US 3397496 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 20, 1968 L. M. sol-msv 3,397,496
LOCKING MEANS FOR ROOF AND WALL PANEL CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 4, 1965 l/rllllllllll/II LESTER M. SOHNS INVENTOR.
ATTORNEYS 3,397,496 LOCKHNG MEANS FOR ROOF AND WALL PANEL CQNSTRUCTION Lester M. Sohns, Arlington, Wash., assigner to A.S.K.
& Associates, Inc., Everett, Wash., a corporation of Washington Filed Feb. 4, 1965, Ser. No. 430,268 3 Claims. (Cl. 52--286) ABSTRACT F THE DISCLSURE Interlocking wall, roof and door modular panel units made of a plastic foam core sandwiched between resin reinforced glass liber skins. Each lpancl unit has mating side edge or bottom edge locking structure for engaging an abutting panel or for securing to a floor structure. The edge structures are also made of resin reinforced glass Iiiber regardless of the particular configuration of the locking features involved.
This invention relates to locking and joining means for pre-fabricated structural roof and wall panel units used in the construction of homes, buildings and other structures, either of a permanent or mobile nature. More particularly does this invention relate to new and novel prefabricated modular building units or panels for houses and other building structures in which new and improved interlocking panel edge features are employed to effect a rigid, weather-tight, secure, and decorative joining of abutting roof and wall panel sections.
The construction industry has had, in recent years, to grapple with the problem of ever-increasing labor and material costs in the erection of conventional homes and other building structures. A natural outgrowth of rising costs in traditional construction has been an increasing tendency to homes and buildings made of modular, prefabricated, packaged rapid-erecting units. These pre-fabricated and/ or packaged building structures vary widely in design and assembly methods. The basic plan, however, is a shop or factory made pre-fabricated panel unit shipped to the job or building site ready for incorporation in the building. These pre-fabricated panel units employ a number of different types of interlocking systems, all having as their basic purpose strong, weather-resistant joints and ease of erection and assembly. Many of these pre-fabricated, packaged units have proved unsatisfactory because of the complexity and high cost of the interlocking means. Needless to say, there are also inherent disadvantages in conventional building materials in the joints, such as wood and metal. Many of these new type locking systems have therefore not gained wide acceptance.
The present invention seeks to overcome the disadvantages and drawbacks of heretofore known pre-fabricated house and building systems by employing modern plastic technology in the basic structural unit and by utilizing uniquely simple means for interlocking the basic structural units. Briefly, the invention herein contemplates resin-reinforced fiberglass skins sandwiched or laminated onto a plastic foam core, as for instance polystyrene or polyurethane. It has been found that the high structural strength of 'berglass skins in combination with foam cores imparts the necessary rigidity and strength characteristics necessary to home and other building construction. Furthermore, the foam core develops highly desirable insulation characteristics important to quality construction. In addition, the unique interlocking features of the panel units provide an effective, weather-resistant joint between the modular units.
Accordingly, it is a prime feature of this invention to provide a pre-fabricated plastic panel unit which is simple nited States Patent O "ice in design, rugged in construction, and economical to produce.
Another feature of this invention is to furnish novel interlocking, structural panel units which, because of novel, standardized design, allow for rapid assembly and therefore greatly reduced labor costs in the construction of homes and buildings.
Still another feature of this invention is to supply a novel, pre-fabricated, unique interlocking structural panel unit which has excellent insulation properties, high strength factors, and low construction costs.
Yet another feature of this invention is to provide novel, pre-fabricated interlocking structural panel units giving extremely effective and efficient Weather-resistant joints.
A further feature of this invention is to provide novel, pre-fabricated plastic interlocking panel units which are not subject to the normal deterioration of conventional materials such as metal and wood.
A still further feature of this invention is to provide novel, pre-fabricated plastic interlocking structural panel units which resist deterioration resulting from excessive ground and/or air moisture found in many swampy and tropical climates.
A still further feature of this invention is to provide novel, prefabricated, plastic interlocking structural panel units in combination with new and improved interlocking features.
These, and other features, objects and advantages, which will `become subsequently apparent, reside in the details of construction as more fully hereinafter described and claimed. Reference will be had to the accompanying drawings, forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
FIGURE 1 is a partial cross-sectional view of a structural panel unit showing the construction of the opposed edges in one embodiment of the interlocking structure for a joint;
FIGURE 2 is another embodiment showing the opposed edges of a panel unit and the manner in which they come together to form a joint;
FIGURE 3 is a pa-rtial cross-sectional view in elevation showing the bottom edge interlocking structure of a panel unit with a floor panel;
FIGURE 4 is a partial cross-sectional View in elevation of an alternative form of the bottom edge of a wall panel and its joint with a floor panel; and
FIGURE 5 is a partial cross-sectional View in perspective, showing the side edge interlocking structure for roof panel units.
Referring now to the drawings, and particularly FIG- URE l, it will be seen that the panel unit or units, generally referred to by number '10, are comprised essentially of foam core 12, outer or exterior fiberglass skin 14, and an interior skin of either fiberglass or wood paneling 16. One edge of panel l0, and reference here is to side edges, is provided with a female edge skin 18 of resinreinforced fiberglass in which said edge skin is provided with a dovetail type longitudinal groove Z0. The other or male edge of panel unit 1t) has a skin 22, and has formed therein a tongue v24 of the same configuration as groove 2t! in the other edge, and designed to be received in said groove 20. lt should be mentioned that the foam core 12 of the panel units is not strong enough itself to effect strong joints, as those skilled in the art readily appreciate. Hence, it is necessary to use the edge skins in order to impart proper strength factors and other characteristics to the joints.
FIGURE 2 illustrates another embodiment of the interlocking means for panel units. In this instance, the panels, generally designated by the number 30, have foam core 32, exterior resin-reinforced fiberglass skin 34, and interior resin-reinforced fiberglass skin or other material paneling 36. Along one edge of panel 30 is female edge skin 38, which as can be seen, is anchored to the exterior and interior skins 34 and 36. In form or configuration, edge vskin 38 beginning at the interior edge corner, curves inwardly and away from the edge line or plane of the panel, towards the center of the panel to define a guide surface 39. At the inner end of guide surface 39 is an offset or stepped wall 40 which is substantially parallel to the edge plane of the panel. A notch wall 42 at the inner end of offset wall 40 extends into the panel generally parallel to the side surfaces or faces of the panel. A connecting wall 44 extends from the rearmost end of notch Wall 42, curving outwardly away from the offset and notch walls to the general plane of the panel edge. Thus, there is defined in one edge of panel 30, a female or clip-receiving cavity for the male panel locking feature, now to be described.
The male panel edge has edge skin 46 extending between the faces or skins 34 and 36, generally perpendicularly` thereto, and, of course,attached to both'ends to the inner surfaces of said skins. An outwardly extending L-shaped male clip is comprised of a base wall 48, and at the outer end of the base wall 48 is a shorter clip wall 50, joined at approximately right angles to the base wall. The base wall, of course, is attached or formed as an integral part of the edge skin 46 and so located that the clip wall 50 snaps into the cavity defined by surfaces 40, 42, and 44 in the female edge.
FIGURES 3 and 4 illustrate structure of the joint between the lower or floor edge of the panel units and the lioor itself. Panel units 60 have foam cores 62, exterior skin 64, and interior skin or paneling 66. A lower, or bottom panel edge skin 68 extends between the exterior and interior skins 64 and 66. It will be noted that the interior skin `66 and a short leg 70 of the bottom edge skin define a projecting portion or tongue 72 since the lower edge skin 68 is set back with respect to the end surface 73 of said tongue. The exterior skin 64 continues downwardly below lower edge skin 68 and below the end surface 72 of the tongue a sufficient distance 74 to span a oor panel, joist, or other floor structure. The lower end of the projecting exterior wall member 74 is turned inwardly to form clip wall 76 to engage the under surface of said floor panel, joist, or structure 80. In FIGURE 3, panel 80 is shown to have a foam core 82, an underskin 84, an endskin 86, and a topskin 88. If a flush fioor panel 80 is employed, a spacer member 90, which is preferably made of plastic material but which could also be made of wood or metal or other building material, would be attached along the edge of the upper surface by conventional means, such as nails, screws, glue, or the like. Spacer 90 is weight-receiving, as well as an additional feature in establishing weather-resistance in the joint between the lower edges of wall panels 60 and fioor panels 80. Spacer 90 has an upper surface 92 which bears against the inset lower skin 68 of the wall panel. For that reason spacer 90 in depth, measures the same as the distance between skin 68 and lower edge surface 73 of tongue portion 72. FIGURE 4 shows essentially the same wall panel structure in which a slight modification in the structure of the floor panel is made in order to accomplish the same type of joint as shown in FIGURE 3. Upper skin 102 has a groove or cavity 10'4 to receive the tongue portion 72, defined by lower edge skin 68 and offset wall 70 on the lower edge of the wall panel unit. Thus, floor panel unit 100 has end skin 106 and lower or undersurface skin 108. The undersurface skin 108 is offset near the edge to provide a stepped wall surface 110' and a clip-receiving surface 112 against which the male clip surface 76 engages to hold wall panel unit 60 in place. The groove 104, falling as it does below the line or plane established by skin 102, defines a mating section 114, serving the same function and purpose as the raised portion `90 in floor panel 80 described in FIGURE 3.
vFIGURE is directed to a roof panel 120 having core 122, exterior skin 124, and bottom or interior skin 126. The male edge of the panel is provided with edge skin 128. Edge skin 128 has a general Z shape configuration, having a short exterior skin connecting leg 130 and an oppositely extending short interior skin connecting leg 132. It will be noted that leg 132 is substantially parallel to the interior skin 126 and is offset from said interior skin to form an abutment wall 134. The exterior skin 124 extends outwardly beyond the plane of edge skin 128, to form clip support leg 136. At the outer end thereof, is a downwardly or inwardly directed clip leg 138.,The female edge of panel 120 has an end skin 140 which has a shortattachment leg 142 to be secured to the interior surface of interior skin 1'26. Leg 142 is joined to interior skin 126 in such a way as to define a double thickness lapping wall with an end surface 144. The end surface 144 abuts against abutment wall 134 on the male edge of the adjoining panel 120. The top or exterior surface near edge skin is configuratedto provide groove 146 'for receiving clip leg 138. Between the top edge corner or edge skin 140] and groove 146 is a triangularor V-shaped trough 148 defined by trough walls 150 and 152. The purpose of trough 148 is to serve as an additional safety factor for any moisture or other foreign material which might work its way past the union of clip leg 138 and groove 146. The configuration shown in FIGURE 5, for the male and female edges of the roof panels is such as to provide a secure, weathersealing joint.
It will be appreciated that numerous modifications and changes will occur to those skilled in the art, and that the embodiments shown herein are merely illustrative of the principles of this invention. Hence it is not desired to limit this invention to the exact construction shown and described. Accordingly, all suitable modifications 'and equivalents may be resorted to which fall within the scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An interlocking panel unit for building and home construction, comprising: (a) a low density plastic foam core sheet and resin reinforced glass fiber face skins on the inner and outer surfaces thereof to define a laminated panel unit having upper, lower, and side edge surfaces; (b) mating panel side edge surface locking means for said panel units in which each of said side edges has a resin reinforced glass fiber edge skin anchored to the inner surfaces of each of said face skins, one of said side edges comprising a -female side edge and the other a male side edge; (c) said Ifemale edge having an outwardly extending tongue means formed jointly of edge skin and the inner face skin, `and also having on the outer face skin a groove means extending parallel to and set back Ifrom said edge skin, and also including a trough means formed on said outer face skin between said groove means and said edge skin; and (d) said male edge including an outwardly extending generally flat planar locking arm member with a downwardly directed clip leg for engaging said groove means on said female edge, said locking arm member passing over and covering said trough means.
2. An interlocking panel unit for building and home construction, comprising: (a) a low density plastic foam core sheet and resin reinforced glass fiber face skins on the inner and outer surfaces thereof to define a laminated panel unit having upper, lower, and side edge surfaces; (b) mating panel side edge surface locking means for said panel units in which each of said side edges has a resin reinforced glass fiber edge skin anchored to the inner surfaces of each of said face skins, one of said side edges comprising a female side edge and the other a male side edge; (c) said female edge having :an outwardly extending tongue means formed jointly of edge skin and the inner face skin, and also having on the outer face skin a groove means extending generally parallel to and set back from said edge skin, 'and also including a trough means formed on said outer face skin between said groove means and said edge skin; and (d) said male edge including an outwardly extending generally flat planar locking arm member extending from said outer face skin and having a downwardly directed clip leg thereon for engaging said groove means, said male side edge also having a tongue receiving portion offset -from said inner face skin 4for receiving said tongue means, said locking arm member passing over and covering said trough means.
3. An interlocking panel unit for building and home construction, comprising: (a) a low density `plastic foam core sheet and resin reinforced glass fiber face skins on the inner and outer surfaces thereof to define a laminated panel unit hafving upper, lower, and side edge surfaces; (b) mating male and female panel side edge surface locking means for said panel units in which each of said side edges has a resin reinforced glass liber edge skin anchored to the inner surfaces of each of said face skins; (c) an interlocking lower side edge surface for engaging a floor structure including a lower edge skin made of resin reinforced glass fiber anchored to the inner surfaces of said face skins, said lower edge skin and said 20 inner face skin together lforming a downwardly extending tongue means, and said outer face skin having a downwardly extending generally L-shaped floor structure engaging member provided with an inwardly directed clip leg for engaging coacting surface means of a floor structure and to hold said panel unit in place with respect to said floor structure, said tongue means lower edge skin and outer face skin defining a floor member receiving cavity adapted to receive panel unit supporting structure against said lower edge skin.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,999,244 4/1935 Ludowici 52--533 2,142,305 1/1939' Davis 52-589 2,962,323 11/1960 McBride 52,-309 X 2,982,380 5/1961 Rose 52-578 3,192,671 7/1965 Smith 52-434 3,243,929 4/ 1966 Strandlund et al. 52-593 X FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.
ALFRED C. PERI-IAM, Assistant Examiner.