M.

A hollow elongated double open-ended tube 48 is carried by the carriage 14 and is fixed to and extends through the top wall 16 and bottom wall 18 of said carriage. The tube is situated midway between the shafts 32, 34. The longitudinal axis of the tube 48 is vertical with respect to the carriage and is coaxial with the axis AA of the member M. The tube has an internal diameter which is slightly larger than the maximum transverse dimension of any member to be emplaced into the soil. The tube 48 defines an axial passageway through which the member M passes whereby the carriage may be positioned at any point along the length of the member M.

The carriage has firmly secured thereto a clamp 50. The clamp includes a stationary jaw 52 carried by a block 54, the block being fixed to the top wall 16 of the carriage. The clamp further includes a movable jaw 56 shiftable toward and away from the stationary jaw 52. The movable jaw 56 is carried by a piston 58 slidably mounted in a cylinder 60. The cylinder is also fixed to the top wall 16 of the carriage.

Means for actuating the clamp includes a pair of conduits 62 leading to both sides of the piston 58 and a fourway valve 64 for leading high pressure hydraulic fluid, e.g. oil, from a source of such fluid under pressure to either selected side of the piston and leading the other side of the piston to a sump. The valve is arranged so that the piston and thus the movable jaw 56 may be selectively moved toward or away from the stationary jaw 52. The paws 52, 56 are on opposed sides of the axis AA of the member M and when the movable jaw is driven toward the stationary jaw, the member M will be clamped therebetween, firmly securing the member to the carriage 14.

The apparatus 10 also includes a frame 66 having a horizontal upper arm 68 and a horizontal lower arm 70. Said arms are vertically spaced from one another. The arms are retained spaced apart by a pair of vertically elongted solid cylindrical guide bars 72, 74. The bars run between the arms. The ends of the guide bars are threaded and pass through apertures in the arms. Each end of each bar is fixed to an arm by a pair of nuts 76, one nut being situated on each side of the associated arm.

Each arm has a through aperture formed therein, the arm 68 having an aperture 69 and the arm 70 having an aperture 71. Said apertures are in vertical alignment, in alignment with the passageway defined by the tube 48 and each is of sufficient diameter to permit the member M to pass freely therethrough.

The carriage 14 is guided for vertical reciprocal movement on the frame 66 in a direction parallel to the axis AA of the member M. The carriage moves between the arms 68, 70 of the said frame. To this end, the carriage has fixed thereto a pair of elongated double openended sleeves 78, 80. The sleeves run between, extend through and are fixed to the top wall 16 and the bottom Wall 18. The longitudinal axes of the sleeves are parallel to one another and parallel to the axis AA of the member M. The sleeve 78 slides along the guide bar 72 and the sleeve 80 slides along the guide bar 74, thereby mounting the carriage for reciprocal movement along said axis AA.

A spring suspension system biases the carriage 14 to a position intermediate the arms 68, 70, most suitably to a roughly central position between said arms. The suspension system includes two pairs of opposed springs,

each pair of springs urging the carriage in an opposed axial direction. The suspension system includes an upper pair of helical compression springs 82, 84 and a lower pair of helical compression springs 86, 88. Each of the springs is wound about a guide bar, the springs 82, 86 being wound about different ends of the guide bar 72 and the springs 84, 88 being wound about different ends of the guide bar 74. The remote ends of the springs abut caps 90 at the ends of the guide bars and the proximate ends of the springs abut the top wall 16 and bottom wall 18 of the carriage 14. The springs 82, 84 urge the carriage downwardly and the springs 86, 88 urge the carriage upwardly. In idle position the springs are preferably under sufiicient compression to expand and maintain engagement with the carriage and frame in all relative positions of the carriage and frame. The strengths of the springs are adjusted to approximately centralize the carriage, taking into account the weight of the carriage itself.

A clamp 92 is provided selectively to firmly secure the frame '66 to the member M. Said clamp is fixed to the lower arm 70 and is similar in construction to the clamp 50. Said clamp 92 includes a stationary jaw 94 fixed to the arm 70 and a movable jaw 96 shiftable toward and away from the stationary jaw. The movable jaw 96 is driven by actuating means including a four-way valve 98. The jaws 94, 96 are on opposed sides of the axis AA and when the valve 98 is rotated so that the movable jaw 96 is forced toward the stationary jaw 94, the member M is clamped therebetween, firmly securing the member to the frame.

When the clamp 92 is actuated thereby firmly securing the frame 66 to the member M and the motors 44, 46 are energized (the clamp 50 at this time being in open position), the vibratory forces generated by the rotation of the eccentric weights will interact with the spring suspension system and cause the carriage to repetitively reciprocate upwardly and downwardly against the centralizing force of the spring suspension system. To convert this upward and downward movement to percussive force which can be applied to drive the member M into soil, the carriage has fixed thereto a pendant hammer 100. The hammer includes a short mounting tube 102 and said tube carries a female thread internally thereof. The tube is fixed to the bottom wall 18 as by ribs 104. The hammer further includes at its lowermost portion an annular head 106, the head having an annular upwardly extending shank 108 which has a male thread formed thereon that meshes with the female thread of the tube 102. The head has a hard tough impact face 110 which is downwardly convex. Radial apertures 112 are formed in the head so that a spanner wrench can be applied to the head to rotate it axially with respect to the tube 62, thereby to raise or lower the head with respect to said tube. The head 106 is telescoped or extended with respect to the tube 102 to obtain various degrees of percussi've force. A set screw 114 passes from the tube 102 radially toward the shank 108 to lock these components together in any given position. The hammer has a central double open-ended passageway in vertical alignment with the apertures 69 and 71 and the passageway through the tube 48. The member M passes centrally through the hammer.

The frame carries an anvil 116 in longitudinal alignment with the hammer. The anvil constitutes a hard tough annular block carried by the lower arm 70 and having a central passageway in alignment with the passageway defined by the tube 48.

The frame 66 is vertically slidable on a vertically elongated guide rail 118 having an I-shaped cross-section. To this end, each arm 68, 70 has fixed to a like end thereof a shoe, respectively, 120, 122, each shoe being configured to slidingly engage a flange of the guide rail. The shoe 120 is fixed to the upper arm 68 and the shoe 6 122 is fixed to the lower arm 70. The frame can slide on the guide rail 118 in a direction parallel to the axis A A.

A winch assembly 124 is provided to raise or lower the frame 66, the frame at this time sliding on the guide rail 118. Said assembly includes a motorized Windlass 126 carried on the truck body, sheaves 128 rotatably mounted at the top of the guide rail 118 and a pulley 130 rotatably mounted on plates 132 on the upper frame arm 68. A cable 134 having an end fixed high on the rail 118 is trained about the pulley 130, the sheaves 128 and the Windlass 126 and the same are arranged so that taking up the cable on the Windlass elevates the frame on the guide rail and letting out the cable from the windlass lowers the frame. The cable 134 is rigged as shown to obtain a two to one mechanical advantage.

Turning then to the operation of the apparatus for emplacing elongated rigid members, said apparatus is brought to a desired site by the truck 12. The frame 66 (with the carriage 44 spring-suspended therein), is hoisted to a position several feet above the ground, say ten feet above ground. A member M to be emplaced in the soil is slipped through the aperture '69 in the upper arm 68, between the jaws of the clamp 50, through the passageway defined by the tube 48, through the bores of the hammer 100 and the anvil 116, through the aperture 71 in the lower arm and between the jaws of the clamp 92. The lower end of the member rests on the ground surface.

If the upper stratum of the soil is of the non-cohesive type, it is advantageous to place the apparatus in a vibratory mode. This is effectuated by actuating the carriage clamp 50 thereby firmly securing the carriage 14 to the member. The frame clamp 92 is in an open, non-gripping position at this time.

The motors 44, 46 are then energized, rotating the eccentric weights 28, 30, thereby imparting vibrational force to the member M through the carriage 14 and the clamp 50. This vibrational force acts in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis AA of the member. The vibrational force materially lessens the friction between the member and the soil and allows the member to sink under its own weight and the weight of the apparatus 10. The cable 134 is payed out from the Windlass 126 to permit the frame 66 to drop as the member sinks, the frame sliding downwardly along the guide rail 118.

In the vibrational mode, when the carriage clamp 50 fixes the carriage to the member, the frame 66 floats on the carriage by the spring suspension system and aids in emplacing the member M into the soil. The frequency and friction reducing force of the apparatus in the vibrational mode can be varied by varying the speed of the motors 44, 46.

If it is desired to place the apparatus into a percussive mode, as would be advantageous if cohesive soil is encountered, the carriage clamp 50 is opened and the frame clamp is closed on the member. This firmly secures the frame 66 to the member and at this time the carriage 14 floats with respect to the frame through the spring suspension system. The motors are again energized rotating the eccentric weights. The vibratory force experienced by the carriage reciprocates the carriage upwardly and downwardly along the guide bars 72, 74 through a stroke having an upper position above the centralized position to which it is biased by the spring suspension system. In the course of the carriage moving from its upper position downwardly, the hammer 100 strikes the anvil 116, imparting a sharp percussive blow -to the frame. The frame, being firmly secured to the member by the frame clamp 92, transmits this downward blow to the member along its longitudinal axis. Each such blow advances the member more deeply into the soil. The force can be regulated by changing the axial position of the hammer and by varying the speed of the motors 44, 46.

When the emplacing of the member has progressed to a point at which the frame clamp 92 is close to the ground, whichever clamp is gripping the member is opened and the frame is raised by the winch assembly 124 to a higher point on the member and said clamp, or the other clamp, is again actuated, the process then continuing as before. If sections of a member are being emplaced one after another, the top of a partially embedded section can be coupled in tandem to the bottom of a subsequent section. Since a passageway is provided which runs vertically through the apparatus, the upper end of the topmost section is exposed so that coupling of tandem sections can be accomplished without difficulty.

The member M may be extracted by again placing the apparatus in a vibratory mode and applying upward force to the frame by the winch assembly 124. The application of said vibratory force reduces the friction between the member and the soil. The mechanical advantage of the winch assembly aids in the extraction process. Optionally, an upper hammer and anvil can be employed to assist in extraction. In such event, the upper hammer should with respect to the upper anvil be closer in repose thereto than the lower hammer is to the lower anvil.

The present invention is especially suitable for use with a soil core sampler for soil exploration. With the apparatus 10 mounted on a truck 12, the apparatus can be moved from site to site as quickly and as often as desired. Moreover, with the vibratory mode of the apparatus and the percussive mode of the apparatus, such soil samplers can be driven downwardly in a quick and efficient manner, the apparatus being converted to the mode best suited for driving the sampler through the type of soil encountered by its point at any level. It has been found that the apparatus is especially desirable with a core sampler since it compacts the core to a considerably lesser extent than present day equipment for forcing such samplers into the bottom of holes driven in other manners, e.g. with a rotating bit or auger. Moreover, the present equipment enables continuous core sampling to be made rapidly and at a low cost.

A typical soil core sampler 135 is illustrated in FIG. 3 and includes an elongated hollow tubular shell 136 split into symmetrical halves 138, 140. The bottom end of the shell is open. At opposite ends of the shell 136, the halves are secured together by a downwardly tapering bottom drive ferrule 142 and a top ferrule 144. Each of said ferrules has a female thread which engages a male thread on a different end of the shell. The top ferrule has an upwardly extending threaded stub shaft 146 which screws into the bottom of a longitudinal member M.

The soil core sampler is driven downwardly into the soil by the apparatus 14 and as this is accomplished, the interior of the shell 136 receives this soil. When all or a part of the shell 136 is filled with soil, the core sampler is raised. Due to the mode of driving, either pure vibration or vibropercussive, it has been found that the soil formation is disturbed less than heretofore so that the core sample withdrawn is a better than heretofore sample of the existing soil formation. When the sampler is above ground, the shell 136 is separated from the member M and placed into a trough and then the halves 138, 140 of the shell are separated, leaving an elongated core sampler of soil. If another soil sample is desired to be recovered at a lower level, the shell 136 is reassembled and the soil sampler is then placed into the bore already formed in the soil and is again forced downwardly to a lower strata to pick up another core sample of soil.

Excellent results are obtained from the apparatus when the motors rotating the eccentric weights are operated to drive the weights at a speed in the range of 400 1800 rpm.

The vibratory means herein disclosed is at present the preferred mode known. However, it is within the scope of the invention to employ other vibratory means. By

way of example, a reciprocating piston system could be used to supply vibratory force.

It thus will be seen that there has been provided an apparatus for emplacing elongated rigid members into soil which achieves the several objects of the present invention and which is well adapted to meet the conditions of practical use.

As various possible embodiments might be made of the above invention and as various changes might be made of the embodiment set forth, it is to be understood that all matter herein described or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

What is claimed:

1. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into soil selectively (A) by applying vibratory force to the member thereby reducing friction between the member and the soil, letting the member sink into the soil by its own weight and the weight of the apparatus, or, (B) by repeatedly percussively downwardly driving the element, said apparatus comp-rising:

(a) a frame,

(b) an anvil fixed to the frame,

(c) a carriage,

(d) a hammer fixed to the carriage, the hammer being in registry with the anvil,

(e) means mounting the carriage on the frame for reciprocal movement along an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the member between a lower position in which the carriage hammer strikes the frame anvil and an upper position in which the carriage hammer is clear of and vertically higher than the frame anvil,

(f) a pair of like weights,

(g) means rotatably mounting the weights on the carriage for opposed rotation about parallel axes lying in plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the member, said weights being eccentric with respect to said axes and being synchronized and phased to exert vibratory force parallel to the axis of the member,

(h) motor means driving the eccentric weights,

(i) spring suspension means mounted on the frame and bearing on the carriage, the said means biasing the carriage in opposed directions along the longitudinal axis of the member and suspending the carriage at a location intermediate said positions,

(1') a first clamp fixed to the carriage,

(k) means selectively actuating the first clamp to grip the member and firmly secure the carriage to the member,

(1) a second clamp fixed to the frame,

(In) means selectively actuating the second clamp to grip the member and firmly secure the frame to the member,

(n) so that when the motor means is energized and the first clamp is actuated, the carriage will exert vibratory force on the member materially reducing the friction between the member and the soil so that the member will sink under its own Weight and the weight of the apparatus, and

(0) so that when the motor means is energized and only the second clamp is actuated, the carriage will reciprocate on the spring suspension mounting means and the carriage hammer will repetitively strike the frame anvil and thereby exert percussive force on the member in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the member driving the member into the soil.

2. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into the soil as set forth in claim 1 further including means selectively raising and lowering the frame.

3. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into the soil as set forth in claim 1 wherein the apparatus provides a through passageway through the carriage and frame coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the member,

said passageway having internal dimensions sufficiently large to pass the elongated rigid member and permit said member to enter through the passageway and extend above and below the apparatus.

4. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into the soil as set forth in claim 1 wherein the means mounting the carriage for vertical movement includes a guide rod, the rod having an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the member, the carriage sliding on said rod, and wherein the spring suspension means includes a pair of opposed springs, each spring having one end "bearing on the frame adjacent a different remote end of the guide rod and having its other end bearing on the carriage.

5. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into the soil as set forth in claim 3 wherein the anvil is annular and defines a through passageway and the hammer is annular and defines a through passageway, all of said passageways being coaxial, said latter two passageways having internal dimensions sufficiently large to pass the elongated rigid member and permit said member to enter through the passageways and extend above and below the apparatus.

6. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into the soil as set forth in claim 4 wherein the frame includes an upper arm and a lower arm, the guide rod being mounted between the arms, the springs being coiled compression springs, each spring being wound about a different end of the guide rod.

7. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into the soil as set forth in claim 1 wherein means is included fixing the hammer on the carriage for selected limited axial positional adjustment with respect to the carriage.

8. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into the soil as set forth in claim 2 wherein the raising and lowering means includes an elongated guide rail having its longitudinal axis parallel to the axis of the member, shoes on the frame slidingly engaging the guide rail and a winch assembly including a cable running to the frame, for hoisting and lowering the frame.

9. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into the soil as set forth in claim 8 wherein the apparatus is mounted on a vehicle for portable operation.

10. Apparatus for emplacing an elongated rigid member into soil selectively (A) by applying vibratory force to the member thereby reducing friction between the member and the soil, letting the member sink into the soil by its own weight and the weight of the apparatus, or, (B) by repeatedly percussively downwardly driving the element, said apparatus comprising:

(a) a frame,

(b) an anvil fixed to the frame,

(0) a carriage,

(d) a hammer fixed to the carriage, the hammer being in registry with the anvil,

(e) means mounting the carriage on the frame for reciprocal movement along an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the member between a lower position in which the carriage hammer strikes the frame anvil and an upper position in which the carriage hammer is clear of and vertically higher than the frame anvil,

(f) means actuated by a motor means exerting vibratory force on the carriage in a direction parallel to the axis of the member,

(g) spring suspension means mounted on the frame and bearing on the carriage, the said means biasing the carriage in opposed directions along the longitudinal axis of the member and suspending the carriage at a location intermediate said positions,

(h) a first clamp fixed to the carriage,

(i) means selectively actuating the first clamp to grip the member and firmly secure the carriage to the member,

(i) a second clamp fixed to the frame,

(k) means selectively actuating the second clamp to grip the member and firmly secure the frame to the member,

(1) so that when the motor means is energized and the first clamp is actuated, the carriage will exert vibratory force on the member materially reducing the friction between the member and the soil so that the member will sink under its own weight and the weight of the apparatus, and

(In) so that when the motor means is energized and only the second clamp is actuated, the carriage will reciprocate on the spring suspension mounting means and the carriage hammer will repetitively strike the frame anvil and thereby exert percussive force on the member in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the member driving the member into the soil.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,008,528 11/ 1961 Berthet 173-49 3,101,956 8/1963 Muller 175-56 X 3,215,209 11/1965 Desvaux 173 49 3,312,295 4/1967 Bodine 17556 X FOREIGN PATENTS 1,131,102 10/1956 France.

NILE C. BYERS, JR., Primary Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3008528 *Feb 18, 1958Nov 14, 1961Francois BerthetDriving and extraction devices for piles, tubing, sheet piling and the like
US3101956 *Jan 19, 1961Aug 27, 1963Ludwig MullerClamping device for clamping a pile body to a vibratory device
US3215209 *Nov 20, 1961Nov 2, 1965Francois BerthetDevice for acting on piles, tubing, sheet-piling and the like
US3312295 *Sep 23, 1965Apr 4, 1967Bodine Jr Albert GMethod and apparatus for fluid injection in vibratory driving of piles and the like
FR1131102A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3463549 *Aug 11, 1967Aug 26, 1969Shell Oil CoSonic earth cutting machine
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Classifications
U.S. Classification173/49, 175/55, 74/61
International ClassificationE02D7/26, E02D7/00, E02D7/10, E02D7/18
Cooperative ClassificationE02D7/18, E02D7/10, E02D7/26
European ClassificationE02D7/10, E02D7/18, E02D7/26