|Publication number||US3398056 A|
|Publication date||Aug 20, 1968|
|Filing date||Jul 10, 1964|
|Priority date||Jul 10, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3398056 A, US 3398056A, US-A-3398056, US3398056 A, US3398056A|
|Inventors||Zygmunt Walter Anthony, Browder Henry Polk|
|Original Assignee||Mead Johnson & Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (14), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 20, 196s W. A. ZYGMUNT ETAL 3,398,056
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING LYSOSTOPHIN BY FERMENTATION Aug 20, 1968 w. A. ZYGMUNT ETAL 3,398,056
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING LYSOSTOPHIN BY FERMENTATION Filed July l0, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 PH o-Q 00W A--A HC 7'/ V/TY United States Patent 3,398,056 PROCESS FOR PRODUCING LYSOSTAPHlN BY FERMENTATION Walter Anthony Zygmunt and Henry Polk Browder,
Evansville, Ind., assignors to Mead Johnson & Company, Evansville, Ind., a corporation of Indiana Filed July 10, 1964, Ser. No. 381,684 8 Claims. (Cl. 195-80) The present invention is concerned with improvements in the production of lysostaphin by fermentation, Lysostaphin is an antibiotic which has tihe specific capacity to lyse organisms of the genus Staphylococcus. Its production by fermentation is described in application Ser. No. 191,664, led Apr. 19, 1962, now U.S. Patent 3,278,378.
Application Ser. No. 191,664 discloses fermentations of Staphylococcus staphylolyticus on media containing as nitrogen-supplying nutrients proteinaceous ingredients such as peptone pancreatic digest of casein, papaic digest of soy meal, etc. It is also disclosed -that the fermentation medium tends to become acidic in the early stages of the fermentation. This tendency is counterbalanced as the fermentation proceeds with the liberation of basic substances, presumably amtnonia, resulting in a rather sharp increase in pH in the later stages. Both of these effects are detrimental to the production of lysostaphin by the organism, the optimum pH being stated to be pH 7.3 to 7.7.
This state of affairs is illustrated in FIGURE 1 which comprises three graphs plotted on the same set of rectangular coordinates. Each refers to the same lysostaphin fermentation run conducted as disclosed in Ser. No. 191,664 employing the nutrient medium described below. The fermentation was conducted during a 13 hr. period at 37 C. in a 10 gal. stainless steel fermenter employing 20 l. of medium. The inoculum consisted of 0.25% by volume of a log phase culture of S. staplzylolytcus NRRL B-2628. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 7.3 at the outset. Aeration was maintained at a rate of one volume yof air per volume of medium per minute.
Enzymatically hydrolyzed casein Percent by weight The graph shown by the solid line in FIGURE 1 refers to the right hand ordinate where a scale of pH values is shown. The abscissa represents time expressed in hours reading from the left. The initial val-ue of pH 7.3 decreases in the course of the fermentation to a minimum value of pH 6.15 after 9 hrs. At this time a sharp increase in pH commences, a value of pH 7.5 being reached after 13 hrs. In other fermentat-ions final pH values substantially higher than this have been frequently observed.
'I'he broken line in FIGURE 1 is a graph of lysostaphin assay expressed in units of activity per ml. of medium. The assay values were determined by the method described in application Ser, No. 191,664 referred to above. This is a photometric method in which one unit of lysostaphin is designated as being contained in that amount of sample which causes a 50% reduction in turbidity in min. of a suspension fof S. aureus FDA 209P cel-ls of specified concentration relative to an identical control suspension which is not exposed to the test sample of lysostaphin. The legend for lysostaphin assay appears on the left hand ordinate.
The left hand ordinate also contains a scale which expresses the dry cell weight of the S. staphylolytcus culf. ICC
ture contained in the fermentation medium in terms of mg. thereof per ml. of medium. This scale has reference to the third graph in FIGURE 1 shown in triangular points (A) representing the change in dry cell weight (DCW) relative to time. Cell growth reaches a measurable value after about 4 hrs. After 6 hrs. lysostaphin is detected in the fermentation medium. These two values increase in roughly parallel fashion until about the eighth hour when antibiotic production becomes static at a concentration of about 6 units/ml. as the pH falls below pH 6.3. Antibiotic production resumes as the pH increases after l() hrs. reaching about 17 units/ml. after 13 hrs. Cell growth appears to reach a plateau value after 9 hrs., and then commences a gradual decline.
Optimum conditions as to pH exist for a relatively short period of time during such a fermentation. Steps may, of course, be taken to continuously adjust the pH by the addition of acid or base during fermentation, but this adds to the cost of the process when conducted on a commercial scale.
The present invention has for one object the production `of lysostaphin fermentation broths with higher antibiotic titers than have been heretofore obtainable. It has for a further object the provision of a fermentation process Ifor the production of lysostaphin having reduced requirements for pH control during the fermentation period, both for the purpose of achieving economies in large scale production.
The aforementioned fermentation illustrated in FIG- URE 1 fulfills the first objective of this invention and in fact constitutes an embodiment thereof. It has been found that unexpectedly large increases in antibiotic yield are obtained if a relatively high concentration of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein is used as nitrogen-supplying nutrient in the fermentation medium. Fermentation broths containing at least about 4% by weight of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein as nitrogen-supplying nutrient consistently yield exceptionally high antibiotic titers in fermentations conducted otherwise as disclosed in application Ser. No. 191,664. Thu-s, the fermentaton illustrated in FIGURE 1 employing a medium containing 4.8% by weight of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein afforded an antibiotic titer of 17 units per ml. while that described in Example l of Ser, No. 191,664, which differed principally in the concentration of this nutrient in the medium employed, afforded a yield of 2.5 units per ml.
The second object of this invention is satisfied by employing an aqueous nutrient medium containing glycerol, mannose, or galactose as assimilable carbon nutrient in the place of dextrose or other similar carbohydrate nutrient. The surprising discovery has been made that by the use of one of these assimilable carbon nutrients the need for pH adjustment during the fermentation period is eliminated and still further improvements in antibiotic yield are obtained.
FIGURE 2 is constituted of a group of graphs of a type similar to FIGURE l which illustrate the favorable effect on pH of employing 1.0% by weight of glycerol as assimilable carbon nutrient. This fermentation was otherwise identical to that of FIGURE 1. The initial value of pH 7.3 is seen to remain relatively constant for approximately the first 6 hrs. and to then undergo an increase to a value of pH 7.75, whereupon it again commences to decrease to a value of pH 7.35 after l2 hrs. Again growth of the organism commences at approximately 4 hrs, with antibiotic production becoming evident at approximately 6 hrs., both increasing in parallel fashion. Substantially more luxuriant growth and greater antibiotic production, however, occurs, the maximum antibiotic concentration in this particular experiment being about 35 units per ml. after l2 hrs. This fermentation is noted to be markedly different from the dextrose fermentation with respect to the relatively narrow and desirable pH range observed, and the substantially greater concentration of antibiotic formed in the medium.
The two fundamental aspects of this invention illustrated by FIGURES 1 and 2 were illustrated in a somewhat different manner by a series of experiments based upon Example 1 of Ser. No. 191,664. The rst experiment constituted a duplication of Vthe aforesaid example employing a fermentation medium containing 1.7% pancreatic digest of casein (Trypticase, Baltimore Biological Laboratories), 0.3% papaic digest of soya meal (Phytone, Baltimore Biological Laboratories), 0.5% sodium chloride, 0.25% dipotassium acid phosphate, and 0.25% dextrose. The medium was adjusted to pH 7.3, inoculated with S. smphylolyticus NRRL B-2628, and incubated for `17 hrs. at 37 C. in a shake flask. At the conclusion of the fermentation, the broth was assayed for lysostaphin activity and the pH thereof measured.
In the lirst series, the amount of pancreatic digest of casein was increased to 3, 5, 7, and and the effect on the antibiotic titerand pH of the medium observed. Two identical series were conducted therewith employing rather than 0.25% by weight of dextrose in the fermentation medium, 1.0% by weight thereof, or 1.0% by weight of glycerol. The results are arranged in the following table.
stantially higher antibiotic titers are obtained, values of 40.5 and 44.3 units per rnl. having been recorded in this experiment.
A series of comparable experiments was conducted to ascertain whether other monoand disaccharides behave in a fashion similar to that described above for dextrose, and also to ascertain whether other polyols such as sorbitol or mannitol could be substituted for glycerol. .These experiments were of the shakeask variety employing 10 ml. of medium contained in a 250 ml. Erlenmeyer flask held on a rotary shaker operating at 250 to 300 r.p.m. per min. and at a temperature of 37"k C. The inoculum consisted of 0.02% by volume of a log phase culture of S. staphylolytcus NRRL B-2628. A medium of the following composition, adjusted at the outset lto pH 7.3, was employed:
Percent by weight Enzymatically hydrolyzed casein 4.82 Sodium chloride 0.5 Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.25 Soy peptone 0.5
TABLE L-EFFECT OF CASIN HYDROLYSATE CONCENTRATION yNuttiiert, casein Dextrose, 0.25% Dextrose, 1.0% Glycerol, 1.0%
Assay pH Assay pH Assay pH digest lof casein as nitrogen-supplying nutrient as compared to those containing concentrations of 3% or less of this carbon nutrients at several concentrations after 17 hr. fermentation periods. Lysostaphin concentration is reported in units of activity per milliliter of medium as determined by the assay procedure described in application ingredient. Further increases in antibiotic titer were ob- 40 Ser. No. 191,664.
TABLE II.-RELATIONSHIP OF NATURE AND CONCENTRATION OF CARBON NUTRTENT TO LYSOSTAPHIN PROD UGTION AND pH t Carbon l Glycerol Galactose Mannose Dextrose Lactose Nutrient,
percent Assay 2 pH Assay 2 pH Assay 2 pH Assay 2 pH Assay 2 pH Carbon Sucrose L-Arabinose Maltese Sorbitol Manntol Nutrient,
percent Assay 2 pH Assay 2 pH Assay 2 pH Assay 2 pH Assay 2 pH 4. 3 8. 40 0.6 9. 00 0.4 9. 00 0. 8 8. 70 0. 5 8. 70 10. 8 8. 10 0. 5 8.80 0. 5 8. 00 0. 8 8. 80 0.4 8. 75 10. 6 5. 90 0.2 8.90 0.8 8.85 0.8 8. 80 0.4 8.80 t 11. 5 5. 00 0. 2 8. 60 1. 3 8.85 0. 5 8. 75 0.3 8. 80 11. 5 5. 85 0. 2 8.50 0. 2 8. 90 0. 5 8. 90 0.3 8. 90 1 Percent by weight in medium; approximate values; the concentration ofthe named nutrient in each instance was adjusted according to its carbon mangent t? rrovide so-called iso-carbon media at etect-ive concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.6% by weight carbon respectively.
nits m served as the percent by weight of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein in the fermentation medium was increased up to labout 10%. This invention, then, in its broadest aspect rrelates to the preparation of lysostaphin` by fermentation of S. staplzylolyticus on media containing from 4 to 10% by weight of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein as nitrogensupplying nutrient. Higher concentrations of the enzymatically' hydrolyzed casein may be employed, but there is no further advantage derived from the use of more than 10% by weight thereof.
- The further advantage of employing glycerol rather than dextrose as carbon-supplying nutrient is apparent from the results shown in Table I. The final pH values in each instance in this series are within or close to the Consistently higher antibiotic titers are obtained employing 0.5% or more of glycerol, or 1.0% or more of mannose o-r galactose as carbon-containing nutrients'as compared to dextrose. The relative freedom from -the formation of either excessively acidic or basic fermenta tion broths is also evident. Certain other nutrients such as sorbitol, mannitol, arabinose, and maltose, which do not produce an acidic fermentation medium, nevertheless fail to provide high antibiotic concentrations.
Considering now the dextrose fermentations shown in Table II, at low concentrations on the order of 0.25% and 0.5% by weight, the tendency for an acidic fermentation rnedium to be formed is less pronounced. However, as the dextrose concentration is increased in an eifort to optimum pH range specified in Ser. No. 191,664. Subproduce greater quantities of antibiotic per volume of fermentation medium, acid concentra-tions become substantial, and -greatly diminished antibiotic titers result.
The preferred concentration range for the selected assimilable carbon nutrients of this invention, glycerol, mannose, and galactose, is 0.5 to 5% by weight of the medium. Higher concentrations may be employed, but there is no apparent advantage insofar as improvement of antibiotic titer is concerned. A-t concentrations of less than about 0.5% by weight of glycerol, galactose, or mannose, the amount of asimilable carbon provided appears to be the limiting factor relative to yield.
Various organic nitrogen nutrients were evaluated to ascertain whether the favorable effect observed with glycerol, mannose, and galactose in the casein hydrolysate medium is als-o operative with other related nutrients. Media of the following composition were prepared.
Percent Organic nitrogen nutrient 5 Soy peptone 0.5 Sodium chloride 0.5
Dipoassium hydrogen phosphate 0.25 Glycerol, galactose, or dextrose 1.0
The media were adjusted to pH 7.3, inoculated, and incubated as described for the preceding experiments in which various carbon nutrients were compared. For each nitrogen nutrient parallel fermentations were conducted, employing glycerol, galactose, and dextrose as principal carbon source.
The results of these experiments are listed below in which the pH of the medium and the lysostaphin assay thereof at end of the fermentation period are listed.
Enzymatic digest of animal tissue (Medo Peptone, Wilson): glycerol, pH 7.10, lysostaphin, units/ml.; dextrose, pH 5.60, lysostaphin, 13.6 units/ml.; galactose, pH 7.85, lysostaphin, 28 units/ml.
Pancreatic digest of heart muscle (Myosate, Baltimore Biological Laboratories): glycerol, pH 7.50, lysosaphin, 21.5 units/ml.; dextrose, pH 5.65, lysostaphin, 4.8 units/ ml.; galactose, pH 8.05, lysostaphin, 19.2 units/ml.
Pancreatic digest of gelatin (Gelatone, Difco): glycerol, pH 5.50, lysostaphin, 2.4 units/rml.; dextrose, pH 5.00, lysostaphin, 1.1 units/ml.; galactose, pH 7.80, lysostaphin, 4.4 units/ ml.
Peptic digest of animal tissue (Thiotone, Baltimore Biological Laboratories): glycerol, pH 7.65, lysostaphin, 14.9 units/ml.; dextrose, pH 5.40, lysostaphin, 02 unit/ml.; galactose, pH 8.00, lysostaphin, 16.0 unis/ml.
Soluble animal protein (Swift, SSAP): glycerol, pH 6.40, lysostaphin, 5.2 units/ml.; dextrose, pH 4.70, lysostaphin, 0.4 unit/ml.; galactose, pH 7.30, lysostaphin, 0.7 unit/ml.
In each fermentation luxuriant growth of the S. staphylolyzcus inoculum occurred. Although variabili-ty in the quality of the organic nitrogen nutrients as to antibiotic production is evident, these experiments nevertheless illustra-te that uniformly superior results relative to dextrose are obtained with the present carbon nurtients.
A series of experiments was conducted to ascertain the optimum pH for lysostaphin production with S. Staphylo- Iytcus when employing glycerol as assimilable carbon nutrient. A stainless steel fermenter equipped to automatically regulate the pH of the fermentation medium during the incubation period by the addition of either an acidic or an alkaline neutralizing agent and containing 20 l. of a medium of the following composition was employed.
Percent by weight Enzymatically hydrolyzed casein 4,82
Soy peptone 0.5 Sodium chloride 0.5 Dipofassium hydrogen phosphate 0.25 Glycerol 1.0
The following results were obtained in separate runs controlled at the pH values indic-ated below.
MAXIMUM LYSOSTAPHIN SSAY OBSERVED Units/Inl.
The pH range of pH l6.5 to 8.5 was found to be advantageous. The most preferred range, however, due to the substantially higher antibiotic titers obtained, is pH 7.0 to pH 8.0. In similar selected experiments the same pH range was found to be operable with dextrose when using from 4.0% to 10% by weight of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein as nitrogen-supplying nutrient.
When used herein the terms nitrogen-supplying nutrient and carbon-supplying nutrient refer to fermentation medium ingredients which are assimilable by the organism S. staphylolyticus resulting in growth thereof, as reflected by increase in total cell weight, and in production of the antibiotic lysostaphin. This is the conventional 'meaning of the terms as understood in the art.
While several particular embodiments of this invention are shown above, it will be understood, of course, that the invention is not to be limited thereto, since many modifications may be made, and it is contemplated, therefore, by the appended claims to cover any such modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a fermentation process for the production of lysostaphin in which a strain of the organism Staphylococcus staphylolytcus is cultivated on an aqueous nutrient medium comprised of carbonand nitrogen-supplying nlutrients, the improvement which comprises employing at least 4% by weight of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein as nitrogen-supplying nutrient in an aqueous nutrient medium having a pH in the range pH 6.5 to pH 8.5.
2. The fermentation process for the production of lysostaphin which comprises cultivating a strain of Staphylococcus staphylolytcus on an aqueous nutrient medium having pH 6.5 to pH 8.5 and containing from 4% to 10% of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein and a carbon-supplying nutrient until substantial lytic activity for species of Staphylococcus other than S. staphylolytcus is imparted thereto.
3. In a fermentation process for the production of lysostaphin in which a strain of the organism Staphylococcus staphylolytz'cus is cultivated on an aqueous nutrient medium comprised of carbonand nitrogen-supplying nutrients, the improvement which comprises employing at least about 0.5% of a carbon-suplying nutrient selected from the group consisting of glycerol, mannose, and galactose and pH 6.5 to pH 8.5.
4. The fermentation process for the production of lysostaphin which comprises cultivating a strain of Staphylococcus staphylolytcus on an aqueous nutrient medium having pH 6.5 to pH 8.5 and containing 0.5% to 5.0% by Weight of a nutrient selected from the group consisting of glycerol, mannose, and galactose and a nitrogen-supplying nutrient =until substantial lytic activity for species of Staphylococcus other than S. staphylolyticus is imparted thereto.
5. The process of claim 4 wherein said nutrient is galactose.
'6. The process of claim 4 wherein said nutrient is mannose.
7. The process of claim 4 wherein said nutrient is glycerol.
8. The fermentation process for the production of lysostaphin which comprises cultivating a strain of Staphy- 3,398,056 7 8 lococcus-staphylolytcus on an .aqueous nutrient medium f References Cited having a pH in the range pH 6.5 to pH 8.5 and containing Y l from 4% to 10% by weight of enzymatically hydrolyzed UNITED STATES PATENTS casein and from 0.5% to 5.0% by weight of a carbon-sup 2,739,924 3/1956. Len et al. 19,5-80 plying nutrient selected from the group consisting of 5 3,178,341 4/ 1965 Hamill et al., l95.80 X
glycerol, mannose, and galactose until substantial lytic .3,278,378 10/ 1966 Schindler et al. 195,-80 X activity for species of Staphylococcus other than Staphyl Y lococcus staphylolytcus is imparted thereto. LIONEL M. SHAPIRO, Primary Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2739924 *||Dec 4, 1953||Mar 27, 1956||Bristol Lab Inc||Production of tetracycline|
|US3178341 *||Jun 27, 1960||Apr 13, 1965||Lilly Co Eli||Antibiotics tylosin and desmycosin and derivatives thereof|
|US3278378 *||Apr 19, 1962||Oct 11, 1966||Schindler Charles Alvin||Staphylococcus-derived antibiotic|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3625833 *||Jan 23, 1970||Dec 7, 1971||James J Schaffer||Process for producing antiviral substance from staphylococcus organisms|
|US5342612 *||Dec 20, 1991||Aug 30, 1994||American Cyanamid Company||Compositions for the treatment of mammalian diseases|
|US5760026 *||Sep 9, 1994||Jun 2, 1998||Ambi Inc.||Method for treating mastitis and other staphylococcal infections|
|US6315996||Apr 9, 1999||Nov 13, 2001||Board Of Supervisors Of Louisiana State University And Agricultural And Mechanical College||Topical lysostaphin therapy for staphylococcus ocular infections|
|US6569830||Mar 5, 1999||May 27, 2003||Ambi, Inc.||Compositions and methods for treatment of staphylococcal infection while suppressing formation of antibiotic-resistant strains|
|US7078377||Sep 19, 2000||Jul 18, 2006||Nutrition 21, Inc.||Compositions and methods for treatment of staphylococcal infection while suppressing formation of antibiotic-resistant strains|
|US7122514||Apr 16, 2003||Oct 17, 2006||Nutrition 21, Inc.||Compositions and methods for treatment of staphylococcal infection while suppressing formation of antibiotic-resistant strains|
|US7569223||Jun 16, 2004||Aug 4, 2009||The Rockefeller University||Phage-associated lytic enzymes for treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae and related conditions|
|US8198231||Jun 2, 2006||Jun 12, 2012||Nutrition 21, Inc.|
|US8420068||Aug 23, 2012||Apr 16, 2013||Nektar Therapeutics||Polymer-based compositions and conjugates of antimicrobial agents|
|US8636994||Mar 13, 2013||Jan 28, 2014||Nektar Therapeutics||Polymer-based compositions and conjugates of antimicrobial agents|
|US20030199432 *||Apr 16, 2003||Oct 23, 2003||Michael Climo|
|US20050208038 *||Jun 16, 2004||Sep 22, 2005||Fischetti Vincent A||Phage-associated lytic enzymes for treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae and related conditions|
|US20060246055 *||Jun 2, 2006||Nov 2, 2006||Nutrition 21|
|U.S. Classification||435/71.3, 435/68.1, 435/882|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S435/882, C12N9/52|