|Publication number||US3400859 A|
|Publication date||Sep 10, 1968|
|Filing date||Jun 14, 1966|
|Priority date||Jun 14, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3400859 A, US 3400859A, US-A-3400859, US3400859 A, US3400859A|
|Inventors||Nagel George A, Thakar David H|
|Original Assignee||Wabash Smelting Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (3), Classifications (8), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 1968 D. H. THAKAR ETAL 3,400,859
LADLE AND COVER Filed June 14, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I' In l I. I l- 0 20 C J .I I.
I I I I 1N VEN TORS DAVID H. THAKAR GEORGE A. NAGEL.
QEFFERi Qouuca Amen 9 LADLE AND COVER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 14, 1966 .L Mg T K A mM mTA a m E D6 AEFFERS 'Woum,
United States Patent 3,400,859 LADLE AND COVER David H. Thalrar and George A. Nagel, Wabash, IntL, as
signers to Wabash smelting, Inc., Wabash, 1nd,, a corporation of Indiana Filed June 14, 1966, Ser. No. 557,579 6 Claims. (Cl. 222-183) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A transportable container for molten metal has a cylindrical ladle with a heat resistant lining and a tap hole in a refractory block in a side of the ladle. The ladle is closed with a lid that has a heat resistant lining.
Our invention relates to an improved ladle and cover, and particularly to an improved ladle and cover for transporting molten materials or hot liquids.
Present manufacturing or industrial techniques have developed or become specialized so that materials are often supplied in a particular form from an appreciable distance. For example, the automobile industry uses aluminum or aluminum alloys in manufacturing automobiles and related products. Experience has shown that the automobile industry can get better, or cheaper, or more readily usable aluminum or aluminum alloys from a smelter that specializes in the aluminum, or aluminum alloys, or other metals. Such metals are used in relatively large amounts and the industry requiring the metal or metal alloy is frequently not set up to prepare the metal or metal alloy. As a result, the metal or metal alloy is prepared in a smelter and transported in a molten state for considerable distances, sometimes in the hundreds of miles. Such transporting is done by truck or railroad, and
lience must be completely safe and reliable.
Accordingly, an object of our invention is to provide an improved ladle and cover that can be used to transport molten metals or hot liquids safely.
Another object of our invention is to provide an improved eover for a ladle that permits molten metals and hot liquids to be safely moved or transported in the ladle without spilling or loss of the metal or liquid.
In the preparation of the metal, metal alloy, or hot liquid, considerable time and heat may be required. Where the prepared metal or metal alloy must be in the molten state or where the liquid must be hot in order to be used, it is desirable and economical to maintain the molten metal or metal alloy or the liquid as hot as possible to save the time and heat required to raise the temperature to the desired level. And, at the same time, it is desirable to transport as much metal, metal alloy, or liquid as possible. Some methods of transportation have a gross weight limit which makes it desirable to have a light weight ladle and cover.
There-fore, another object of our invention is to provide a container comprising a ladle and cover to transport molten metals and hot liquids with relatively little heat loss.
Another object of our invention is to provide an improved, removable cover for a transportable ladle, the cover being relatively light and compact, and having relatively low heat loss.
After the molten metal or hot liquid has been transported in the container to the location for use, the removal of the metal or liquid should be simple and rapid. In some locations, a crane or similar device is not available to tilt the ladle for pouring the metal or liquid.
Accordingly, another object of our invention is to provide an improved ladle having a tap or hole from which the molten metal or hot liquid can be drawn with the ladle in its normal position.
3,400,859 Patented Sept. 10, 1968 Another object of our invention is to provide an improved tap or hole for a ladle that is easily and safely operated to permit molten metal or hot liquid to be drawn from the ladle without moving or tilting the ladle.
Briefly, these and other objects are "achieved in accordance with our invention by a ladle preferably formed with generally cylindrical sides and with a circular bottom and open top. A tap block made of refractory material and having a tapered hole is placed in a side of the ladle so that the tapered hole is at or near the ladle bottom. The hole tapers uniformly from a given size on the outside to a smaller size on the inside of the ladle. A correspondingly shaped plug of refractory material is provided for the tapered hole. The plug is held in the hole by a cover or retainer which is preferably hinged at the top and which extends down over the outside of the plug and is clamped at the bottom. The inner surfaces of the ladle sides and bottom are covered with a suitable heat resistant material, and a castable refractory material is cast on the inner surface of this heat resistant material to provide a relatively smooth and heat resistant inner surface. The lid comprises a circular cover with a circular edge or flange which fits or mates with a corresponding edge or flange around the top of the ladle. Heat resistant material such as rock wool is placed on the inner face of the lid, and this in turn is covered by a circular sheet of heat reflective material such as stainless steel. A gasket of rock wool may be placed between the edges or flanges of the lid and ladle. When the container is used, a plug is inserted and clamped in the tap block hole. The ladle may be preheated, and the molten or hot liquid is then poured in the ladle. The gasket and lid are placed on the ladle top, and the lid clamped in position. After the closed ladle and material have been transported to the desired location, the material is easily removed by removing the plug to allow the material to pour or run out.
The subject matter which we regard as our invention is particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed in the claims. The structure and operation of our invention, together with further objects and advantages, may be better understood from the following description given in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIGURE 1 shows a perspective view of a container comprising a ladle and lid in accordance with our invention;
FIGURE 2 shows a cross sectional view, taken along the lines 2-2 of FIGURE 1, showing details of the tap block and hole for the ladle; and
FIGURE 3 shows a cross sectional view, taken along the lines 3-3 of FIGURE 1, showing details of construction of the lid.
FIGURE 1 shows a perspective view of a container in accordance with our invention. This container comprises a cylindrically shaped ladle 10 and a circular lid 11. The ladle 10 may have either vertical sides 13 as shown or sloping sides. These sides 13 are formed of metallic plates bent or shaped in the desired form. These plates may be joined by any suitable method such as welding or riveting. The ladle 10 comprises a bottom 12 formed of a metallic circular plate which is also fastened to the sides 13 of the ladle 10 by any suitable method. Several beams may be positioned under the bottom 12 and fastened thereto to reinforce the bottom 12 and to provide a clearance space to permit a lifting device to be placed under the ladle 10. The sides 13 of the ladle 10 may be reinforced by one or more bands 14 which are attached to and positioned around the circumference of the sides 13 of the ladle 10. The sides 13 may be further reinforced (and joined) by vertical ribs 15 attached to the sides 13 of the ladle 10. The ladle 10 is also provided with lifts 16 attached to the sides 13 of the ladle 10 at a suitable location relative to the center of gravity of the entire container when loaded with material. The lid 11 is formed of a circular plate 18 having a depending or downwardly extending flange 19 extending around its circumference. A number of radially extending reinforcing ribs 20 may be fastened to the top of the lid 11 for strengthening the lid 11. And, one or more lifting eyes or hooks 21 may be fastened to the lid 11 at suitable balancing points to enable the lid 11 to be lifted.
The lid 11 fits on and closes the ladle 10 along a rim or flange as will be explained in connection with FIGURE 3. The lid 11 is properly positioned on the ladle 10 by a suitable number of locating pin 24 which are fastened to the ladle 10 and which mate with corresponding projections or configurations on the lid 11. The lid 11 is clamped to the ladle by a plurality of bolts 25 which are pivotally fastened to the ladle 10 and which can be swung into engagement with clamping blocks 26 on the lid 11 and bolted securely thereto.
A pouring or tap hole structure 30 is provided near the bottom of the ladle 10 for permitting the molten metal or hot liquid to be drawn from the ladle it} without the necessity of tilting or tipping the ladle 10. The tap hole structure 30 is shown in a front perspective view in FIG- URE 1, and is shown in the cross sectional view of FIG- URE 2. The structure 30 comprises a tap block 31 of refractory material such as silicon carbide. This block 31 passes through an opening in the side 13 with close clearance, and may be attached or shaped to prevent its sliding outward. The block 31 has a tapered hole 32 extending along its length from the outer face to the inner face. This hole 32 preferably has a uniform taper and a symmetrical circular cross section along the hole axis. A plug 34 is shaped to fit in the hole 32 for sealing the hole 32. The plug 34 may have a cast iron core 41 covered with suitable refractory material 42 such as Fibrefax (a silicon compound). The plug 34 is provided with a suitable rod or handle 35 to which an extension, if necessary, may be attached or threaded. The plug 34 is held in position by a hasp or hinge 37 which is preferably pivoted at its top. This hasp or hinge 37 may be clamped to hold the plug 34 in position by a suitable bolt 38 and wing nut 39. The entire tap hole structure 30 is suitably secured or fastened in the slide 13. And, the tap hole structure 30 may be provided with a V-shaped spout 40 to guide the molten metal or hot liquid when it is poured or tapped.
As shown in the cross sectional views of both FIG- URES 2 and 3, the ladle 10 is provided with suitable insulation that comprises a first layer of heat insulation 50 which comprises blocks of Kaiser M-Block or compressed mineral wool. This first layer of heat insulation 50 is suitably attached to the inner surfaces of the sides 13 and the bottom 12. With this first layer of insulation 50 in position and with the tap hole structure 30 in position, a suitable refractory material 51 (such as Kaiser K-334-S castable refractory material) is cast on all inner surfaces of the ladle 10 to provide a sandwich comprising the sides 13 and bottom 12, the first layer of heat insulation 54), and the inner layer of castable refractory material 51. This material 51 should not cover the hole 32, but does help hold the block 31 in position, and seals the spaces around it. In FIGURE 2, it will be noted that the bottom surface of the hole 32 and the inner face of the block 31 are substantially flush with the inner surfaces of the refractory material 51. This is desirable in that it eliminates or reduces the possibility of material remaining in the ladle 10 after the material is drawn.
FIGURE 3 shows a cross sectional view showing details of construction of the lid 11. The lid 11 comprises a layer of rock wool or asbestos insulation 55 positioned on the inner surface of the lid against the plate 18. This insulation 55 is held in position by a circular plate 56 positioned on the inner or lower surface of the lid 11 and held thereby by suitable bolts 57. It is desirable or preferable that the inner or facing surface of the plate 56 be polished or treated to provide a heat reflective surface that reduces heat loss, and to provide a surface that will not be wet by or react with the material in the ladle 10. A suitable material for the plate 56 is polished stainless steel. The lid 11 is provided with an outer circular sealing flange 60 which is attached to the outside of the depending flange 19 and an inner circular sealing flange 61 which is attached to the inside of the flange 19. These sealing flanges 60, 61 are dimensioned and positioned to seal the lid 11 against the materials 50, 51 and a circular flange 62 that is positioned on the outer surface of the sides 13 of the ladle 10. A suitable gasket or sealing ring 65 of rock wool or asbestos may be placed between the lid flanges 60, 61 and the ladle flange 62 to provide heat insulation and seal against leakage or loss of material. The seal thus provided between the lid 11 and ladle 10 is so tight that it must usually be broken (such as by lifting one side of the lid 11) in order that the molten metal or liquid can be drawn through the hole 32 without being impeded by inrushing air.
It will thus be seen that the ladle and lid constructed in accordance with the invention provide a new and improved container for transporting hot liquids and molten metals. One container constructed in accordance with the invention had a diameter of approximately 6 feet, 10 inches, and a vertical height of approximately 5 feet, 7 inches. This container was provided with block insulation 50 2/2 inches thick along the bottom 12 of the ladle, and with block insulation 59 1 /2 inches thick along the the sides 13 of the ladle. And, a refractory material of approximately 3 /2 inches in thickness was cast inside the block insulation. The lid comprised a layer of rock wool insulation 55 approximately 5 inches thick which was held in place by a 16 gage plate of stainless steel. This container weighed approximately 8,000 pounds. Its lid weighed approximately 900 pounds, as opposed to lids comparable heat insulation which weighed 2,500 pounds. This ladle could hold approximately 17,000 pounds of molten aluminum. When the ladle was preheated to approximately 1500 degrees Fahrenheit, and molten aluminum at approximately the same temperature was poured into the preheated ladle, it was found that the entire batch of molten aluminum lost only approximately 25 degrees Fahrenheit per hour under normal or average atmospheric temperatures.
It will thus be seen that the container comprising the ladle and lid in accordance with the invention provides a new and improved container for transporting molten metals or hot liquids. The container has very good heat insulation qualities, and enables smelters to transport molten metals and hot liquids for substantial distances without appreciable temperature loses, and, the ladle permits the molten metal or hot liquid to be drawn without the necessity of the ladle being tilted. In addition, the tap hole structure permits substantially all of the material to be drawn so that no metal or liquid remains in the ladle. Persons skilled in the art will appreciate that modifications may be made. For example, a greater thickness of heat insulation material or refractory material may be provided. Likewise, different configurations of the tap hole structure may be provided which permit the metal or liquid to be drawn off satisfactorily. Therefore, while the invention has been described with reference to a particular embodiment, it is to be understood that modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or from the scope of the claims.
What we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A transportable container for molten metal and the like comprising:
(a) a ladle formed of closed metallic sides and a bottom;
(b) a tap block of heat resistant material having a hole therethrough;
(c) said block being positioned in one of said sides near said bottom so that said hole extends between the inside and outside of said ladle;
(d) a refractory material cast on the inner faces of said sides,'said bottom, and the inner portion of said block to form a heat resistant inner layer;
(e) a plug of heat resistant material removably positioned in said hole from the outside of said ladle for closing said hole;
(f) a releasable clamp attached to the outer portion of said block for holding said plug in said hole;
(g) a lid comprising an outer metallic plate that fits the top of said ladle sides and closes said ladle, a layer of insulation on the inner face of said plate, and an inner metallic plate positioned adjacent the inner face of said layer of insulation, the inner face of said inner metallic plate having a heat reflective surface;
(h) and means for clamping said lid to said ladle.
2. The container of claim 1 wherein said ladle is in the form of a circular cylinder.
3. The container of claim 1 and further comprising a layer of heat resistant material positioned between said castable refractory material and said ladle sides and bottom.
4. A transportable container for molten metal and the like comprising:
(a) a ladle having a closed metallic cylindrical wall portion and a metallic circular bottom portion joined to said wall portion to close said ladle around said wall portion and bottom portion, said wall portion having an opening therethrough adjacent said bottom portion;
(b) a block of refractory material positioned in said opening of said wall portion in a close fitting relation thereto, said block having an opening therethrough along an axis between the outer face of said block and the inner face of said block, said block opening having a cross sectional area that is symmetrical relative to said axis and that decreases substantially uniformly between said outer face and said inner face of said block;
(c) means attached to said outer face for holding a plug in said block opening;
((1) a first lining of heat insulation material positioned on the inner surfaces of said ladle wall portion and said ladle bottom portion;
(e) a second lining of castable refractory material coating the inner surfaces of said first lining of heat insulation material without covering said block opening;
(f) and a metallic circular lid removably positioned on the top of said ladle, said lid having a layer of heat insulation material on the inner face thereof, and having a circular sheet of heat reflective metal fastened thereto on the inner side of said heat insulation material in said lid.
5. The container of claim 4 wherein said ladle is in the form of a right circular cylinder and said top of said ladle comprises an edge along said wall portion which lies in a plane substantially parallel to said bottom portion.
6. The container of claim 5 wherein said ladle top and said lid each comprise facing flanges for sealing said lid to said ladle.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 714,159 11/1902 Dickey 266-42 1,480,544 1/1924 COX 220- 2,585,394 2/1952 MacDonald 266-42 X 2,676,011 4/1954 Loftus et al. 266-42 X 2,836,866 6/1958 McMillin 222-572 3,282,477 11/ 1966 Henchert 222-541 FOREIGN PATENTS 39,087 12/ 1925 Norway.
SAMUEL F. COLEMAN, Primary Examiner.
N. L. STACK, JR., Assistant Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US714159 *||Dec 2, 1901||Nov 25, 1902||Andrew Dickey||Tap-hole plug.|
|US1480544 *||Jan 5, 1922||Jan 15, 1924||Albert J Cox||Closure fastener|
|US2585394 *||Feb 2, 1949||Feb 12, 1952||National Steel Corporation||Blast furnace|
|US2676011 *||Jan 28, 1950||Apr 20, 1954||Loftus Engineering Corp||Construction for the tap holes of open-hearth furnaces|
|US2836866 *||May 13, 1954||Jun 3, 1958||Gen Steel Castings Corp||Pouring ladle for metals|
|US3282477 *||Jan 19, 1961||Nov 1, 1966||Continental Can Co||Plastic dispensing nozzle with removable seal and captive cap|
|NO39087A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3938791 *||Jan 14, 1975||Feb 17, 1976||Centro Sperimentale Metallurgico S.P.A.||Device for plugging tap-holes of reactors for metallurgical processes|
|US4149705 *||Jun 8, 1977||Apr 17, 1979||Caterpillar Tractor Co.||Foundry ladle and method of making the same|
|US4717120 *||May 12, 1987||Jan 5, 1988||Boise Cascade Corporation||Discharge valve for bulk containers|
|U.S. Classification||222/599, 266/272, 137/68.11, 220/592.2, 222/591|
|Jul 12, 1991||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BOSTON, THE, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CONNELL LIMITED PARTNERSHIP;REEL/FRAME:005797/0049
Effective date: 19910701
|Jul 12, 1991||AS06||Security interest|
Owner name: CONNELL LIMITED PARTNERSHIP
Owner name: FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BOSTON, THE A NATIONAL BANK
Effective date: 19910701
|May 17, 1990||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BOSTON, THE
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CONNELL LIMITED PARTNERSHIP;REEL/FRAME:005392/0626
Effective date: 19900430