US 3397457 A
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Aug. 20, 1968 N. R. GOSSELIN DENTAL DRILL 2 sheetswshee't 1 Filed Jan. 22, 1965 0, 1968 R. GOSSELIN 3,397,457
DENTAL DRILL Filed Jan. 22, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 a, /J x T I United States Patent 3,397,457 DENTAL DRILL Norman R. Gosselin, Marblehead, Mass., assignor to Iota- Cam Corporation, Wakefield, Mass, a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Jan. 22, 1965, Ser. No. 427,385
9 Claims. (Cl. 3227) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Fiber optic light beam in combination with a dental drill in a manner that does not interfere with the dentists technique or operation of the drill. A connector that automatically completes the light path with connection of the drill to its power supply, a method for modifying existing drills and a special member that relates the distal portion of the fibers to the drill body are disclosed.
This invention relates to the combination of light sources and dental drills.
One object of the invention is to provide a simple and inexpensive means for modifying conventional air turbine dental drills, including those that a dentist may already possess, to incorporate a light source. Another object is to make such modifications in a manner that does not detrimentally affect the shape of the drill, in particular the dimensions of the drill head, the adjoining handle, and the air flow areas, which are crucial to the proper operation of the turbine and drill.
Other objects of the invention are to provide a combination fiber-optic light source and dental drill which does not encumber the dentists grasp nor obstruct his visual control of the drill, which is durable and light weight, and which has a simple supply tube and means for attachment.
Another object of the invention is to provide a series of simple steps for modifying an air turbine dental drill to incorporate a fiber-optic light source in a manner that avoids harm to the operating parts of the dental drill, and produces a durable final assembly.
These and other objects and features will be more fully explained in connection with the drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a preferred embodiment of the invention; FIG. 2 is a partially exploded view of the embodiment of FIG. 1; FIG. 2a is an enlarged perspective view of the head of the embodiment of FIG. 1; FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of the embodiment of FIG. 1, partially broken away; FIG. 4 is a view showing the relationship between a bundle of optical fibers and a tube member employed with it; FIGS. 5 and 6 are vertical cross-sectional views, respectively, of the front and rear portions of the dental drill of FIG. 1; FIG. 7 is a bottom view of the head of the dental drill taken on line 77 of FIG. 5; FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 8-8 of FIG. 5; FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 9-9 of FIG. 6; FIG. 10 is a plan view of a jig device and grinding wheel being employed at one stage of the manufacture of the embodiment of FIG. 1;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of the coupling arrangement between the dental drill and its supply tube.
Referring to FIGS. 1-3, 5 and 6 an air driven drill comprises a head 12, a hollow main handle shell 14, 14' and a drive shaft or quill 16. Main handle section 14 is preferably elongated and straight and forward section 14' tapers forwardly as shown. The tapered forward section 14, extends through obtuse angle B as a separable member threaded to main handle section 14, and ends at a reduced diameter adjacent the head member which allows the dentist to see the drill point.
The head 12 is mounted on the forward section 14', and
houses an air driven turbine .18 which drives the quill. Referring to FIG. 5, compressed air supply tube 20 and exhaust tube 22 located in the forward section 14 power the turbine.
Main handle 14 contains a rearward tube extension 20' of the air supply tube 20, and handle 14, by having a hollow cross-section larger than tube 20', defines an exhaust passage communicating with exhaust tube 22.
Two further tubes are preferably provided, chip air tube 24 and water tube 26, these havingoutlets at the drill head 12, located symmetrically relative to a central vertical plane P, see FIG. 7.
A threaded coupling 28 is provided to join handle 14 to a flexible supply tube 30. For this purpose an end plug 32 (FIG. 9) is press-fit into the rearward end of handle 14, locating the various passages to match with the passages in tube 30. This end plug has axial holes: 20a fitted with air supply tube 20'; 22a in registry with the exhaust passage; 24a fitted with chip air tube 24; and 26a fitted with water tube 26. The flexible tube 30 is provided with a corresponding end plug 32a which is brought against end plug 32 by the threaded coupling 28 (FIG. 6), connecting the corresponding passages in the handle 14 and flexible tube 30, with a compressible gasket 33 sandwiched in between to form a seal.
The following is a preferred procedure for modifying the drill according to the invention. A forwardly directed hole A (FIG. 3) is formed in the base of the tapered section 14'. A stainless steel tubular member 40 or the like is formed with a central part 45 (FIG. 4) that extends from the rear part 44 at an obtuse angle C that corresponds to the contour of the forward tapered section 14' of the drill (FIG. 5). A downward hook 42 is formed at the forward end of tube 40. The rear part of tube 40 is inserted into the hole A, and it is then secured to the tapered section 14' with a bonding filler material 47 (FIG. 2a), such as solder or epoxy, making the tube 40 a permanent part of the structure. Preferably the rearward end 40a (FIG. 6) of tube 40 extends beyond the rearward end of handle section 14', preferably end 40a aligned parallel to the axis of handle 14 as shown. The next step is to thread through this tube 40 a flexible optic fiber bundle 48. The bundle preferably comprises fibers of one mil to four mil diameter and a bundle of these fibers that will fit the internal diameter of this tube is employed, preferably a bundle having a diameter between .065 and .075 inch. The tube may be for instance a No. 13 hypodermic needle, stainless steel, .095 inch outer diameter about 1 and inch long.
For inserting the bundle 48, the forward handle section 14' of the drill is detached from the handle 14, see FIG. 2. The fiber bundle 48 can then be readily pushed through the rearward end 4011 of tube 40 in the direction of the arrow D until the fibers protrude approximately /2 inch through the hooked forward end 42 of tubing 40. The hollow handle 14 is then secured to forward section 14' by rotation, the fiber bundle extending out of the rearward end.
Referring to FIG. 9 a passage =60 is formedin the plug 32 and the bundle of fibers 48- is inserted into passage 60, after which the plug 32 itself is introduced with press fit into the hollow handle 14 to the seated position shown in FIG. 6.
The fiber bundle is selected of a length to cause it to protrude from plug 32 when the plug is seated, and simultaneously to protrude from forward end 40b of tube 40. Epoxy resin or similar material is now applied to end portions at both ends of the fiber bundle 48, with precaution being taken not to allow any of the epoxy to get into the air or water holes. For this purpose it is advantageous earlier to fill the areas to be protected with wax or other low-melting material, which can easily be removed by heating after the epoxy has been applied and the grinding operations completed. Advantageously, as a first step in the entire operation the turbine wheel itself can be removed and the head submerged in molten wax or low melting point metal, filling the turbine housing and the air and water passages.
When the epoxy is solidified the ends of the fibers are thereby bound together and the respective end portions of the tube are bound to the tube 40 and the end plug 32. Subsequently a substantial part of the protruding end portions of the fiber bundle is removed. Then, referring to FIGS. 5 and 10, a ground end surface 48a is formed for the fiber bundle 48. This end surface 48a is directed along axis E, which intersects axis G of the turbine at point I, at the position of the burr 16a or other working end portion of the dental drill.
Referring to FIG. this grinding operation is accomplished with jig 70 to which the dental drill is clamped, the jig being movable on a way 75 to approach the flat side 72a of the grinding wheel 72. Straps 73 lock the drill in the predetermined proper location on the jig, with the end of the fiber bundle extending to one side, exposed to the grinding wheel, and the jig 70 is adapted to move on its way 75 parallel to plane P, the plane of the flat side 72a of the grinding wheel. A stop 71 is provided to limit movement of the jig toward the grinding wheel, this stop being located as shown to enable the entire fiber bundle end 48a to be contacted by the grinding wheel but to prevent cutting of the lower part 12a of the drill head.
After grinding is completed, and the work-piece cleaned, the same operation is performed with a polishing wheel. Upon completion of polishing, the entire head is submerged in hot water, melting and removing the protective covering of wax.
Referring to FIGS. 6, 9 and 11 the end 480 of the bundle 28 protruding from the rear end of the handle is similarly ground and polished.
For this purpose it is advantageous to fill the passages 20a, 22a, 24a and 26a with wax as a preliminary step, and the same thing is true with regard to plug 32a of the flexible tube 30 when a bundle of fibers 48d is combined with it as a light supply for the dental drill.
Advantageously, according to the invention, a corresponding end face of one of the fiber bundles 48 or 48d is offset outwardly from its end plug 32 or 3 2a a prede termined distance less than the thickness of the compressible gasket 33. Accordingly, when the two end plugs are brought together by coupling 28, compressing the gasket to complete the fluid passages, the finished end faces of the fiber bundles 48c and 48a are brought into much closer proximity than the gasket 33 would otherwise allow, for instance the end faces may be. spaced only .015 inch apart, or indeed they may lightly touch each other. Referring to FIG. 11, in this case the end 480 of bundle 48 is offset outwardly from the end plug 32 for this purpose.
The light supply fiber bundle 48d may be incorporated bodily into the flexible tube 30 as shown in FIG. 1A, or, as is advantageous for drill units already in the possession of dentists, an air supply cable can be modified as shown in FIG. 1. For this purpose the end plug 32a of the tube 30 is drilled to provide a passage for the fiber bundle 48d to the outer face. Then the bundle 48d, in a protective sheath, is secured to the flexible tube 30, the bundle itself being flexible and light in weight. The end of the bundle is inserted through the side wall of the tube '30, and thus is caused to pass through the passage in the plug-32a to its end surface 48c, as shown in FIG. 11.
In operation the supply bundle 48d of optical fibers is connected to a high intensity light source 49, the air connections are made to tube 30, and the dental drill handle 14 is secured to flexible tube 30 by means of the threaded coupling 28, compressing the gasket 33 to complete the motive air passages, as well as chip air and water.
Simultaneously and automatically continuity of the light path is established by virtue of offset portion 48c of bundle 48 being brought into very close proximity, and inaxial alignment with corresponding end'face 48a of bundle 48d. With the light source 49 energized the dentist can proceed with his work, through normal control of motive air. i
The light proceeds from light source 49, through bundles 48d and- 48 to the end face 48a, and is thus directed along axis F (FIGS. 5, 10) to the working area.
The end face 48a of light bundle 48 can be spaced considerably from the drill point, so that spatter from the work does not impair the light beam. Moreover, periodic wiping of the end face 48ais simple and unobjectionable,
since the end face is easily accessible and dentists periodically stop the drill to wipe the drill point, as a matter of routine.
It should be observed that the fiber bundle 48 in no way impairs the air passages, not even in the critical tapered handle area adjacent the head, so that the proper drill speed is assured. Still the bundle offers no impairment to the grip or manipulation of the drill, since it emerges from the drill handle at a forward point, and in a way whereby it can unobtrusively match the contour of the drill.
V The location of the bundle and its protective tube 40, emerging from the side of the drill directed toward the drill shaft and point, is preferred, and in many instances most advantageous from the point of view of being out of the way, and also effectively aligned with the work. Nevertheless, as in the case of special drilling operations, the point of emergence and the location of the end face can be varied, and this is facilitated by the protective tube 40 and the ease with which it can be shaped to the contour of the drill and made integral therewith by filler material.
It is advantageous, both from the point of view of ease of assembly and for protection of the fiber bundle at the point of emergence from the handle, that the tubular member pass into the handle. Advantageously, it extends at least to the end of the forward section, for protection of the bundle and ease of threading.
These and other modifications are possible.
What is claimed is:
1. A dental drill comprising a head member defining a turbine housing, a turbine within said housing, a drive shaft extending outwardly from said turbine, a handle means comprising an elongated hollow shell, said handle means including a main handle section, and a forward handle section off-set at an obtuse angle relative to said main handle section and tapering toward said head member to which it is joined, said head member shaped for insertion into a patients month, said tapered forward handle section, immediately adjacent said housing, being of substantially smaller diameter than said main handle section to enable proper manipulation and view of the work area by the dentist, said shell containing passages for compressed air to and exhaust air from said turbine whereby said turbine is driven, an elongated bundle of light'conducting fibers extending through said handle means, said fiber bundle extending outwardly of said shell at a location spaced from said head member, a tubular supporting member secured to the outside of said shell, said tubular member including an elongated portion extending generally parallel to said forward handle portion from the region of the forward end of the main handle to the region of said head member, and a hook-shaped end portion adjacent said head member bent outwardly along an .axis that intersects with the axis of said drive shaft at a point spaced outwardly of said head member, said bundle of fibers extending from said shell through said tubular member, and said bundle of fibers having its forward end portion disposed in said hook-shaped end portion of said tubular member and defining a light emitting face directed towards the area of work, said bundle of fibers adapted to receive light from a source remote from said drill.
2. The dental drill of claim 1 wherein said tubular member extends rearwardly through a hole into said shell surrounding said fibers at the point where the fibers extend through the wall of said shell.
3. The dental drill of claim 2 wherein said tubular member has its rearward end generally aligned parallel with the axis of said main handle section, said bundle of fibers extend generally parallel with said axis through said main handle section and into said rearward end of said tubular member.
4.. The dental drill of claim 1 including a filler means bonded to said tubular member, said head member and said forward handle section filling the space between the respective members.
5. In combination with a dental drill comprising a head member housing a turbine for driving the drill tool, a handle comprising an elongated hollow shell, the head member shaped for insertion into a patients mouth, the shell containing passages for compressed air to and exhaust air from the turbine to drive said turbine, and an elongated bundle of light conducting fibers extending through said handle, said bundle of fibers, at its forward end defining a light emitting face directed toward the area of work, said bundle of fibers adapted to receive light from a source remote from said drill,
a flexible supply tube which can connect the light source as well as the air passages to the drill, the rearward end of said handle of said drill being provided with a plug member, said plug member having rear wardly directed passages for said compressed air and exhaust air, said bundle of fibers extending through said end plug, coupling means adapted to join said handle to a corresponding end plug of said flexible tube, a second bundle of light conducting fibers connectable to alight source and extending through said end plug of said flexible tube, and said bundles provided with corresponding light transmitting end faces adjacent the ends of said end plugs adapted to be aligned by normal closure of said coupling means.
6. The dental drill of claim 5 wherein said coupling means includes a compressible gasket across said end of said plug, one of said bundle end faces being offset outwardly from its plug a distance less than the thickness of said gasket, adapted to closely approach the other bundle end face-to-face when said plugs are brought together by said coupling means with said compressible gasket in between.
7. A method for modifying a dental drill having a hollow handle in two separable sections and a head member joined to the forward section, comprising forming a hole in the forward section at a location spaced from said head member, providing a tubular member sized to be inserted through said hole, providing said tubular member in a form adapted to conform with the general outer contour of said forward section and ending near said head member, inserting the rearward end of said tubular member into said hole, passing a bundle of light conducting fibers through said tubular member and said forward section, securing said rear handle section to said forward handle section with said bundle of fibers protruding rearwardly from said rear handle section, securing a plug to said rear handle section with said bundle of fibers protruding therefrom while said bundle of fibers simultaneously protnude from the forward end of said tubular member, applying a rigid bonding material to each end portion of said bundle of fibers to bond said fibers together and to the drill, and grinding and polishing the end portions of said bundle, the end face on the forward end of said bundle directed toward the work area and the rearward end exposed to be joined to a supply means.
8. The method of claim 7 wherein said tubular member is first secured to said forward section, said tubular member having a rear end extending at least near the end of said forward section, and said bundle of fibers is thereafter inserted into said tubular member, entering through the rear end thereof.
9. The method of claim 7 wherein said dental drill is of the air turbine type including filling the turbine area of said drill with low melting point solid material as a protective step, and after said fiber bundle end faces have been finished, heating said drill to melt and remove said solid material.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,932,294 4/1960 Fourestier et al. l286 2,945,299 7/1960 Fritz 32-27 3,195,536 7/ 1965 Hoynanian et al 1286 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,123,034 6/1956 France.
LOUIS G. MANCENE, Primary Examiner R. PESHOCK, Assistant Examiner.