US 3396652 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 13, 1968 w. E. MORRISON ETAL 3,396,652
VENTILATING SKYLIGHT WITH VENT I Filed June 15, 1966 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig.2.
I N VENT 0R. WILunM E. Mann/sou am! PHILLIP PAINTER BY MK. 54
AITOR N EY 1968 w. E. MORRISON E 3,396,652
VENTILATING SKYLIGHT WITH HEAT VENT Filed June 15, 1966 4 Shets-Sheet 2 Y I N VENT 0R3 E 5 WILLIAM E. Mann/son and g g 58 PHILLIP PAINTER ATTORNEY 1968 w. E. MORRISON ET AL 3,396,652
VENTILATING SKYLIGHT WITH HEAT VENT Filed June 15. 1966 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Fig. 8.
IN VENT 0R5. WILLIAM E. Monmsom and Pu/zup PAINTER ATTORNEY Aug. 13, 1968 VENTILATING Filed June 15. 1966 W. E. MORRISON ET AL.
SKYLIGHT WITH HEAT VENT I 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Fig. 12
IN VENT 0R3.
WIL AM E. Mann/sou and P/l/lL/P Pnmrsn ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,396,652 VENTILATING SKYLIGHT WITH HEAT VENT William E. Morrison and Phillip Painter, Indianapolis, Ind., assignors to Jenn-Air Corporation, Indianapolis, had, a corporation of Indiana Filed June 15, 1966, Ser. No. 557,746 13 Claims. (Cl. 98-43) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLGSURE A roof mounted ventilator, skylight and heat-vent unit including a dampering means adapted to be automatically rotated outwardly from its normally closed position to open a side ventilating aperture when either a pressure differential is created across the aperture through the operation of a ventilating fan or the temperature within the unit reaches a predetermined level. When the ventilating aperture is opened, the dampering means directs the flow of air discharged from the unit by the fan in an upward and outward direction with respect to said unit.
This invention relates generally to roof mounted ventilating or air exhausting apparatus and, in particular, to a unitary ventilator, skylight and heat-vent assembly. In its principal aspects the invention is concerned with a unitary assembly of the foregoing type which is modular in construction, thus permitting the fabrication of a device which will provide a building with ventilation, heat-vent protection and a skylight, or a combination of any of these features as may be desired in a given application.
It is a general aim of the present invention to provide a compact unitary apparatus which may readily incorporate any or all of the desirable characteristics of a power driven ventilator with back draft dampering, a skylight and a heat vent, yet which is economical and permits of ease in assembly. As a result of attaining this objective, it is possible to use considerably fewer roof openings, thereby substantially reducing installation and maintenance costs.
A more detailed object of the invention is to provide a unitary apparatus of the type described above characterized by its relatively low contour.
A further object of the present invention is the provision of an assembly of the type referred to in which its discharge is directed outwardly and upwardly from the assembly and roof, thus minimizing the problem of deposits being built up on the roof and exhausted fumes and airborne particles being drawn back into the building through open windows.
A correlative object of the present invention is to minimize the noise transmitted to the interior of the building being vented by a power driven blower. Thus, by directing the discharge outwardly and upwardly from the assembly, a lower volume of air and consequently a lower blower speed is required to overcome rainfall than in the case of a ventilating device having a completely vertical discharge.
A further object of the invention is to provide the assembly with a plurality of damper blades each cooperating with a separate heat vent, thus heat-vent protection will still be provided in an emergency situation, even 'ice though one or more damper blades may be rendered inoperative.
A related object of the present invention is to provide an improved damper blade construction characterized by its strength, durability, and reliability in operation, yet which is simple of construction and which permits use of a single blade to perform the functions which heretofore required a plurality of blades.
These and further objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of an exemplary apparatus embodying the features of the present invention here depicting a ventilator unit having its damper blades in a partially open position;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged vertical section view taken substantially along the line 22 of FIGURE '1;
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged sectional view of a portion of the structure shown in FIGURE 2, with the damper blade in a closed position;
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view taken generally along the line 4-4 of FIGURE 3;
FIGURE 5 is a view similar to FIGURE 3, but here showing the damper blade in an open position and the heat vent released;
FIGURES 6 and 7 are side sectional views of modified forms of covers, which also find use with the present invention;
FIGURE 8 is a top plan view of a power blower assembly and its mounting means and of the type shown in FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 9 is a top plan view of an alternative power blower assembly and its mounting means; and,
FIGURE 10 is a perspective view of the preformed orifice-sump element;
FIGURE 11 is an enlarged sectional view similar to FIGURE 3, but here showing a modified form of heat valve;
FIGURE 12 is a view similar to FIGURE 1'1, but here showing the damper blade in an open position and the heat vent released.
While particular embodiments of the present invention are shown in the drawing and will herein be described in detail, it is apparent that changes and modifications may be made without departing from this invention in its broader aspects, and therefore the aim in the appended claims is to cover such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
With reference to the drawings, FIGURE 1 shows at 20 a curb structure which is generally rectangular in configuration and encircles an opening in the roof 21 of a building structure. The curb is of a conventional construction and of the type that is normally provided on the roof of a building structure to receive a ventilating unit.
The exemplary apparatus, generally indicated at 18, includes a frame which comprises a curb engaging base member 23 overlying the upper margin of the curb 20, a plurality of generally vertical members 24 attached to base member 23 and extending upwardly therefrom and a marginal member 26 provided at the upper portion of members 24. It is understood that the marginal member 26 is not essential to the invention but is provided in the exemplary apparatus to impart additional strength and rigidity.
For the purpose of preventing rain or foreign objects from entering the building, a cover 27 overlying and supported by the frame is provided.- To secure the cover 27 to the frame, eye nuts 28 are provided which are fastened to threaded studs 30, the latter passing through the cover 27 and being secured to the vertical members 24. Additionally, the eye nuts are utilized to provide means of attachment for cables or the like to aid in the installation or-removal of the unit.
To forcibly exhaust air from the building, a power driven blower is provided as shown in FIGURES 2 and 8 comprising motor 31 and fan 32, the motor being mounted on a plate 33 which is supported by a pair of additional frame elements 34 extending diagonally across the base member 23 and secured thereto.
- In applications where the desired fan speed cannot be obtained directly from a motor, a belt-driven arrangement may be used. In the belt-driven arrangement, as illustrated in FIGURE 9, the fan 32 is attached to the lower end of the vertical shaft 35. The upper end of the shaft is attached to pulley 37 and the shaft itself is rotatably supported by a pair of conventional pillow block bearings which are mounted on plate 38. The motor 31 is attached I to a belt tensioning device which comprises a pair of plates 39 and 40 respectively. Plate 39 is permanently secured at right angles to the frame elements 34. Plate 40, which carries the motor 31, is pivotally mounted to plate 39 by a hinge 41, the latter being spring biased in a manner so as to urge the plates 39 and 40 apart, thereby maintaining the tension of the belt 42.
In order to permit the exit of vapors and airborne matter from the apparatus to the outside of the building, a plurality of outlet openings 43 are provided about the periphery of the frame 22. Each opening 43 is generally defined by the base member 23, two adjacent vertical members 24 and the marginal member 26.
In accordance with one of the important aspects of the present invention, provision is made for normally maintaining each outlet opening 43 in a closed condition, yet wherein the outlet opening will be opened in response to a differential in pressure across it to allow air to move through and be returned to a closed condition upon the removal of the differential in pressure. This is accomplished by providing each outlet opening 43 with a dampering assembly which, as shown in FIGURES 2, 3, and 5, includes a damper blade 44 pivotally mounted in outlet opening 43 by hinges 45. In the exemplary apparatus, the damper blade 44 is mounted at the lower portion of the outlet opening 43. Thus, when the damper blade 44 opens as a result of a pressure differential across the outlet opening 43 to allow air to move through the opening, as best seen in FIGURES 1 and 2, the air will be directed by the damper blade in a generally outward and upward direction thereby attaining the objects heretofore stated.
In carrying out the present invention, the damper blade 44 (FIGURES 3 and is of a spaced laminated construction having an outer plate 44a and an inner plate 44b. The purpose of this construction is twofold. First, it provides a dead air space between the two spaced plates which serves as insulation thereby reducing the information of condensation within the apparatus. Secondly, the rigidity and strength obtained from this construction permits a single damper blade to be used in an appreciably larger opening than is possible with a conventional type of damper .blade. To provide even greater rigidity and strength, the outer plate 44a of the exemplary damper blade 44 is formed with longitudinal ribs 46.
To insure that damper blade 44 will return to a position closing the outlet opening 43 in the absence of a differential in pressure across the outlet opening so as to provide back draft dampering, a generally U-shaped counterweight 47 is carried by the damper blade in a 1 4 I, 2 manner as shown in FIGURES 3 and .5. To avoid the necessity of using a heavy counterweight for both'safety and cost considerations, a leaf spring 48 (FIGURES 2 and 3) is fastened to the base member 23 in a manner so as to be engaged by a pin 50 which is carried by the counterweight 47. As the damper blade 44 opens in response to a pressure differential across the outlet opening 43, the spring 48 is deflected to a loaded position by the pin 50 and therefore aids the counterweight in biasing the damper blade towards a. closed positionhIt is understood however, that a-counterweight or a spring could also be employed individually without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
Another important aspect of the present invention is to automatically open the damper blades 44 in case of fire by novel heat-vent means. To accomplish this, a pair of torsionv springs 51 (FIGURE 4) is coaxially mounted on the base member23. The adjacent ends. 52 of the springs are fixed by reason of their engagement with the base member 23, and their opposite ends 53 are joined together by a generally U-shaped actuatingmember 47 in the same general planar relationship. 7
In carrying out the present invention, the U-shaped actuating member 54. (FIGURE 3) is rotated about its axis 55 thereby loading the springs 51, and is maintained in this position under normal conditions by a linkage comprising hook member 56 and fusible element 57, which in turn is attached to the frame by means of a bracket 58.
In the event that the temperature of the air contacting the preselected fusible element 57 reaches the point whereby the fusible element is destroyed as shown in FIGURE 5, the U-shaped actuating member 54 is released from its spring loaded position and rapidly pivots about the axis 55 forcibly striking the damper blade 44 and thereby moving it to a permanently open position. It is to be noted in FIGURE 5 that the leaf spring 48 is not in a deflected position. This is because the pin 50 in traveling to the position it assumes when the damper blade 44 is open to its extreme position by the heat-vent actuating member 54, advances beyond the length of the spring 48, By providing this overriding feature the heat-vent actuating member 54 does not have to overcome the force of the spring 48 in moving the damper blade 44 to its extreme opened position.
/ In order to provide an orifice so that the fan 32 is able to etficiently create a pressure differential across the outlet opening 43, a novel preformed housing 60 (FIGURE 2) is provided. The housing is dimensioned to enclose an area substantially the same as that bounded by the base member 23 and is secured about its circumference to the underportion thereof. As seen in FIGURE 10, the orifice is defined by an aperture 61 which is formed in the central portion of the housing. This aperture is formed with an upwardly directed edge 62 which defines one side of a circumferential channel 63 providing sump means for collecting any moisture that may enter the apparatus. In the use of the apparatus, collected moisture may be left to evaporate or be drained off, depending on the existing climatic factors.
Still another important aspect of the present invention is to minimize the amount of moisture entering the unit at the base of the damper blade 44, and to insure that any moisture entering in this manner is deposited in the sump 63, the cross section of the base member 23 is formed in a novel manner, As illustrated in FIGURE 3, the base member 23 includes a vertically disposed section 23a which serves aS a barrier to any moisture passing under the damper blade 44, or running down its inner surface 44b. In the event that some moisture is carried over the top section 23a, an additional vertically directed section 23b is provided to direct this moisture into the sump 63.
In accordance with still another important aspect of the present invention, the cover 27 of the apparatus is light transmissive in order to provide the building with a skylight. This is accomplished by forming the cover 27 out of a light transmissive material such as, merely by way of example, Lucite, Plexiglas, or Uvex. The damper blade 44 and the preformed housing 60 may also be constructed of a similar material if additional illumination is desired.
In order to prevent moisture from accumulating on the cover 27, the central portion thereof is formed in an upwardly directed convex configuration with a circumferential channel (FIGURE 1) adjacent to its lower portion. Furthermore, at each corner of the cover 27, there is formed a depression 29 communicating with the channel 25 through which any moisture accumulated in the channel will run off the cover.
In installations where moisture condensation is a problem, a modified cover element may be embodied in the present invention. FIGURE 7 shows a cover 27 of the type heretofore described with an additional light transmissive lower element 27a provided to create a dead air space between the upper and lower elements, thus providing the required insulation. If a skylight is not required in a particular installation, a generally flat cover element 65 as shown in FIGURE 6 may be used, which contains insulation 66; such as, merely by way of example, a rigid 'Fiberglas material.
In the event that a particular installation requires a unit without a ventilating function, a modified heat-vent structure is employed so as to maintain the damper blade 44 in a normally closed position in the absence of back draft dampering structure. As illustrated in FIGURE 11, this is accomplished by an elongated linkage member 70 connecting the fusible element 57 to a bracket 71 which is attached to the upper portion of the damper blade. In this modified structure, the U-shaped actuating member 54 is maintained in a tensed position by its contact with the inner surface 44b of the damper blade. As seen in FIGURE 12, the destruction of the fusible element 57, releases the damper blade 44 and it is moved to a permanently opened position by the U-shaped actuating member 54.
1. A ventilating unit adopted for mounting on a preconstructed curb which frames an opening in a building, said unit comprising, in combination, a frame overlying said curb, a cover supported 'by said frame in spaced relation to said curb, said cover being dimensioned to overlie the area bounded by said frame, said frame defining at least one aperture in the side of said frame for permitting passage of air, smoke, particles and other airborne substances through the building opening and between the interior and exterior of the building, a damper blade rotatably mounted at the lower portion of each said side aperture for selectively opening and closing the aperture, biasing means urging said damper blade toward a position closing said aperture so that said aperture is normally closed in the absence of a pressure differential across said aperture, said damper blade being rotatably shiftable in response to the movement of air through said building opening and aperture which creates a pressure differential across said aperture suflicient to overcome the force of said biasing means so that said damper blade is rotatably shifted to open said aperture, said damper blade in its rotated open position being adapted to direct air discharged through said aperture in an upward and outward direction with respect to said building, and actuating means for automatically rotating said damper blade to open said aperture irrespective of any pressure differential across said aperture when said building temperature reaches a predetermined level.
2. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 1 wherein said biasing means includes a counterweight carried by said damper blade.
3. The ventilating unit as set forth in claim 1 wherein said biasing means includes a leaf spring having one end mounted to said frame and the other end slidably engaging said damper blade when a pressure differential exists across said aperture, said spring being biased when said damper blade is opened due to said pressure differential so that said spring tends to urge damper 'blade toward its closed position.
4. The ventilating unit as set forth in claim 3 wherein said spring is disengaged from said damper blade when said damper blade is automatically opened by said actuating means so that said spring will not urge said damper blade toward its closed position.
5. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 1 wherein said biasing means includes a counterweight carried by said damper blade and a spring mounted on said frame cooperating with said counterweight.
6. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 1 wherein said cover and said damper blade are light transmissive.
7. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 1 further characterized in that means are provided for positively moving air through said building opening and aperture, said means comprising a motor, a fan driven by said motor, and orifice means within which said fan is disposed.
8. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 7 wherein said orifice means comprises a preformed housing underlying said frame, said housing encompassing the area bounded by said curb and having a central opening dimensioned to receive said fan, and said housing defines a sump means between said fan and curb within which any moisture entering the unit is accumulated.
9. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 1 wherein said means for automatically shifting said damper blade comprises a spring biased actuating member and a retaining member for normally maintaining said actuating member in a tensed position away from said damper blade, said retaining member having a heat destructible element which is destroyed when said building temperature reaches a predetermined level whereby said actuating member is permitted to engage said damper blade and urge said blade to an open position.
10. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 1 wherein said damper blade is of a laminar construction having at least two walls extending transversely of said aperture, and at least one of said walls having a rigidifying rib.
11. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 1 wherein said frame includes a curb engaging base member comprising a barrier means whereby any moisture accumulating at the lower portion of said damper blade will be precluded from entering said aperture.
12. A ventilating unit adapted for mounting on a preconstructed curb which frames an opening in a building, said unit comprising, in combination, a frame overlying said curb, a light transmissive cover supported by said frame in spaced relation to said curb, said cover being dimensioned to overlie the area bounded by said frame, said frame having a base, vertical uprights, and top marginal portions which define at least one side aperture for permitting passage of air, smoke, particles and other airborne substances through the building opening and between the interior and exterior of the building, a damper blade rotatably mounted to said frame base at the lower portion of each said aperture for selectively opening and closing the aperture, a spring mounted on said frame base slidably engaging said damper blade and urging said damper blade toward a position closing said aperture so that said aperture is normally closed in the absence of a pressure differential across said aperture, a fan and fan drive mounted within said building opening for selectively moving air through said building opening and aperture to create a pressure differential across said aperture suflicient to overcome said urging spring force and rotatably shift said damper blade to an open position, said damper blade in its rotated open position being adapted to direct air discharged through said aperture in an upward and outward driven with respect to said building, a spring biased actuating member mounted at one end to said frame base for automatic-ally engaging and rotatably shifting said damper blade irrespective of any pressure differential across said aperture, a retaining member including a heat destructible element maintaining said actuating member in a normally tensed position'and out of contact with said damper blade, said heat destructible element of said retaining member being destructible when the temperature of said building reaches a perdeterrnined level so that said actuating member is released by said retaining member and engages said damper blade to rotatably shift the blade to an open position.
13. A ventilating unit as set forth in claim 12 in which a counterweight is carried by said damper blade and said counterweight and spring combine to urge said damper blade toward a position closing said aperture.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Coe 9843 X Bristol 9886 X Field 9843 Hazen et al 98-1l6 X Ahern 98=121 X Lambie et a1. 9843 Kortf 9842 ROBERT A. OLEARY, Primary Examiner.
W. E. WAYNER, Assistant Examiner.