US 3397693 A
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Aug. 20, 1968 E. wARNcKE BREATHING APPARATUS Filed Dec. 6, 1965 n 12 .0 me m 6 bm. wn m H WM W 8 1H .L n mw IZ n 0l J vo. 1F. .3 l 6 \m @mmv United States Patent() 3,397,693 BREATHING APPARATUS Ernst Warncke, Lubeck, Germany, assignor to Otto Heinrich Drager, Lubeck, Germany Filed Dec. 6, 1965, Ser. No. 511,823 Claims priority, application Germany, Jan. 2, 1965,
6 claims. (ci. 12s- 191) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A compact breathing apparatus has a housing holding a gas tank, an air regenerating agent container adjacent the tank, and a breathing bag and mouthpiece tube above the container. When the lbreathing bag and tube are pulled out of the housing, gas automatically flows into the breathing bag to prerinse it With oxygen.
This invention relates to a breathing apparatus and, in particular, to a portable breathing apparatus composed of a housing for a breathing bag 'and an exhale regenerating container.
A breathing apparatus is known in which a breathing bag is contained within a portable housing having therein a folded breathing bag which can be taken out of the front of the housing and blown up when the apparatus is operated. In such case, the opening is on the bottom of the housing. Also, the opening can be closed by a lid or cover. To simplify the operation of the apparatus, the closure is coupled to the valve of a pressurized gas tank so that the valve is opened when the cover is removed. In this apparatus, the carrying means is fastened to the part of the housing away from the user of the apparatus and the container wall adjacent the user can be removably connected to the housing. Also, the back wall of the housing and the closure which covers the opening to the breathing bag are made of one piece.` The back wall is slidable from the housing and the pressurized gas tank lever is so positioned that the valve is opened when the back wall is removed. When the breathing bag is removed from the housing, the opening of the valve pre-rinses and lls up the breathing bag in order to make the operation more perfect. Furthermore, the breathing tube connected to the mask or mouthpiece is arranged so that it is easily accessible when the cover is removed 'and preferably arranged so that it automatically drops out of the housing.
It has also been proposed to make a breathing apparatus including a housing which holds the tank for the pressurized gas, the breathing bag, and a container for the chemical agent used to absorb the carbon dioxide from exhaled air. In such an apparatus, the chemical container is so formed to give structural support for the apparatus. Thus the gas tank and chemical container ,lie adjacent to and are braced against one another in a housing having an approximate oval form. In a further form of this apparatus, the chemical container is formed of a part of the housing in that a chamber is provided for holding the carbon dioxide absorbing agent. Also, a space is provided next to the chamber for the chemical agent for receiving the pressurized gas tank while keeping the housing in an overall oval shape.
The chemical container can be provided with a recess for the reception of the gas tank. Also, the housing can be given a cross-sectional shape so that one longitudinal side of the housing is approximately at. Furthermore, when seen in cross-section, both longitudinal sides are curved in the same direction so that a concave surface is provided t-o bear against the body of the user of the apparatus. Again, the chemical container is attached to a breathing tube extending in the longitudinal direction of the container, which tube is perforated in its upper and Cil Patented Aug. 20, 1968 ice lower end portions. In such, the upper and lower portions are given conical or funnel-like shapes which have the perforations and which are fastened to the top and bottom sides of the container. This breathing tube or air tube has a check valve openable in the direction of exhaled air. Preferably the check valve is positioned in the lower end of the tube but in advance of the perforations therein. Such apparatus also has a sleeve attached to the lower end of the chemical container in order to open the tube while the upper end of the tube has a sleeve fastenable to the mouthpiece or breathing tube leading to the breathing mask. The end of the breathing bag has a bellows iiange attached to the chemical container. Above the container is a chamber for holding the breathing tube, mouthpiece, and/or mask and closed by a removable cover. The lower part of the housing has another chamber for holding the folded breathing bag. The breathing bag chamber is closed by a cover which is connected to the gas tank valve in such a manner that the valve is opened by removing the cover. This lower cover can be removed by being slid downwardly. In such case, the arrangement is such that the breathing bag is still protected when the breathing bag is slid downwardly. The downward movement is limited by a stop. The lower cover is preferably composed of a synthetic material and has a cross-section which corresponds to the overall cross-section of the housing.
In that construction, the valve on the gas tank which is movable -by air pressure produced 'by the lungs can be connected directly to the gas tank and gas pressure reducing means. Thus the -gas pressure reducing means includes an inlet port, a relief valve and a high pressure locking valve. A lever connected to the lung-controlled mechanism projects into the breathing bag. Such lever has its free end kbeneath the chemical container. Thus the -free end of the lever is eccentrically positioned below the lower opening into the `chemical container. The free end of the lever is enlarged by a ball, disc, or the like which is eccentrically positioned.
The object of this invention is to improve upon the afore-descrilbed breathing apparatuses. In this invention, the housing contains the chemical container with the breathing bag being positioned above the container and the top of the housing closed by a cover. This invention as the advantage in that lwhen the apparatus is used only the top cover must be opened so that the breathing bag can be pulled upwar-dly out of the housing. This is advantageous in that the breathing bag is positioned where quick and ready access is important in many cases. It extends higher than the arms of the human body wearing the apparatus so that it can be covered by the arms and is thus better protected and can Ibe observed more easily as when, for exa-mple, the user is crawling through ra narrow passage. Since the mouthpiece is generally also connected to the upper end of the apparatus, it lies within the range of the breathing bag. This is especially so when both the Ibreathing tube and mouthpiece are also mounted in the top portion of the housing so that, when the top cover is removed, the mouthpiece, as well as the lbreathing bag, is easily extracted from the top of the apparatus.
The means by which the objects of the invention are obtained are disclosed more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE l is a transverse cross-section view through the apparatus as taken on the line 1-1 of FIGURE 2; and
FIGURE 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view through the apparatus.
Housing 1 has a chamber 2 for holding the chemical agent container for regenerating exhaled air. Partition 3 separates this chamber from another chamber 4 which 3 holds an oxygen tank 5. Tank 5 is slid into chamber 4 from the top of the housing. Partition 3 and housing 1 are made of one piece, as, for example, of a synthetic material.
'The upper portion of chamber 2 is closed by a removable container cover 6 which has a centrally downwardly extending sleeve 7 exteriorly threaded to be secured to an air tube 8 which passes centrally through the container. The closed lower end 9 of air tube 8 extends through an opening in the bottom of housing 1 and has a flange 10 which bears on la sealing ring 11 in a recess 12 formed in the housing. The construction is such that the exterior surface of lower end 9 is flush with the exterior surface of housing 1. A wrench groove 9a is formed in the outer surface of end 9 so that it can be turned by a screwdriver or the like. By reason of this construction, the turning of the tube 8 which is threaded to cover 6 will cause cover 6 to be drawn down tightly with its outer edge 13 bearing on a sealing ring 14 seated on a shoulder 15 in the inner wall of the housing.
The air regenerating chemical agent is retained in place by two conical perforated sheets or screens 16 and 17, respectively, surrounding tube 8 while the latter has at its lower end portion bores 18 which lie outside of the chemical agent and providing a passageway for air. The screen 17 has a recess 19 in which is a compression spring 20 held between the Ibottom of recess 19 and a flange 21 on the top of tube 8. This enables the release of cover 6 when the threaded joint between sleeve 7 and tube 8 is loosened. The space 22 above screen 17 is -free from the presence of the chemical regenerating agent.
Container cover 6 also has on its upper side a collar 23 for the attachment of the breathing bag 24. Cover 6 also has two check valves 25 which open in the direction of the space 22. Finally, cover 6 has a flange 26 for the attachment of the breathing tube 27 which at its other end is fastened to mouthpiece 28.
`Extending through an opening in breathing bag 24 is the lung pressure responsive valve 29. This valve is connected by a circular nut 30 to the oxygen tank closure 31. A tiltable lever 32 connected to valve 29 projects into breathing bag 24. The tank closure 31 has a guide pin 33 which is held in a corresponding guide groove 33a mounted on the inner wall of the housing for the purpose of positioning tank 5 and valve 29.
The top of housing 1 is closed by a cover 34 connected by hinge 35 to the housing.
In operation, cover 34 is opened as shown by the dashed lines in FIGURE 1. Mouthpiece 28 is drawn out of the housing, breathing tube 27 thus being elongated and the mouthpiece is placed in the mouth of the user of the apparatus. Tank closure 31, which is preferably openable by a push button, `is opened at the same time. When the user of the apparatus inhales through breathing tube 27 a sub-atmosphere is produced in breathing bag 24 by the opening of check valves 25. The breathing bag thus collapses and moves lever 32 to open valve 29. Oxygen now flows into breathing bag 24 and through valves 2S to the mouthpiece- During the immediately following exhaling of air, such air flows through breathing tube 27 closing check valves 25 and through Space 22 and screen 17 into the chamber 2 containing the chemical agent and then through the screen 16 and bores 18 into the breathing tube 8 and on into breathing bag 24. The exhaled air has thus been cleaned of the carbon dioxide by the chemical agent, such as `sodium hydroxide `and activated carbon. This cycle is repeated on each inhale and exhale of air.
When the apparatus is first used, it is necessary to make sure that -breathing bag 24 is not initially filled with exhaled air which would bring on the danger of so-called nitrogen poisoning. Therefore, bag 24 is folded within the housing so that. as shown in FIGURE l, one of the folds bears against lever 32 to hold valve 29 in open position.
This, in part, is ensured by the positioning of tank 5 by means of guide pin 33 and groove 33a The breathing bag 24 has a reinforcing patch 36 where it is contacted by lever 32. Because valve 29 is open when the bag is folded in the housing 1 and cover 34 closed, bag 24 becomes filled with oxygen as soon as cover 34 is opened and the push button on closure 31 is pressed to open tank 5. Therefore, oxygen flows at once through valve 29 into bag 24 and fills the bag to such yan extent that the bag no longer presses against lever 32 so that the valve then closes. The bag is therefore pre-rinsed with oxygen.
Having now described the means by which the objects of the invention age obtained, I claim:
1. A breathing apparatus comprising a housing, an exhaled air regenerating agent container mounted in the lower portion of said housing, a regenerating chemical agent in said container, a breathing bag folded into the upper portion of said housing, a mouthpiece, a breathing tube joined to said mouthpiece and mounted in the upper portion of said housing and connected to said container, an opening in the bottom of said housing, an air tube extending through said opening in the bottom of said housing and centrally through said container and having a closed lower end with a wrench groove in the exterior surface thereof and having its upper end communicating with said breathing bag, air ports in the lower end portion of said air tube for providing communication with the interior of said container, screen means surrounding said air tube for restraining the regenerating `agent in said container, a container cover, a sleeve joined to said container cover and threaded on said air tube, a collar on said container cover attached to said breathing bag, a compressed gas tank chamber in said housing adjacent said container, a compressed gas tank in said chamber and communicatively coupled to the interior of said breathing bag, an outlet valve joined to said tank, a lever connected to said outlet valve and pushed by said folded breathing bag for holding said outlet valve in open position, tank closure means joined to said tank for preventing the escape of gas from said tank when said housing is closed, and a removable exterior cover for said housing above said breathing bag.
2. An apparatus as in claim 1, further comprising check valve means in said container cover for permitting air to be drawn from said breathing bag into said breathing tube.
3. An apparatus as in claim 2, further comprising a ange on said container cover attached to said breathing tube.
4. An apparatus as in claim 3, further comprising reinforcing means on the portion of said breathing bag contacted by said lever.
5. An apparatus as in claim 4, further comprising a guide groove on the inner wall of said housing, and a corresponding guide pin joined to said tank and seated in said groove for positioning said tank.
6. An apparatus as in claim 5, said tank closure means comprising push button means on said tank for opening said tank for the flow of gas through said valve lafter the breathing bag has been partially removed from said housing.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,628,254 1/1927 McCaa 128-191 3,266,489 8/ 1966 Williams 12S-202 X 3,326,212 6/ 1967 Phillips 12S-202 X FOREIGN PATENTS 440,932 1/ 1936 Great Britain. 342,699 8/7936 Italy.
RICHARD A. GAUDET, Prima/y Examiner.
WILLIAM E. KAMM, Assistant Examiner.