|Publication number||US3402266 A|
|Publication date||Sep 17, 1968|
|Filing date||Apr 29, 1965|
|Priority date||Apr 29, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3402266 A, US 3402266A, US-A-3402266, US3402266 A, US3402266A|
|Inventors||Winther Martin P|
|Original Assignee||Martin P. Winther|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (4), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 17, 1968 M. P. WINTHER PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR CUEING ORATORS Filed April 29, 1965 LVVEN'IOR. Mar/in P Mnf/zer 24 y i F A florlzgys United States Patent 3,402,266 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR CUEING ORATORS Martin P. Winther, 422 Lake Shore Drive, Clermont, Fla. 32711 Filed Apr. 29, 1965, Ser. No. 451,872 4 Claims. (Cl. 179100.1)
ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Process and apparatus for cueing speakers through the use of an audible signal delivered to the speaker, the speaker having previously transcribed the speech to be given by dictating groups of words or phrases each followed by silent portion on the recording, which silent portion is about 1.2 to 1.5 times longer than the playback time for the words immediately preceding each silent portion. The apparatus includes means for producing such recordings to be used in cueing speakers and which embodies a timer for energizing and deenergizing the signal means, telling the speaker when to speak and when to be silent, and for how long, respectively.
This invention relates to a process and apparatus for cneing speakers, namely to a process and apparatus by means of which a speaker may deliver his message accurately and conveniently and in his normal manner and rate of speaking without the aid of notes or other visual prompting means.
My invention has for an object the provision of a process in which the message to be delivered is first pre-recorded in suitable manner and then is transmitted to the speaker in isolated, short, clearly audible groups of words or phrases, there being a pause of definite duration between successive transmissions, whereby without notice to his audience and without encumbering his normal and natural rate and style of delivery, an entire message thus recived may be orally delivered by the speaker.
More particularly, my invention contemplates an improved process which comprises pre-recording on, for instance, a magnetic tape recorder, the entire message to be orally delivered, such recording being accomplished by observing between each group of words or phrases a period of silence which I have discovered should be from 1.2 to 1.5 times longer in duration than the immediately preceding group of words or phrase, whereby when played back to the speaker, he has ample opportunity during such silent periods orally to repeat the words or phrase just heard.
My invention contemplates the provision of apparatus for producing pre-recordings of messages, speeches and thelike, whereby in accurate manner the finished recording consists of alternate groups of words or phrases each followed by a silent portion on the recording which is in the ratio of 1.2 to 1.5 time-s longer than the playback time for the words immediately preceding each silent portion.
Another feature of my invention is the provision of an automatically operable timer efiective to assure the recording of the message with definite time relationships between the phrases and silent portions, thus to assure that when relayed to the speaker during his oration there are pauses or silences of sufi'icient duration to give the speaker ample time to repeat what he has just heard.
My invention further contemplates a recording for the use herein described in which the oration to be delivered is recorded at a normal rate of speed for the particular recorder selected and which is played back to the ear of the speaker at a speed from 1.2 to 1.5 times faster than 3,402,266 Patented Sept. 17, 1968 the recording rate, preferably at about 1.37 times the recording rate.
Generally, my invention proceeds upon the premise that a speaker must not be required to talk and listen to the recording at the same time. Secondly, the recorded information must be delivered to the speakers ear rapidly and with extreme clarity. Next, the intelligence must be delivered to the speakers ear in short bursts rather than continuously and each short burst must be followed by a period of silence of sufficient duration for the speaker to deliver the short burst of words or phrases just heard and without noticeable pause.
I have discovered that there is a relatively narrow range in the ratio between listening time and speaking time. Further, I have found that the observance of this range is important whether a sentence or phrase contains two words or ten. Thus, the optimum time used for speaking to the audience a series of words just heard has been found by me to be about 1.37 times the length of time used for listening to the words to be spoken.
As stated, it is essential that the message he delivered to the speaker with extreme clarity. I have found that the required clarity can be obtained by dictating to a recorder for instance, one of the tape or wire type, at some adequate tape or wire speed and then playing the same back to the speaker at the speed of approximately 1.37 times faster than the speed used in dictating. This ratio also is limited and I have discovered that the minimum ratio is about 1.2 to 1 and that the maximum ratio is about 1.5 to 1. I have also discovered that the ratio of sound runs or spurts of intelligence played back by the tape to the silent period following it must be maintained very precisely throughout the entire program. Here again I have found that the most satisfactory ratio is: sound runs 1, silent periods 1.37. When dictating into the recorder 1t is impossible accurately to observe this ratio without some external means to guide the dictator. I prov1de an improved timing device which delineates the pause time following each group of words, phrase or sentence, as the case may be. In accordance with my invention I combine a timer with a signal lamp to act as a mentor to establish these silent times. Thus, I employ a constant speed motor which drives a smaller diameter timlng drum when dictating and a larger diameter drum for timing the silent period. The dictating drum is driven in one direction and the silent drum is driven in the opposite direction, both with constant speed of the motor, whereby, due to the respective diameter of the drums, a definite ratio of 1 to 1.37 between the dictating and silent tlmes on the tape is accurately maintained.
Apparatus illustrating the constructional features of my invention and which may also be used to carry out my improved process is shown in the accompany ng drawings forming a part of this application, in which:
FIG. 1 is a wiring diagram illustrating diagrammatically the circuits and certain parts of the apparatus for producin g the recording.
FIG. 2 is a detail side elevational view, partly broken away and in section, and showing the drive .and drums forming parts of the timer;
FIG. 3 is a view taken generally along line III-III of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmental view taken generally along line IVIV of FIG. 3; and,
FIG. 5 is a composite view diagrammatically illustrating one means for transmitting the pre-recorded intelligence to the speaker using my improved cueing device.
Referring now to the drawings and particularly to FIGS. 1 to 4, inclusive, I will first describe the apparatus which I use as a timer for producing the tape, together with the control circuits therefor.
In FIG. 2 I show a base plate for mounting the several portions of the apparatus. The timing drum indicated generally by the numeral 11 in effect is two drums 12 and 13. Thus, drum 12 is larger in diameter than drum 13 in the precise relationship, circumference-wise of l to 1.37, that is, the circumference of drum 12 is 1.37 times the circumference of drum 13. The drum 11 is mounted on a vertically disposed shaft 14 rotatably mounted in a vertical hearing or standard 16 in turn secured to the base plate 10.
Pivotally mounted on a pair of brackets 17 is a mounting and supporting bracket 18 for a constant speed electric motor 19. The output shaft of the motor is provided with a rubber covered friction drive wheel 21 which is adapted in selected manner as will be explained to engage in driving relationship with the drums 12 and 13. As shown in FIG. 2, the entire bracket, motor and drive wheel arrangement is urged counterclockwise by means of a spring 22 in such fashion that the driving wheel 21 engages the outer, larger diameter drum surface 12.
Mounted on a side of the bracket 18 is an outstanding angular bracket 23. At its outer end the bracket 23 is provided with an elongated slot 24. Slidably fitting in the slot 24 is a pin 26 carried on the upper end of the armature 27 of a solenoid 28. The solenoid is mounted on the base plate 10 by means of a bracket 29.
Mounted on the vertical bearing standard 16 is a normally closed limit switch indicated generally by the numeral 31. As will later appear, the switch 31 may be opened by means of a depending ing 32 carried on the under side of the drum member 11.
Projecting outwardly from the lower portion of the bracket 23 is a switch arm 33 which is adapted to be closed against a contact 34 whenever the solenoid 28 is energized, namely, when the driving roller 21 is in engagement with the smaller diameter drum 13, Further, and for a reason later to appear, the drum 12 is provided at one point with a cam 36 up which the driving roller 21 runs at a certain point in the rotation of the drum, thus to rock the bracket 18 and consequently switch arm 33 in position to close the switch consisting of the switch arm 33 and the contact 34. Likewise as will presently appear, the closing of switch establishes a holding circuit for maintaining relay 28 energized pending the actuation of certain other instrumentalities as will appear.
Referring now particularly to FIG. 1, the control circuit for my improved timing mechanism will now be ex plained. Power is supplied to the entire circuit through the lines 37 and 38, under control of a switch 39. Thus, whenever switch 39 is closed the motor 19 is energized.
'At 41 I show a transformer and full wave rectifier of the bridge type, to provide DC current for the operation of the several devices to be explained. As is understood, the bridge circuit includes a capacitor 42 to act as a filter in order to level out the current output from the rectifier section.
One side of all the electrical devices to be powered is supplied through the ground lead 43.
Connected from the power output side of the rectifier, through the switch 31, are additional switches 44, 46, the switch 35 and still a fourth switch 47. As shown, switch 44 is relay actuated by means of the relay coil 48 and is normally closed. Switch 46 is a manual push button switch and is normally closed. As before stated, switch 35 is normally open and is closed whenever the driving roller 21 runs up onto the ramp 36. In parallel with the solenoid 28 I provide a signal light 49 which in effect, as will be explained, acts as the mentor for instructing the dictator when to dictate and when to be silent, Thus, as will appear, when the signal lamp 49 is energized the speaker dictates and when the light 49 is deenergized he pauses in his dictation until the light comes on again.
From what has been described it is apparent that with switch 39 closed motor 19 is operating, and with switch 35 open, the roller 21 is in engagement with drum 12. Since switch 35 is open solenoid 28 and light 49 are deenergized. Continued rotation of the driving roller 21 eventually brings the drum 12 in position for the roller to ride up on the ramp 36, thereby tilting the entire motor 19 and bracket 18 clockwise as viewed in FIG. 2, closing switch 35. Immediately that this takes place the solenoid 28 is energized, signal lamp 49 is energized, and the roller 21 engages the smaller diameter drum 13, thus directing the dictator to dictate his message onto the tape recorder. In the event the phrase or number of words to be dictated is relatively short, the dictator may start a new cycle simply by manually opening switch 46. The drum is of such diameter as to permit the dictation of more than the usual number of words in an ordinary phrase or sentence. If the particular phrase or group of words being dictated is longer than required for one complete cycle (although, in practice this will seldom occur), with the roller 21 engaging the inner drum 13, limit switch 31 eventually will be opened by the projection 32, thus automatically reversing the cycle and giving the precise 1 to 1.37 time difference between the silent and sound portions on the tape. Therefore, simply by dictating when the light 49 is energized and refusing to dictate when the light 49 is not energized, the speaker assures the placing on the recording of groups of words each followed by a silent space on the tape which is directly proportional to the differences between the effective diameters of the drums 12 and 13, namely, in the ratio of 1 to 1.37.
As an additional feature of my invention by manually closing switch 47 I can couple with the mechanism so far described means automatically responsive to voice transmission to control the rotation of the drum 11 and hence the time intervals for dictating and silence as determined by the light 49.
Generally, the dotted outline indicated at 51 includes mechanism constituting a sound operated relay, The mechanism included within the dotted lines 52 includes a time delay relay. The mechanism 51 includes a microphone 53 into which the dictator speaks whenever the signal light 49 is energized. The microphone 53 produces a weak signal which is fed through a transistor 54. By means of a battery 56, and in response to sound impressed on the microphone 53, I energize a relay coil 57. The relay coil controls a normally closed double pole switch 58. In series with one set of contacts of the switch 58 through a lead 59 is another normally open switch 61 which is under control of a relay coil 62. The coil or relay 48 is connected to the opposite side of the half of the switch 58 just described through a lead 63.
The other side of switch 58 is connected by the lead 64 to one side of the relay coil 62 and by lead 66 to ground. Thus, whenever a voice signal is impressed on the microphone 53 the relay coil 57 is energized, opening both sections of switch 58. The opening of switch 58 causes the appearance of voltage across the points 67 and 68. Voltage at the points 67 and 68 builds up on the capacitor 69 and after a predetermined fraction of a second, preferably about one-fourth of a second, relay 62 is energized. The energization of relay 62 closes switch 61, readying the circuit for the opening of switch 44 whenever the voice signal impressed on 53 ceases.
Starting with the drum 11 in the relative position to roller 21 as shown in full lines, FIG. 3, the operation may be described as follows: By closing switch 47 the sound operated relay and the time delay are utilized. In the position shown, that is, with the drum being rotated so that the cam moves toward the driving roller, relay 28 and signal lamp 29 are deenergized. As soon as roller 21 rides up on the ramp 36 switch 35 is closed, energizing solenoid 28 and signal lamp 49. The dictator then commences his dictation in response to the appearance of the signal 49 whereupon, after about A; second delay, relay 57 is energized, opening both sections of switch 58. This causes the appearance of voltage at the points 67-68, energizing relay 62. Energization of relay 62 closes switch 61 placing the circuit in readiness for deenergizing relay 28 and signal lamp 49 as soon as the speaker ceases to talk into microphone 53, that is, the instant the sound relay 57 closes switch 58. Thus, energizing relay 48 has the effect of initiating the silent cycle the same as would opening manually operable switch 46. While an ordinary relay will work in place of the time delay relay 61, I prefer to use a time delay mechanism to eliminate hunting in the system.
In FIG. 5 I show diagrammatically one system for utilizing the recording made in accordance with my invention. A tape recorder T set to play back the message pre-recorded as herein described may be wired into a miniature, low power broadcast station B. The speaker may carry on his person a miniature recover R which feeds the signal to an ear plug speaker S. The tape machine may be provided with a remote controlled back-up switch C in reach of the speaker.
Having pre-recorded the message, the same is impressed upon the speakers ear in short, rapidly spoken but clearly understandable bursts of words, time-spaced to permit him orally to repeat what he has just heard.
In actual practice my invention has been found to be practical and satisfactory in every way. Without the use of notes, slides, cue cards, and the like an entire message may, with little practice in the use of my invention, be effectively and interestingly delivered.
While I have shown my invention in but one form, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of various changes and modifications without departing from the spirit thereof, and I desire, therefore, that only such limitations shall be placed thereupon as are specifically set forth in the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. The process of cueing a person for delivery of a spoken message comprising:
(a) impressing upon the speakers ear a portion of said message to be spoken and at a speed of from 1.2 to 1.5 times faster than the normal speaking rate of the speaker,
(b) delaying the impression upon the speakers ear of other portions of said message for a length of time for the speaker to speak at his normal rate of delivery the portion just received, and
(c) repeating the steps set forth in (a) and (b) above until the speaker has received and delivered the complete message.
2. The process of cueing an orator for delivery of a spoken message comprising:
(a) aurally delivering a portion of said message to the orator at a rate of from 1.2 to 1.5 times the normal speaking rate of the orator,
(b) delaying the delivery of subsequent portions of said message until the orator delivers the first received portion at his normal rate of delivery, and
(c) impressing the remainder of said message as in (a) above punctuated with delays as in (b) above 5 until the orator completes delivery of the message.
3. The process of preparing and utilizing a transcription of a message for the purpose of cueing an orator who is to deliver said message comprising:
(a) retrievably transcribing the message to be delivered at a speed of from 1.2 to 1.5 times the normal rate of oral delivery of the orator,
(b) transmitting the transcribed message to the orator in increments at the speed set forth in (a) above,
(0) interrupting said transmissions between increments long enough for the orator orally to deliver at his normal speaking rate the increment just transmitted to him, and
(d) resuming the said transmission of another segment of the message immediately after the orator has finished speaking the immediately last received segment.
4. A dictation signaling device for producing recordings useful for cueing speakers,
(a) signal means which while energized commands the user to speak and while deenergized commands the user to be silent,
(b) control means for the signal means effective to command a time spacing between each group of words of between 1.2 to 1.5 times the duration of the immediately preceding group of words, said control means including:
(1) a timer for energizing and deenergizing the signal means embodying a rotating member driven by a constant speed motor, together with means to cause the motor to rotate said member during the dictation periods at a rate of speed of from 1.2 to 1.5 times that at which the motor rotates said member during the silent periods, and
(2) means automatically responsive to the impression or voice sound thereon to actuate the timer to signal energizing position and also effective upon cessation of voice impressed sound thereon to hold the signal deenergized for said period of from 1.2 to 1.5 times the length of time required to record said immediately preceding group of words.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,155,778 11/1964 Meyer 179100.2
BERNARD KONICK, Primary Examiner. H. STECKLER, Assistant Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3155778 *||Mar 3, 1961||Nov 3, 1964||Meyer Edward M||Teaching apparatus using sound recording|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3614336 *||Dec 17, 1968||Oct 19, 1971||Walter George Wilfrid Patey||Method and device for starting and stopping a dictating machine|
|US4093831 *||Oct 12, 1976||Jun 6, 1978||Business Education Products, Inc.||Transcriber having selectable word reproduction rate|
|US4207440 *||May 19, 1978||Jun 10, 1980||The Vsc Company||Dictation recorder with speech-extendable adjustment predetermined playback time|
|WO1979001142A1 *||Jun 1, 1978||Dec 27, 1979||Business Education Prod Inc||Transcriber having selectable word reproduction rate|
|U.S. Classification||369/19, 352/4, 369/47.55, 434/185|
|International Classification||G09B5/00, G09B5/04|