US 3401755 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 17, 1968 L. L. FREDERICK 3,401,755
DIESEL HAMMER CONVERTIBLE I0 SINGLE OR DOUBLE ACTION AND HAVING ENERGY RATING INDICATING MEANS FOR EACH MODE OF OPERATION 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 28, 1966 INVENTOR LeoNnRu L. FREDE.R\CK
'e-r-roervsv Sept. 17, 196 1.. L. FREDERICK DIESEL HAMMER CONVERTIBLE TO SINGLE OR DOUBLE ACTION AND HAVING ENERGY RATING INDICATING MEANS FOR EACH MODE OF OPERATION 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 28, 1966 INVENTOR LEONHRD L. FREDERICK BY (MWWQ.
p 1968 L. FREDERICK 3,401,755
DIESEL HAMMER CONVERTIBLE TO SINGLE OR DOUBLE ACTION AND HAVING ENERGY RATING INDICATING MEANS FOR EACH MODE OF OPERATION Filed Nov. 28, 1966 5 Sheets-$heet 5 r w i s 5 i INVENTOR LEONARD L. FREDERKZK BY kwm ORNEY United States Patent DIESEL HAMMER CONVERTIBLE TO SINGLE 0R DOUBLE ACTION AND HAVING ENERGY RAT- ING INDICATING MEANS FOR EACH MODE OF OPERATION Leonard L. Frederick, Whippany, N.J., assignor to MKT Corporation, Dover, N.J., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Nov. 28, 1966, Ser. No. 597,412 10 Claims. (Cl. 173-20) The invention herein disclosed relates to diesel hammers of the general type illustrated in the L. L. Frederick Patents No. 2,882,690, Apr. 21, 1959, and 2,990,023, June 27 1961.
Objects of the invention have been to furnish a hammer which with reasonable necessary changes could be converted from single action (gravity) to double action (gravity and air spring) or from double action to single action.
Further important objects of the invention have been to provide simple and practical means for indicating performance results attained in each method of operation.
These and other desirable objects have been accomplished by a novel construction, combination and relation of parts involving a cylinder and a ram operating therein, with the cylinder elongated to provide a compression space above the ram, for double action operation of the hammer and the cylinder having a head readily removable, for single action operation, the protrusion of the ram from the cylinder then providing a measure of the single action operation and the cylinder being equipped with a special constant pressure gauge rendered operative when the cylinder is closed for double action, to provide a measure of energy delivered in that form of operation.
Other novel features of the invention and further desirable objects accomplished are set forth and will appear in the course of the following specification.
The drawings accompanying and forming part of the specification illustrate certain present practical embodiments of the invention. Structure, however, may be further modified and changed, all within the true intent and scope of the invention, as hereinafter defined and claimed.
FIG. 1 is a broken vertical sectional view of the upper end portion of one of said convertible hammers.
FIG. 1A is a similar view of the lower end portion of said hammer.
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the hammer with the removable head in place for double action operation.
FIG. 3 is a plan view showing the removable head replaced by a stop flange for limiting upward travel of the ram in the single action operation.
FIG. 4 is a broken sectional view as on the line 4-4 of FIG. 3, showing the stop flange in place.
FIG. 5 is a broken sectional view of the gauge for indicating impact energy in the double action operation of the machine.
FIG. 6 is a top plan view of a modified form of the invention in which the air compression chamber is incorporated in the removable head of the cylinder.
FIG. 7 is a broken sectional view of the same, as on the plane of line 77 of FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is a broken sectional detail of a modification.
As shown in FIGS. 1, 1A, the cylinder 10 in which the ram 11 operates against anvil block 9 is lengthened or extended to form an air compression chamber 12, at the top, above the ram for compression of a cushion of air for the high speed double action operation of the hammer.
This is effected in a preferred form by prolongation of the cylinder as shown in FIG .1, but may be accomplished by a separate cylinder extension as shown at 13 in FIG. 6.
In both such forms of the invention, however, the air 3,401,755 Patented Sept. 17, 1968 ice compression space is located wholly within the outlineof the cylinder as distinguished from prior constructions with compressed air tanks external to the cylinder.
The prolongation of the cylinder in the invention to provide the internal air compression chamber lengthens the cylinder to a certain extent, but this is not objectionable in the present instance because in the single action operation of the hammer, the lengthened portion of the cylinder may act as a guard or guide for the ram in the uncushioned operation of the same.
In all forms of the invention, the cylinder is equipped with a removable head which can be taken off for conversion from double action to single action operation and which can be restored for conversion from single action to doublt action operation.
In FIGS. 1 and 6, the removable head is designated 14 and 13 respectively, and is shown as secured in readily removable fashion by freely accessible bolts 15.
To avoid unnecessary friction and wear, a slight clearance may be provided between the upper end of the ram and the surrounding wall of the air compression chamber.
This clearance may be provided by slight enlargement of the air compression chamber, by slight taper of the upper end portion of the ram, or both.
In operating single action, with the ram free to rise in the opened cylinder, it is desirable to remove the packing rings usually present on the upper end of the ram and which would become exposed with protrusion of the ram from the cylinder.
Accordingly, the packing rings 16 on the upper portion of the ram are of readily expansible form adapted to be readily slipped over the upper end of the ram for single action operation or to be replaced on the ram for double action operation.
The tapered upper end of the ram when such is employed, facilities these preparatory operations of removing or replacing the upper piston rings.
As a safety measure, means are preferably provided for restraining and preventing the ram from jumping out of the open upper end of the cylinder when operating free as a single action hammer.
The means illustrated for such purpose is shown as an annular stop flange 17,-FIG. 4, having bolt holes matching those of the removable head so as to be replaceable for the head and having an internal diameter accurately finished to catch a ring or rings 18 on the lower end of the ram.
In the single action operation described, the protrusion of the ram provides visible means for marking the stroke of the ram and hence true measure of the impact energy delivered by the ram.
With this convertible machine it is equally important that the impact energy delivered in the high speed double action operation of the ram be known.
Accordingly, there is provided on the hammer a gauge subjected to the substantially constant maximum pressure of the air compression chamber.
This gauge is shown as a piston 19, FIG. 5, having an indicating stem 20, and subjected to pressure in a holding chamber 21, subjected to the pressure of a piston 22, in a cylinder 23, connected by fine tubing 24, with the top of the air compression chamber.
The pressure on the indicator is held substantially constant by a fine restriction orifice screw plug 25, interposed between the holding chamber and the cylinder 27 of the indicator piston.
This gauge is shown mounted on the hammer so as to avoid transmission loss and uncertainty. The indicating stem may be suitably calibrated.
Similarly, suitable markings may be provided to indicate the extent of projection and hence the stroke of the ram in the free, single action operation of the same.
A screw hole or equivalent 26, may be provided in the head of the ram to take an eyebolt, lifting rod or the like, for raising the ram when removing or replacing the upper piston rings.
FIG. 6 shows how the elongation of the cylinder necessary to provide the internal air compression chamber may be accomplished by making the removable head 13, in hollow tubular form of sufiicient length to hold a desirable compression volume.
This hollow compression head may be of relatively light construction, as indicated, when used, as shown, just to hold the compressed air cushion.
The invention combines the possibilities and advantages of both single and double action hammer operation in a simple readily convertible form and with indication of the results accomplished in each case.
This is of particular importance in sections restricted to operation in only one of these ways; enabling the one hammer to be kept in stock for operation in both fields.
The prolongation of the cylinder by incorporating the compression chamber in the removable head has the advantage that cylinders of single action hammers may be used for the purpose of the present invention by providing the chambered heads necessary and mounting the same in removable fashion over the open upper ends of such cylinders.
FIG. 8 shows how suitable markers may be provided for deter-mining the stroke of the ram in the single action operation; this taking the form of a scaling rod 28 mounted on top of the cylinder, in front of or behind the ram, provided with plainly visible distinguishing scale markings 29, comparable with the top of the rising ram.
This view also shows how the safety catch for the ram may be incorporated as a countersunk lip or flange 30, cut in the wall of the cylinder.
What is claimed is:
1. A diesel hammer convertible to either a gravity or gravity and air spring action, comprising the combination of a cylinder and a ram operating as a piston in said cylinder,
said cylinder having an anvil block at the lower end cooperative with the ram for eifecting compression ignition of injected fuel,
the upper end of said cylinder having means adapted to extend above and beyond the upward travel of the ram into an air compression chamber for applying accumulated pressure downward on the ram,
said means comprising an extension head closing the upper end of said air compression chamber for gravity and air spring action operation of the hammer,
means securing said head in readily removable relation on said cylinder and enabling removal of the head for operation of the hammer as a single stroke harnmer, with the ram then free to project beyond the open upper end of the cylinder and providing visible means for disclosing the stroke of the ram in gravity action operation,
said means for securing the head being re-engageable with the cylinder for securing the head in position closing the upper end of the cylinder for conversion of the hammer back to gravity and air spring action operation, and
gauge means on the hammer subjected to the pressure generated in said air compression chamber when the cylinder is closed, for indicating effective energy of the hammer operating as a gravity and air spring action hammer.
2. The invention according to claim 1 with means for preventing the ram from jumping out of the cylinder when the head is removed from operating the hammer as a gravity action hammer.
3. The invention according to claim 2 in which said ram has packing rings and in which said means for preventing the ram from jumping out of the cylinder, includes a stop flange engageable over the open upper end of the cylinder in place of said removable head and sized to catch one or more of said packing rings on the ram.
4. The invention according to claim 1 in which said ram has one or more packing rings on the upper end of the same, of readily removable construction permitting removal of the same when said head is removed for free uncushioned gravity action operation of the ram.
5. The invention according to claim 1 in which slight clearance is provided between said extension head of the cylinder and the upper end of the ram entering said chamber.
6'. The invention according to claim 1 in which said removable head is a hollow prolongation extension of the cylinder forming the air compression chamber extension aforesaid.
7. The invention according to claim 1 in which said gauge means includes a small gauge cylinder,
an indicating piston operating in and projecting in visible relation from said cylinder and a pressure connection extending from the upper end of said air compression chamber to said gauge cylinder and including flow restricting means.
8. The invention according to claim 7 in which said pressure connection includes a pressure holding chamber arranged with said flow restricting means between said pressure holding chamber and said indicating piston, and
a pressure transmission piston exposed to pressure of said air compression chamber and connected to apply pressure on said holding chamber.
9. The invention according to claim 5, in which the upper end portion of the ram is slightly tapered to aiford the clearance mentioned and to facilitate removal and replacement of piston rings on the upper end of the ram.
10. The invention according to claim 5, in which the ram is tapered toward the upper end thereof to provide the aforsesaid slight clearance, and said removable head is of hollow tubular structure forming the air compression chamber elongation of the cylinder.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,208,730 7/1940 Pfeiffer 123-46 2,465,735 3/ 1949 Lieberherr 925 X 2,605,748 8/ 1952 Rasoletti, 92-5 2,882,690 4/1959 Frederick 173-124 3,354,790 11/1967 Race 92-59 OTHER REFERENCES Young, E. M., How Good Are The Diesel-Powered Pile Hammers? Engineering News-Record, May 15, 1958, pp. 54-58.
DAVID H. BROWN, Primary Examiner.