US 3401676 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 17, 1968 F. w. WANZENBERG 3 BALLISTIC INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE ENGINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 6, 1967 p 1968 F. w. WANZENBERG 3401676 BALLISTIC INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE ENGINE Filed Sept. 1967 5 Sheets-She'et 3 1 INVENTOR.
Sept. 17, 1968 .F. w. WANZENBERG 3 6 BALLISI'IC INTERNALCOMBUSTION TURBINE ENGINB Filecl Sept. 6, 1967 5 Shgets-Sheet 4 p 1968 F. w. WANZENBERG 3401,676
BALLISTIC INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE ENGINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Eiled Sept. 6, 1967 4/ mvamon United States Patent O 3,401,676 BALLISTIC lNTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE ENGINE Fritz W. Wanzenberg, 9 Campbell Laue, Larchmont, N.Y. 10538 Confinuation-in-part of application SEI. N0. 461,401, June 4, 1965. This application Sept. 6, 1967, Ser. N0. 665,917
20 Claims. (Cl. 123-12) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An internal-combustion turbine-type engine which is characterized by a main housing forrned with intersecting cylindrical chambers in which two intermeshing turbine wheels are mounted on parallel shafts With provision for feeding fuel through one shaft to cornbustion chambers in peripherally spaced, radially extending piston forming teeth on the one turbine wheel which are contoured to mate with cylinder forming, peripherally spaced chambers on the other turbine wheel so as to confine for combustion a mixture of fuel and compressed air, the air being delivered to the spaces between the teeth by an impeiler mounted 011 the drive shaft and enclosed in an apertured supercharger cowl secured over a head block on the front face of the main housing, the impeller being driven by a supercharger turbine which is in turn driven by exhaust gases from the turbine whcels in the main housing The shafts, one of which forms the output power shaft, are connected by synchronizing gears and the supercharger impeller and turbine are connected to the output shaft by a planetary gear set. An hydraulically actuated side plate closes the back faces of the turbine wheels and telescopes in liquid sealing relation into an inwardly opening chamber in the back Wall of the main housing through which a cooling fluid is circulated under pressure and holds the side plate against the wheel faces.
This application is a continuation-in-part of application Sex. N0. 461,401, filed Inne 4, 1965.
This invention relates to internal-combustion engines and is more particularly concerned with improvements in a rotary turbine-type engine making use of two or more intermeshing, positively displaced turbine whecls, uniquely employing the principles of ballistic impulse and reaction for developing torque and for producing mechanical power.
A principal object of the invention is to provide a mechanisrn which will convert cornbustion energy into mechanical power by tirning combustion, and splitting the burned and burning gas into its pressure and velocity energy components so as to create reaction and impulse forces in a balance to best harness the available energy for producing mechanical power.
A more specific object of the invention is to provide in a rotary engine of the turbine type a means for transferring compressed gascs into a remote collectijng, mixing and cornbustion chamber via a nozzle or nozzles in such a way that the in-rushing compressed gases enter the collecting chamber at very high velocity, and as the fuel is injected into this collecting charnber simultaneously, the fuel becomes thoroughly mixed With these gases,
It is another object cf the invention to provide in an internal combustion engine means to aspirate fuel with the intake air or gases in the same device and in like manner, With or without additional fuel injection and making use of either spontaneous combustion or spark ignition to ignite the fuel air mixture.
lt is a further object of the invention to provide an engine of the type described wherein fuel is aspirated with intake air by carburetion to provide for spontaneous combustion, using the momentary delay in the collecting chambers and nozzles to time the kinetic impnlse and resulting pressure to the end of exapnsion for maximum conversion to mechanical power.
It is another object of the invention to provide in an engine of the type described for any fuel intake or injection combination to ignite the gas and fuel mixture by conventional means such as spark ignition or spontaneously, by heat of compression, in the rernote collecting chambers in or in front of the nozzles and to transfer the burned and burning gas-fuel mixture back into the cylinder via the nozzle or nozzles in such a way that the gases which leave the collecting =chamber are accelerated to a strearn 0f very high velocity such that the kinetic energy due to gas velocity and the potential energy due to pressure can be used to best advantage to impart rotary power by both impulse and reaction.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved combustion turbine of the positive displacement type, wherein said turbine has economical 2-way nozzles, collecting and -combustion chambers for each piston-cylinder pair, in the pistons 0r cylinder members 0f each, or several turbine wheels, with simple fuel injection, or fuel aspiration, and ignition systems integral With the rotating turbine wheel or wheels.
Yet another object of the invention is t0 provide an improved combustion turbine of the positive displacement type, wherein said turbine has full wiping, mating and rotating surfaces for ease of lubrication and maintcnance and remote collecting, combustion chambers, which, because of the high pressure, high velocity mediurn they coutain, are more prone to erosion than to a high rate of carbon formation, and hence are more maintenance-free.
A still further object of the invcntion is to provide an engine which has adequate clearance for all mating, rotating and stationary parts so as to reduce friction horsepower, with grooves being provided in the mating surfaces and in the sides of the rotating and stationary members which act as gas seals for the high velocity gases, With the grooves acting as reflecting surfaces for the compressing and expanding gas shock waves whereby the reflectcd waves back up and act to prevent further gas leakage.
Another object of the invention is to provide an engine of the type described wherein fuel is aspirated with intake air by carburetion to provide for combustion by progressive ignition and wherein the burning gases in one cornbustion charnber ignite the gases in the succeeding combustion chamber through a suitable assage between successive combustion chambers.
Other and further objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the following description of the apparatus ernbodying the invention which is shown by way of illustration in the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of an air cooled ballistic turbine which embodies the principal features of the invention;
FIGURE 2 is an exploded perspective view of the ballistic turbine of FIGURE l;
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view taken on the line 33 of FIGURE 1 showing total cyclic events or phases of the ballistic turbine of FIGURE l;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of FIGURE l, to a larger scale, showing the combustion chambers and the divergent nozzles, their thrust positions and angles;
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary sectional view of the turbine showing full-width combustion chambers;
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary section taken on the line 66 of FIGURE 5;
FIGURE 7 is a sectional view, largely schematic, 0f
the turbine showing double action and high pressure sealing; and
FIGURES 8A and 8B are schematic views illustrating modified turbine wheel configurations.
Referring to the drawings (FIGURES 1 to 4) there is illustrated an improved rotary combination engine comstructed in accordance with the present inventiori. It comprises a main housing 7 which is in the form of two intersecting cylinders having parallel Center lines and containing at their center lines two intermeshing, positively displaced turbine wheels 9 and 10 in gear fashion engagement, the frnt and back faces thereof being in parallel lanes. The lowcrmost turbine wheel 9 is keyed to drive shaft 28 which is journaled in a head block 8 adapted to be secured in closing relation on the front face of the main housing 7 and a backblock 46 which constitutes the back wall of the rnain housing. The uppermost turbine wheel 10 is secured on a hollow shaft 49 which is also journaled in the head block Sand the back Wall or block 46. The two shafts 28 and 49 are on axes coinciding With the parallel center lines of the intersecting cylinders which make up the main'housiflg.
A supercharger cowling 1 is adapted to be secured on the forward face of the head block 8 which is constructed with an opening 70 concentric with the forward end of shaft 28 through which air is sucked by actlon of a high speed impeller 2 forming part of the supercharger and driven by turbine wheel 20, both impeller 2 and whee] 20 being rotatably mounted on the shaft 28 With their hubs coupled to the shatt 28 by a planetary gear set (FIGURE 4) comprising ring gear 50, pinions 51 and sun gear 52. The cowl 1 is formed with air ducts 3 and 4 which communicate with air passageways 5 and 6 which lead into the main housing 7 and feed air from impeller 2 to the space indicated at 47 and 48 in FIG- URES 2 and 3, between the t6eth of the turbine wheels 9 and 10. The supercharger turbine wheel 20 is driven by high velocity gases which enter the intake charnber 18 and pass through nozzle 19. The chamber 71 housing the supercharger turbine wheel 20 has an exhaust port 21 which connects With tailpipe 22 (FIGURE 2) for discharging exhaust gases.
The lowermost turbine wheel 9 has peripherally spaced cylinder-like chambers 47 and the uppermost turbine wheel has radial piston forming teeth 72 which are peripherally spaced so as to interengage in or mesh with the cylinder forming chambers or spaces 47. As indicated in FIGURE 3 interengaging gear teeth 73 and 74 may be provided between the pistons 72 and cylinders 47 on the two turbine wheels having pitch circles corresponding to the pitch circles of the wheels to insure continual uniform motion of the wheels. As shown in FIGURE 3 the turbine wheels 9 and 10 have mating peripheries With the piston members 72 being generally cylindrical in Section and the cylinders 47 having a semicircular bottom or inner portion 75 merging with generally parallel straight side Wall portions 76 and 77. This insures that complete wiping of essentially every part of the peripheral comtour area of both turbine wheels by its mating contour area occurs at least once per revolution. The pistons 72 (FIGURES 3 and 4) each have a pair of spherical combustion chambers 12 and two-way converging-diverging nozzles With cone-shaped outer and inner sections 11, and connecting throat 16. Fuel injection spray nozzles 13 are disposed opposite the two-way nozzles which are connected by feeder lines 78 having check valves 57 with fuel measuring cylinders in which there are spring pressed, cam actuated injection pistons 56 with the measuring cylinders connected by feeder lines 38 having check valves 53 to an annular fuel sump 37. The fuel surnp 37 connects through canted holes 59 With the interior of the shaft 49 in which spool 36 is mounted so as to provide outer chamber 39 connected through holes 79 with the fuel slurnp 37 and through holes 80 in the head block 8 with head block chamber 32 which has an outlet port 81 connected by a suitable line to the fuel supply tank. The spool center assage connects through holes 82 with charmber 83 in tlie head block which has a incl ii1lct port 30 connected with the fuel supply tank. v
The cylinders 0r chmbers 47 in the lowermost furbine Wheel 9 are each provided with spark plugs 85Whi0h are disposed in the bottom portions thereof so as to project into nozzle sections 11 when the pistons 72 engage in the charnbers 47, with suitable electrical spark timing mechanism.
An hydraulically actuated side plate 45 is mounted in si:aling telation against the back faces 0f the turbine wheels 9 and 10 which has a peripheral flange 45 sealed by O-rings with an oppositely disposed Wall of the back block rnember 46 in the main housing and pressure is applied by cooling fluid, the inlet for whichis p'ort 31 and the outlet for which is port 41. The cooling pressure applying medium may be water or other liquid.
The two shafts 28 and 49 are connected by synchronizing gears 25 and 26 in a housing 27 secured to the back of the main housing 7. A backlash zidjustment is provided which displaces the helical gear s 25 and 26 axially to modify the amount of pressure or backlash between the turbine wheels 9 and 10. The gear 26'1S axially shifted by a vernier adjustment and lock 44 with major adjustment being accomplished by resetting'the dil1erential thread coupling on the shaft.
Gear 25 and turbine wheel 9 are mounted on shaft 28, Which incorpor'ates or contains integral two-stage comcentric torsion tubes between gear25 and turbine wheel 9, the gear 25 being mounted on the innermost end of the outer tube, to absdrb and damp out any transient vibrations, the power takeolf point (left end of shaft 28 in FIGURE 4) being at the midpoint or connecting point, of the torsion tubes, hence transmitting the mean velocity, devoid of torsional vibration.
In the operation of the engine, atmospheric air is sucked into cowl 1 by action of the high speed impeller 2 of the supercharger and forced into two air ducts 3 and 4 which feed into the space between the teeth of the turbine wheels 9 and 10 and the main houSing 7 through passageways 5 and 6, respectively. The supercharged air is carried around by the turbine wheels 9 and 10 to the typical intake chambers 47 and 48. The air is then entrained bctween the teeth of the turbine wheels 9 and 10 and is further coinpressed beyond superchargecl pressure as the teeth mesh. Cornpression continues until the minimum volume of the interspace or chamber between mating teeth and chambers is reached, the v0lume comprising the volume of nozZles 11 and the collecting chambers 12. Fuel injection through spray'nozzle 13 takes place at or near dead center inclicated at 14 in FIGURE 3 as the velocity of the compressed gases in the nozzle is maximum and ideal gas-fuel mixing takes place. The nozzle functions efiectively in both directions, to provide high velocity compressed gas in for mixing efficiency and for providing high velocity ignition gas out for impulse power.
Igniti0n occurs at 14 when the fuel and air are mixed and compression is at or near maximum. The burned and burning gases, that is, the gases resulting from combustion, leave the collecting chamber 12, enter'nozzle 11, reach their highest velocityat the neck 16 of the nozzle, and eject at high velocity to strike the leading mating tooth surface as it disenga'ges, thereby imparting impulse power. The highest efficiency is achieved when the nozzle velocity of gases is twice the separating Velocity of the nozzle With resPect to *the irnpingedmpon srface and when the i-mpinged surface is a reversingcu'rve' so that thefinal gas velocity 'is zero feet persecond after traversing said 180 cu1've and this precise elfect is einbodied in -this design. As the teeth Continue to diseng'age, the impulse driving force isreplaced by-sustained pressure during therernainder of expansion to maximum volume providing sustained reaction ower. Gas velocity and pressure during expansion have irnparted a torque to both turbine wheel shafts by reaction Which is merged through the synchronizing gears 25 and 26 in housing 27 to impart useful mechanical ower to drive shaft 28.
After expausion to the largest volurne in the interspace between the turbine wheel teeth and expansion wedge 17 (FIGURE 3), the high pressure, high velocity gases enter the supercharger intake chamber 18, pass through the nozzle 19 (FIGURE 4) to drive supercharger turbine wheel 20 which in turn drives the impeller 2. The supercharger exhaust gases leava through ort 21 and are carried away from engine through tailpipe 22.
Gases flowing into the supercharger intake 18 Will leave residual gases in the interspaces between the turbine wheels 9 and and the immer wall of the main housing 7. This residual cornbustion gas is released through ports 23, merged in tailpiece 24 and released to the atmosphere. Residual combustion gases at atmospheric pressure coutinue in the interspace until supercharged air is forced into ports 5 and 6 pushing these residual gases out through scavenging orts 29. The scavenging ports 29 are then blocked by the advancing teeth of the turbine wheels, stopping further scavenging action. However, supercharged air coutinues to feed into ports 5 and 6, permitting full supercharging air pressure to builcl up in the interspaces 47 and 48.
The point at which the accelerating or driving power or torque diminishes and becornes zero is the point 18 at which the burnt gases must be releasecl to the supercharger. This poiut represeuts a limit of useful ower absorption by the ballistic turbine wheels. The exhaust point may be set at the intersection of the addendum circles and the leading edges of the mating chamber mensbers at the apex of the expansion wedge 17, for maxirnum power, er, at the point where the trailing edges of the mating chamber members pass this apex, for maximurn absorption of energy from each chamber expansion; in the latter case providing slightly less energy for further expansiou in the supercharger. The optimum point for practical engine design may be reached before full expansion takes place. If the discharge points 18 are set early, 110 more ower can be absorbed in the ballistic turbine ortion of the engine. However, more residual gas energy can then be absorbed in the supercharger.
In the ever1t that more power may remain in the gas at point 18 than is needed for supercharging, the supercharger turbine can add to the shaft ower of the ballistic turbine as shown in FIGURE 4 by the planetary gear set (ring 50, pinions 51 and Sun 52), coupling the supercharger hub to the ballistic ower shaft 28.
As the turbine wheel teeth or fixed radial pistons and cylinders open in expansion as shown in FIGURE 3, the volume increases and as kiuetic energy is released, the pressure builds up in the expanding volume (opposite to the reducing of pressure found in couventional expansion).
All ports are positioned best to permit the total systems maxirnum efiiciency, balancing mechanical With spacial considerations. This may require that at least some of the ports be located in the side Walls, contiguous to the turbine wheels as well as in the areas defined by the inside diameters 0r addendurn diameters areas in the housing. It is also possible where spacial restrictions are severe, to provide concentric valving in the hubs of the turbine wheels thereby to exhaust or feed intake air or inject fuel through the turbine wheel shafts from or to ports directly in the articulated periphery areas of the turbine wheels.
It is anticipated (hat exhaust ports 18 may be located difi'erently for each turbine wheel of a mated pair, using a cornmon exhaust port 18, 0r individual exhaust port to separate respective supercharger turbine nozzles, varying the number of degrees from maximurn compression, in the positions of the initial openings, the arcuate length of openings, the cutoff points and, the sizes of openings and variations in sizes of openings With angular distances from dead center, for instance, to bleed 01T sorne high pressure gas before full exhaust, etc. The same variation in position of opening applies to exhaust to atmosphere, intake, scavenging and fuel injection, aspiration and carburation orts.
The gear teeth 65, 66 shown in FIGURE 3 between the piston-cylinder members will not be necessary as l0ng as continual, uniform motion is assured by engagernent of the modified involute surfaces of the pistons with the parallel surfaces of the cylinder chambers, or when synchronizing gears 25 and 26 are employed, and provided adequate obturation is possible without them, to prevent undesirable cornmunication between nonmating chamber members. The purpose of gears 25 and 26 is to provide syuchronization of the turbine wheels 9 and 10 and to aid obturation.
The use of the teeth 65 and 66 in the interspaces betweer1 adjacent pistons and adjacent cylinders particularly if these teeth have one or more adclendums 011 the periphery of the cylinders turbine wheel 9 is advantageous since such addendums Will serve as obturation members in conjunction with the mating inside diameter of the housing and also serve to permit pressure to distn'bute between successive chamber pairs if desired and provided the exhaust orts 18 are placed so as to permit such pressure distribution. Uuder these couditions a greater volume is provided for the combustion gases to expand into wher1 the pistons and the cylinders disengage.
It is desirable that the entire involute coutour be 011 the pistons rather than the cylinders and that the latter have parallel sides to contain the expanding gases during the first stage of expansion, and still permit relative velocity diflerences between turbine wheels 9 and 10. Because radial sliding and circumferential lost motion is possible, the diameters of the pitch circles, addendum and dedendum circles, the number of teeth 01' the circular pitch of the turbine wheels 9 and 10 may differ. The objectives, t0 rnaintain uniform pitch line velocity, circurnferential obturation, high displ-acement and containment of the exploding charge so as to hast absorb energy are important in this development and are, therefore, prime design considerations.
The hydraulically actuated side plate 45, as shown in FIGURE 4, telescopes into the chamber 46 in the back Wall member 46 and O-rings are used to seal the sliding connection and provide containment of the hydraulic fluid. Alternatively, the flange 45 may have a. bellows construction to achieve the same purpose. The hydraulic pressure in chamber 46' distributes over the entire back side of plate 45 so that a relatively small amount of hydraulic pressure 0ver a large area can efiectively seal off high cornbustion pressure 011 a small area in the other side of the platze 45 for seali.ng gas velocities under Mach 1. The hydraulic fluid is cooled by heat transfer through block 7 to the liquid in the cooling system.
The liquid cooling system which is auxiliary to the air cooling system is important and particular emphasis has beeu placed on its developrnent. When liquid is used, is must be under pressure to prevent cavitation if used in rotating parts and the coolant may be used to provide pressure for the side plate 45 if applied to this dual purpose. The liquid enters the engiue jackets through orts 31 and 31 (FIGURE 4) and flows into the chambers in the turbine blocks 8 and 46. After absorbing heat, it discharges to a heat exchanger (not shown) through common exit port 41.
Cooling fuel for preheating flows from the fuel tank (not shown) through port 30 and cham'ber 83 in the head block 8 to the upper turbine wheel 10 and thence via cauted holes in head block 8 and hollow shaft 49 to force fuel into charnber 34 at the forward end of shaft 49, through the center assage of spool 36 into chamber 33 at the rearward end of shaft 49, through cantcd holes 59 and into sump 37 of turbine wheel 10. Sump 37 is machined annular so as not to create turbulence or cavitation in the liquid. The fuel leaves sump 37 after picking up heat'and entcrs chamber 39, the outer assage f spool 36, and into the chamber 32 of head block 8, out port 81 and back to the fuel tank. y
Liquid flow into and out of the lower turbine wheel 9 may be accomplished in the same manner, using either Water or fuel as the cooling medium.This pertains where the ignition system is not used or Where Wiring can be hermetically sealed. The fuel injection System is shown in FIGURES 3 and 4. Fuel flows from sump 37 to feeder lines 38, through check valves 53 to injection' pistons 56', throughcheck valves 57 in feeder line 78 to spray nozzles 13 and into collecting-miXing-combustion chamberS 12.
An alternative fuel system is illustrated in FIGURES 5 and 6 where corresponding arts are indicated by the same numerals primed. The incl floWs from sump 37 to fuel manifold 60, into a chopper valve 58, through fuel noz'zle': 13' into combustion chamber 12.
The use of nozzles to obtain high velocity jets of air f0r near instantaneous mixing With fuel and resulting in highly complete combustion; the use 0f' combustion chambers remote from the compression-expansion chambers; and the directing 01 high velocity jets of burned and burning gases in such a way as to derive maximum power from combustion energy /zmv.) identifies this as a turbine device and distinguishes it from the gear-type rotary combustion engine or motor.
With the nozzles and the collecting-mixing-combustion chambers in their relationship to the compressionexpansion chambers as shown in FIGURES 4 and 5 the following events normally occur:
Piston member 54 enters cylinder member 47 and advances until the original air volume, 47 plus 48, is decreased at the point of maximurn compression 14 to the volume of the nozzle 11, 15, 16, plus the volume of the collecting-mixing-combustion chamber 12. As this compression process takes place, the potenti-al energy of cornpression of the air at 14 is transformed into kinetic 'energy or high velocity air between upstream inlet 11 and throat 16. It then expands slightly in going from the throat 16 to the upstream outlet 15. This expansion permits the airflow to remain generally laminar until it enters the combustion charnber 12. At or near maximum compression point 14 fuel is injected at 13, With the direction of flow counter to that of the high velocity air, so that almost instantaneous mixing takes place in the collecting-mixing-cornbustion chamber 12. As the heat of compression in the c011ecting-mixing-combustion chamber 12 has raised the temperature of the air above ignition temperature, the air fuel mixture burns spontaneously. The build-up of pressure in chamber 12 is rapid, following combustion, and the burned and burning gases proceed into the downstream inlet 15 to the throat 16 over which length the gas potential energy is couverted substantially to kinetic energy /2mv. The couvergent-divergent nozzle expands from the throat 15 to the drownstream outlet 11. This expansion, now in reverse direction, permits the products of combustion to flow as a generally laminar steady stream 01' jet. The angle 01 the jet is fixed and is such as to efiiciently exploit the kinetic energy of these gases in applying their impulse force against the exposed surfaces of the mating turbine wheel 9 and the surfaces of the housing 7, thereby applying driving torque forcing wheels 9 and 10 correctly in opposite directions. After the kinetic energy of the burned gases is spent, the residual pressure of the burned gases will remain to force the wheels 9 and 10 also correctly in opposite directions, in reaction, until again maximurn expansion, volumes 47 plus 48, is reached and no further useful work can be done within the -ballistic turbine portion of the device.
Starting of the turbire is accornplished by using a ballistic charge or by injecting compressed air at port 55 (FIGURE 3). When the speed is high enough to compress intake air to the ignition temperature of the fuel, fuel is injected and the turbine procecds on its own power.
The combustion chamber arrangement in each piston 72, which is shown in FIGURES 3 and 4 as two spherical chambers 12 each With associated fuel feed lines including injection nozzles 11, 16 and 15, may be modified as described in connection With FIGURES 5 and 6. Further alternative combustion compartment and fuel feed arrangcrnents are possible. The combustion compartment 12 may be in the forrn of a single cylindrical compartrnent 0r chamber disposed With its long axis parallel With the axis 01 the supporting shaft for the turbine wheel and extending between the side faces of the turbine wheel With the ends thereof either open or closed by a side Wall section, and fuel may be fed into the elongate cylindrical combustion compartment by a plurality of nozzle and feed line assemblies of the same character as described in connection With FIGURES 3 and 4 which are spaced along the length of the sarne, 0r a Single nozzle may be employed which is formed by converging-diverging grooves or slots With a restricted connecting throat which extends along the length of the cylindrical compartment.
A modifiecl turbine arrangement is illustrated in FIG- URE 7 wherein a pair of intermeshing turbine wheels 109 and 110 of substantially identical construction are enclosed in a main housing 107 of the same general con struction as housing 7 With both turbine wheels having piston forming members 172, 172 and cylinder forming cavities 147, 147, providing increase in power and several other advantages over the single reaction arrangement of FIGURES 1 to 4. Progressive ignition is accomplish-ed by bleeding flame from a preceding combustion chamber 112, 112 to a following combustion chamber 112, 112 through ofiset rifling, as indicated at 190, which acts as a time delay to assure major energy flow through the nozzles 115, 116, 111 and 115, 116, 111 rather than through the rifling once the preceding chamber gases have been ignited. Initial ignition is accomplished by energizing 'spark plugs 191 Set in the wall of the expansion wedge 117. Supcrcharger impellers 102, 102 are made integral With the wheels 109 and 110, and are also designed to provide both cooling of the chambers 147, 147 and heating of intake air by diverting some of the supercharged air through interior tooth passages 191, 192 guided by vanes 193 and out at 194. Obturation grooves indicated at 195 extending transversely of the wheels and side grooves indicated at 196, interruptedor continuous, Single or multiple, are provided which serve to reflect the high pressure shock wave fronts and by this reflection bar further substantial gas passage, thereby providing an effective seal With the housing walls at the gas velocities encountered. Preferably, the obturation grooves are employed also on the turbine Wheel surfaces in the forrn of the apparatus shown in FIGURES 1 to 6.
A number 01 other multiple turbine wheel combinations may be employed, two of which are illustrated diagrammatically in FIGURES 8A and 8B, With intake and exhaust positions 211, 217 and 311, 317 being indicated thereon, and which require only reduced spacing of scavenging, exhaust and intake functions.
I claim: 1 1
l. An internal-combustion turbine comprising a housing formed by intersecting cylinders having parallel senterlines, and two intermeshing, positively displaced turbine wheels mounted in gear fashion engagement for rotation about said centerlines, the said housing having two air inlets spaced apart on either side of one of the intersections of said cylinders, and said housing having exhaust ports spaced apart on either side of the opposite intersection 01 said cylinders, an exhaust turbine, means connecting said exnaust ports With said exhaust turbine so as to drive the same by the exhaust gascs coming from said exhaust ports,.said exhaust turbine having a blower section arranged to deliver air to said air inlets, the said interineshing, positively displaced turbine wheels having engaging teeth such that one Wheel has lauge-angle pistonlike teeth and the other wheel has large-angle cylinderlike chamber forrning spaces with tooth-like walls between adjacent spaces, constructed with involute mating surfaces so as to cause each wheel to rotate at uniform velocity, the piston-like teeth, when fully engaged in maximurn compression position within the cylinder-like spaces, affording no net combustion space within the contours o1 widths of the piston-like or tooth wheel or the cylinderlike or space wheel, said piston-liketeeth having spherical combustion cavities rernote from the interengaging surfaces of said teeth and communicating therewith through two-way converging-diverging nozzles, wherein when ignition occurs, gases leaving each nozzle have an initial impulse force, due to gas velocity, and a residual reaction -force due to gas pressure which operates to drive the wheels in opposite directions.
2. An internal-combustion turbine comprising a housing With a chamber formed by partly intersecting cylinders or drums having parallel center lines, whose and faces are disposed in two parallel planes, 11W0 or more intermeshing, positively displaced turbine Wheels mounted in gearfashion engagernent on said center lines Which have interengaging piston-like teeth and co-operating cylinderlike chamber forming spaces defined by partition forming members, the said housing having air inlet ports spaced apart on either side of one of the intersections cf said cylinder's, the minimum distance of either of said ports from said intersection to be at least equal to the minirnum circular pitch, said housing having exhaust ports spaced apart on either side of the opposite intersection of said cylinders, an exhaust turbine whose roter is driven by the exhaust gases coming from said exhaust ports and having a blower section delivering a supply of air to said inlet ports, said housing having tWo additional scavenging port's into which air is fed, said scavenging ports being at least one quarter pitch distance on the addendum circle away from each exhaust port in the direction of wheel rotation and still another one quarter pitch length further downstream in the direction of each wheels rotation, whereby there is chargingof supercharged air into the normal air intake which air will first scavenge the chamber by reverse flow through the previous scavenging exhaust ports and, as the latter ports are closed by the teeth or the space partitions the supercharged air is diverted downstream for the cornpression phase as the rurbine wheel s engage, the said intermeshing, positive-displaced turbine wheels having engaging teeth such that One wheel has large-angle piston-like teeth, and the other wheel has large-angle cylinder-like spaces with tooth-like Walls, be tween the latter, and constructed With involute mating surfaces so as to cause each wheel to rotate at uniform velocity, and synchronizing gears connecting said turbine wheels so as to insure uniform rotation of said turbine wheels, the piston-like teeth, when fully engaged in maximum compression position with the cylinder-like spaces affording no net combustion space within the contours r Widths of the piston-like tooth wheel or the cylinder-like 'space wheel, and said teeth having spherical cavities, remote from the spaces root and the tooths crest interface, when in maximum compression position, with two-way converging-diverging nozzles forming umbilical cord-like tnbular passages extencling to the interengaging faces wherein when ignition occurs there is created an initial impulse force, due to gas velicity, and a residual reaction force, due t0 gas pressure which drives the wheels in opposite directions.
3. A ballistic internal-combustion engine comprising a housing having a chamber formed by intersecting cylinders with parallel center lines and a head plate closing the front side of the chamber and parallel with a back side Wall on the housing, interrneshing turbine wheels mounted in gear fashion engagement in said housing for rotation on axes coinciding with said center lines, the front and back faces of said turbine wheels being in parallel planes and exterior surfaces of said turbine Wheels being in sliding Engagement With interior 'surfaces of said housing, one of said turbine wheels having piston-forrning, radially extending, peripherally spaced teeth and the other of said turbine wheels having radially inwardly extending cylinder forming chambers between peripherally spaced, partition-like teeth, said turbine wheels having mating peripheries With the piston forming teeth being generally cylindrical in section and the cylinder forming chambers each having a semicircular bottorn portion merging with straight parallel side Wall portions, said piston forming teeth each having a combustion chamber rernote from the and thereof and a two-way nozzle formation extending in communicating relation between the ehcl of the tooth and the combustion chamber, means for feeding air into the housing for entrapment between the teeth of the turbine wheels and in said combustion chambers as the piston forming teeth engage in wiping relation in the cylinder forming chambers, means for feeding fuel into the combustion chambers for mixing with air entrapped in said combustion chambers, means for igniting the fuel and air mixture, and means for exhausting from the housing the gases resulting from combustion as the piston forming teeth advance out of the cylinder forrning chambers and the turbine wheels are rotated in opposite directions by the forcr:s released by the combustion 4. A ballistic internal-combustion engine as set forth in claim 3, and said means for feecling air into the hou'sing comprising an apertured supercharger cowl mounted on said head plate, an irnpeller mounted in the cowl and an associated supercharger turbine Wheel for driving the impeller, means for conducting exhaust gases from the housing for driving the 'supercharger turbine, and means forming air passageways in the cowl, the head plate and the housing for directing air sucked into the cowl -by the impeller into the housing for entraprnent between the teeth of the turbine wheels.
5. A ballistic internal-combustion engine as set forth in claim 3, and said turbine wheels being mounted on parallel shafts journaled in the hosing back side wall and head plate, one of which shafts constitutes a power output shaft, a supercharger cowl mounted on said head plate with an intake aperture concentric with said ower output shaft, an impeller rotatably mounted on said power output shaft, a supercharger turbine wheel rotatably mounted on said power output shaft and connected in driving relation With said impeller, means to drive said supercharger turbine and means forrning pas'sageways between the cowl and the housing for directing air sucked in by the impeller into the housing for entmpment between the teeth of the turbine wheels.
6. A ballistic internal-combustion engine as set forth in claim 5, and a planetary gear set connecting the supercharger impeller and the associated supercharger turbine in driving relation With the power output shaft 7. A ballistic internal-combustion engine as set forth in claim 3, and said turbine wheels being mounted on parallel shafts journaled in the housing back side Wall and head plate, one 0f which shafts constituteg a power output shaft, and synchronizing gears connecting said parallel shafts so as to assure uniform rotation of said turbine wheels.
8. A ballistic internal-combustion engine as set forth in claim 7, and means for adjusting the axial position of said synchronizing gears.
9. A ballistic internal-cornbustion engine as set forth in claim 3, and said turbine wheels being mounted on parallel shafts which are journaled in the side Walls of said housing, the shaft for said turbine wheel with the piston-like teeth being hollow and said means for feeding fuel into the combustion chambers including fuel passageways extending from the interior of said shaft to the combustion chambers in said piston-like teeth, means for -circulating fuel through said shaft and means for ejecting measured quantities of fuel into said combustion chambers when said piston-like teeth are engaged in said cylinder forming chambers.
10. A balllstic internal-combustion engine as set forth in claim 9, and said means for injecting measured quantities of fuel into said combustion charnbers including a fuel collecting chamber connected by passageways with each combustion chamber and with said hollow shaft, and a cam controlled piston operable in said fuel collecting chamber to force a predetermined quantity cf fuel into said combustion chamber at a predeterrnined point in the rotational path of said combustion chamber.
11. An internal-combustion turbine comprising a hou=- ing having a chamber formed by intersecting cylinders with parallel center lines and parallel, coplanar sides, two intermeshing, positively displaced turbine wheels mounted on said center lines in gear-fashion engagernent, said housing having air inlet ports spaced apart on either side of one of the intersections of said cylinders, said housing having exhaust ports spaced apart on either side of the opposite intersection cf said cylinders, an exhaust turbine having a roter which is driven by the exhaust gases coming frorn said exhaust orts and a blower section for sup plying air to said inlet ports, one of said ositive-displaced turbine wheels having radially extending, peripherally spaced piston-like teeth and the other of said wheels having co-operating cylinder-like, charnber forrning spaces with tooth-like partitlon walls between the latter and having involute mating surfaces on the piston-like teeth and in the cylinder-like spaces, interengaging auxiliary gears mounted in parallel with the turbine wheels so =as to assure uniform velocity, the piston-like teeth, when fully engaged in maxirnum compression position Within the cylinder-like spaces affording no appreciable net combustion space Within the contours or Widths of the pistonlike tooth wheel or the cylinder-like space wheel, said piston-like teeth having cavities remote from the ends of said piston-like teeth, two-way converging-diverging nozzles in the ends of said piston-like teeth with passages from said nozzles to said cavities, said nozzles being constructed so as to feed compressed air at very high velocity into the said collecting-mixing-combustion cavities for near-instantaneous mixing With fuel, means for injecting fuel into said combustion cavities from the opposite direction in counterflow and also at very high velocity so that the mixing action together with the heat of compression will provide spontaneous combustion, said nozzles being constructed also so as to feed the burned and burning gases at very high velocity from said cavities into the housing chamber when the piston-like teeth advance beyond the point of combustion and move out of full engagement in the cylinder-like spaces whereby to create an initial inpulse force, due to gas velccity, and a residual reaction force, due to gas pressure, the combination driving said turbine wheels in opposite directions.
12. An internal-combustion turbine as Set forth in claim 11, and spark producing means mounted at the bottom of the cylinder-like spaces at a point in line with the center of the downstrearn outlet of each nozzle when said turbine wheels are in the position of maximum compression, means for initiating turbine rotation by compressed air including ports in the side walls of said housing located downstrearn from dead center so that compressed air may be fed into the chamber to drive the turbine wheels in opposite directions With the air escaping at exhaust ports until suflicient speed for normal compression is reached.
13. An internal-cornbustion turbine as set fort]: in clairn 11, and means for supplying fuel under pressure to a turbine wheel sump, the turbine wheel being mounted on a hollow shaft having means to force the fuel into the sump from the fuel tanks which includes a concentric spool mounted in the hollow shaft and connecting passageways for returning fuel to the fuel tanks, and means for pressure injection of fuel into the combustion cavities for each piston-like tooth inclnding separate self-contained fuel injection umps which are arrayed axially between the turbine wheel shaft and its teeth and actuated by a cam mounted 011 the housing.
14. An internal-combustion turbine as set forth in claim 11, and a stationary side plate on one side ofthe turbine wheels and a movable pressure plate on the other side of the turbine wheels, the movable side plate being mounted so as to move freely, axially, with edge flanges slidably engaging a Wall in the housing and sealed aginst leakage, and pressure means behind the plate which forces it axially into contact with the sides of the turbine wheels.
15. An internal-cornbustion turbine comprising a housing having a turbine charnber formed by intersecfing cylinders with parallel center lines and parallel, c oplanar sides, and intermeshing, positively displaced turbine wheels disposed on said Center lines in said charnber in gear-fashion engagement, the said housing having air inlets spaced apart 011 either side of one of the intersections of said cylinders, said housing having exhaust ports spaccd apart 011 either side of the opposite intersection of s'aid cylinders, means to aspirate fuel so that the said air inlets take in both air and fuel in proper combustion mixture, the said intermeshing, positive-displaced turbine wheels having engaging teeth such that one wheel has peripherally extending, piston forrning teeth and the other wheel has peripheral recesses of cyliuder-like form with toothlike partition walls betwe =n the Same, the piston forming teeth and the cylinder forming recesses being constructed with involute mating surfaces so as t0 cause the wheels to rotate at uniform velocity, the piston forming teeth, When fully engaged in maximum compression position With the cylinder forming recesses aflording no appreciable combustion space between the mating surfaces, said piston forming teeth having combustion cavities remote from the ends thereof and two-way converging-diverging end nozzles connected With said cavities by passageways and providing With said combustion chambers suflicient space for compressed fuel-air charges, and spark producing means for igniting the charges.
16. An internal-combustion turbine as set forth in claim 15, and said combustion cavities being spherical and axially spaced with each having an associated two-way end nozzle.
17. An internal-combustion turbine as Set forth in claim 15, and said housing having a back side wall with an inwardly opening chamber in the inner face thefeof, a pressure plate slidably mounted in said side Wall chamber and engaged against the back sides of the turbine wheels, and means in said chamber for applying pressure =to said plate to hold the same in engagement with the turbine wheels.
18. In an internal-combustion engine having a piston forming member mounted to move into and out of a maximum compression relationship in a co-operating cylinder forrning member, means to feed air between the piston forming member and the cylinder forming member so as to entrap a quantity cf the air in the cylinder forming member as the members move toward maximum compression relationship, one of said members having an internal cavity forming a combustion chamber remote frorn the end surface of said piston forming member, and a two-way converging-diverging nozzle forming a passageway from the combustion chamber to said end surface so that air entrapped in the cylinder Will be forced into the combustion charnber as the members move into maximum compression relationship and gases resulting from combustion will be freed to escape from the combustion chamber as the members move out of maximum compression relationship, the faces of said members having mating contours so that when in maximum compression relationship there is no appreciable space between the mating surfaces, and the entrapped air is confined said combustion chamber and said converging-diverging nozzle, means for injecting fuel into said cornbustion chamber in timed relation to the movement of said mernbers into maximum compression relationship, and means for igniting the fuel and air in the combustion chamber so that the rnembers are driven apart by -the forces released by the gases resulting frorn combustion.
19. An internal-combustion turbine as set forth in claim 1, and said turbine wheels having side wall and peripheral surfaces which Wipe opposing internal surfaces cf the housing and said turbine wheel peripheral and side Wall surfaces having obturation grooves extending across the peripheral surface and along the marginal edges of the side Wall surfaces.
20. An internal-combustion turbine as Set forth in claim 11, and 0ne of said turbine Wheels being mounted on a shaft constituting the power output shafts which incorporates a two-stage concentric torsion tube arrangement and the associated auxiliary gear being mounted on the outermost torsion tube so as to absorb and darnp out any transient vibrations.
N0 references cited.
RALPH D. BLAKESLEE, Primary Examiner.