|Publication number||US3402665 A|
|Publication date||Sep 24, 1968|
|Filing date||Aug 15, 1966|
|Priority date||Aug 15, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3402665 A, US 3402665A, US-A-3402665, US3402665 A, US3402665A|
|Inventors||Mckinney Jr Charles Dana, Tarpley Jr William B|
|Original Assignee||Aeroprojects Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (13), Referenced by (25), Classifications (15), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept; 24, 1968 w. B. TARPLEY, JR.. ET AL 3,402,665
' NONPYROTECHNIC DISSEMINATOR F iled Aug. 15, 19? 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG/l [NI/E N 7' 0R5.
WILL/AM B. TARPLEY. JR. CHARLES DANA MCKINNEY. JR.
w. B. TARPLEY, JR. ET AL 3,402,665
Sept. 24, 1968 NONPYROTECHN I C D I S SEMINATOR 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 15, 1966 I/VVEIVTOR W/LL/AM 5. TARPLE. JR. CHARLf g DANA McK/lV/VEY, JR. y ATTQRIVEVS.
3,402,665 NONPYROTECHNIC DISSEMINATOR William B. Tarpley, Jr., West Chester, Pa., and Charles Dana McKinney, Jr., Wilmington, Del., assignors to Aeroprojects, Incorporated, West Chester, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Aug. 15, 1966, Ser. No. 572,473 14 Claims. (Cl. 102--65) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention is directed to a nonpyrotechnic disseminator, and more particularly to devices which may be used for discharging finely divided powders, leaflets and other solids over a large area by the dispensing action of the gasification of a gelled liquefied gas.
There are numerous situations in which solids, such as in the form of finely divided solids or leaflets, must be dispensed over a wide area, yet cannot be so-dispensed by the use of explosive charges. By way of example, the handling of mobs with teargas powders should be effected without the use of explosive charges. Moreover, in many mob-control and other police situations, the dissemination of vomit gas powders should likewise be accomplished without any lethal risk arising from the use of explosive charges.
Moreover, it is desirable to dispense many markers, such distress signal markers, staining materials and the like over a wide area, without the necessity for using explosive charges. Thus, explosive charges may adversely affect such markers and staining materials, or may lead to a substantial risk in handling and in usage.
In addition, there are many situations wherein finely divided paper leaflets or the like must be dispensed over a wide area. Such leaflets cannot be subjected to the action of explosive charges.
A problem with the dissemination of such leaflets arises from their tendency to adhere together when tightly stacked.
This invention has as an object the provision of a r nonpoyrotechnic disseminator.
This invention has as another object the provision of a nonpyrotechnic disseminator which achieves dissemination of solids, such as solids in the form of powders or leaflets, over a wide area.
This invention has as another object the provision of a disseminator which may be safely stored, handled and used.
Other objects will appear hereinafter.
For the purpose of illustrating the invention there is shown in the drawings forms which are presently preferred; it being understood, however, that this invention is not limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown.
Referring to the drawings, wherein like reference characters refer to like parts:
FIGURE 1 is a vertical sectional view of an embodiment of the nonpyrotechnic disseminator of the present invention.
FIGURE 2 is a plan view, looking down from above, of the nonpyrotechnic disseminator of FIGURE 1.
nited States Patent FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 33 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 4 is a vertical sectional view of another embodiment of the nonpyrotechnic disseminator of the present invention.
FIGURES 5 to 7 are sectional views of other embodiments of the nonpyrotechnic disseminator of the present, invention.
FIGURE 8 is a partial horizontal cross-sectional view of the embodiment shown in FIGURE 7, showing details of the means for opening the disseminator.
FIGURE 9 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of still another embodiment of the nonpyrotechnic disseminator of the present invention.
FIGURE 10 is a detailed view showing a portion of the embodiment of the nonpyrotechnic disseminator of FIG- URE 9.
FIGURE 11 is a vertical sectional view of another embodiment of a nonpyrotechnic disseminator.
Referring to FIGURE 1, the disseminator 10 comprises the shell 12 within which is disposed the block 14. The block 14 contains a central bore 16 within which is disposed the firing pin 18.
The firing pin 18 comprises the finger grip 20 at the top end of the pin member 22 and the frusto-conical head 24 at the bottom end of the pin member 22.
The firing pin 18 is guided within the central bore 16 by the O-ring 26, and by the frusto-conical head 24. Thus, the O-ring 26 is disposed Within an O-ring groove located at the top portion of the block 14. The uppermost end 28 of the block 14 comprises a stop shoulder.
Six capsules 30, 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 are disposed Within the block 14. Each capsule comprises a cylinder of teargas powder and of gelled liquefied gas, such as the formulation set forth below in Example 1. The base of each of the capsules 30, 32, 34, 36, and 38 and 40 is reinforced and is disposed against the inner face of the shell 12. The innermost end of each of the capsules 30, 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 comprises a diaphragm, such as a metal foil diaphragm, which may be ultrasonically ring welded or otherwise joined to the capsules. Such diaphragm faces the needles 42, 44, 46, 48, and 52, which are radially disposed in bores 54, 56, 58, 60, 62 and 64, which communicate with the central bore 16-. Each of the needles 42, 44, 46, 48, 50 and 52 are hollow.
It will be seen 'from FIGURE 2 that the innermost ends of the needles rest against the pin member portion of the firing pin 18.
The firing pin 18 is engaged with a spring-urged ball plunger 66. The ball head of the plunger 66 may be cammed into circular grooves in the wall of the firing pin 18, so that the ball plunger functions as a click or detent.
The O-ring 26 provides an effective seal to the uppermost end of the disseminator 10.
In useage, the user grasps the finger grip 20, and commences to pull it away from the shell 12. When the frusto-conical head 24 engages the needle 42 it urges the same through the diaphragm in the capsule 30. The puncturing of the diaphragm of the capsule 30 results in the gasifieation of the gelled liquefied gas within the capsule 30, and the powder contents Within the capsule 30 issues rapidly outwardly propelled by the gasification of the liquefied gas. The issuance of such powder inventory from the capsule 30 is through the opening '68 at the lower end of the central bore 16.
The ball plunger 66 enables the user to discharge the disseminator in stages, since the seating of the ball plunger 66 in the semicircular grooves in the firing pin 18 will indicate to the user when each capsule is being punctured. In an emergency situation, the user can rapidly pull the firing pin out for its entire length and discharge the entire contents of the disseminator 10.
In the disseminator 70 shown in FIGURE 4, very small explosive charges are used to rupture the seams on the container forming the disseminator. However, the gasification of the liquefied gelled gas effects the dispensing of the contents of the disseminator.
The disseminator 70 comprises the container 72, which may be of conventional can construction. In the top end wall 74 of the container 72 there is positioned the firing mechanism designated generally as 76.
The firing mechanism 76 comprises the safety handle 78 which is normally locked in nonactuatable position by the safety pin 80 which extends through both the ear 82 of safety handle 78 and the firing mechanism head 84. The safety pin 80 is provided with a finger grip (not shown) which enables the safety pin 80 to be pulled from its disposition within the car 82 and the firing mechanism head 84.
The safety handle 78 retains the firing pin 86 in nonactuatable position. Thus, the firing pin 86 is spring-urged by the spring 88 in a clockwise direction. However, in the disposition shown in FIGURE 4, the safety handle 78 keeps the firing pin 86 away from the primer 90. The primer is in communication with the pyrotechnic delay column 92. Such pyrotechnic delay column may comprise a conventional fuse. The pyrotechnic delay column 92 engages the explosive charge 94. The explosive charge 94 is a very small one, and need have only sufficient strength to rupture the container 72.
The contents 96 of the container 72 comprises finely divided powder disposed within a gelled liquefied gas, such as one of the lachrymator mixtures of Examples 1 through 3 set forth below.
In use, the user pulls the firing pin 86 from its engagement with the car 82 and the firing mechanism head 84. The user can still retain the safety handle 78 in the disposition shown in FIGURE 4 by gripping the same. However, upon the hurling of the container 72 the safety handle 78 flies upward due to the spring-urging of the spring 88. The firing pin 86 ignites the primer 90. The pyrotechnic delay column furnishes a time delay prior to exploding the explosive charge 94 which ruptures the container 72.
Upon the rupturing of the container 72 the gelled liquefied gas in container 72 is rapidly gasified and dispenses the contents 96 in all directions.
The disseminator 70 is an omnidirectional disseminator, as the contents 96 are discharged in all directions on the rupturing of the container 72 (unlike the controlled directional dissemination which results from the use of the disseminator 10 of FIGURES 1 through 3).
The disseminator 100 of FIGURE is another omnidirectional disseminator, and spews its contents in all directions. The disseminator 100 comprises a spherical container 102 for-med of thin walled metal, such as aluminum, with pressure containing capability. The container 102 is provided with a fill opening 104 sealed by a welded closure, such as a closure that has been ultrasonically ring welded to the spherical container 102.
A puncturing means 106 comprising a sharp pointed metal spider is disposed within the spherical container 102 (the spherical container 102 may be formed from two hemispheres, with the puncturing means 106 disposed within the same prior to the welding together of the hemispheres).
The contents 108 comprising finely divided powders disposed within a gelled liquefied gas are contained within the container 102.
In use, the container 102 is hurled against a surface causing the spider 106 to rupture the container 102. This results in the immediate gasification of the gelled liquefied gas, which dispenses the finely divided powder in all directions.
The disseminator 110 of FIGURE 6 comprises a directional disseminator. The disseminator 110 comprises the container body 112, to which is applied the container cap 114. A tight seal is secured between the container body 112 and the container cap 114 by the O-ring 116.
The contents 118 of the disseminator may be radar marker materials, or message disseminators, or fibers, such as those of Examples 22, 23 and 24 set forth below, which include a gelled liquefied gas. The contents 118 are under superatmospheric pressure, such as a pressure of the order of 100 to pounds per square inch.
The C-clamp 120, which is provided with lugs 122 holds the container cap 114 onto the container body 112. Thus, a pyrofuse wire 124 extends through the ears 126 on the side of container body 112 and through the lugs 122 of the C-clamp 120.
In order to dispense the contents 118 from the disseminator 110, the pyrofuse wire 124 is heated. This causes the wire to melt and leads to its destruction. The internal pressure within the disseminator 110 pushes the container cap 114 away from the container body 112. The gasification of the gelled liquefied gas within the container body 112 immediately ensues, whereby the contents 118 are discharged through the open mouth of the container body 112. This results in the directional discharge of the contents 118.
The disseminator 128 of FIGURE 7 comprises a disseminator for the distribution of leaflets or other flat materials, such as radar marker materials. The disseminator 128 comprises a generally cylindrical container body designated by 130.
The container body 130 is defined by several longitudinally extending Wall segments 132. The wall segments 132 include outwardly extending hooked ends 134 and 136. End sections 138 and 140 are disposed at opposite ends of the container body 130, in engagement with the hooked ends 134. An annular restraining band 142, having a generally semicircular cross-section extends annularly of a container body 130, in engagement with the hooked ends 136.
As is perhaps best seen in FIGURE 8, a toggle mechanism is effective to hold the annular restraining band 142 in contact with the hooked ends 136. Such toggle mechanism includes an actuating lever 146, pivotably secured by means of a pin 148 to one end of the restraining band 142. A toggle link 150 is pivotably secured to the other end of the restraining band 142. Also, the toggle link 150 is pivotably secured to one end of the actuating lever 146. A pair of upstanding ears 152 is secured to the restraining band 142 adjacent its other end. A safety pin 154 extends between the ears 152 in overlying relation to the actuating lever 146 to prevent operation of the mechanism.
Disposed within the container body 130 is a metal foil container 156. It should be understood that the metal foil container, which may be fabricated by ultrasonic ring welding, is not strong enough by itself to maintain normal internal pressure. Thus, the above-described container body 130 serves to prevent rupture of the metal foil container 156. Within the container 156 are contents 158, which may comprise leaflets or other materials within a gelled liquefied gas.
In use, the safety pin 154 is removed, and the container 130 hurled against a surface, thereby causing deformation of the container body, and operation of the mechanism 144. Accordingly, the metal foil container 156, without the suport of the container body 130, ruptures, thereby causing dissemination of the contents 158.
The disseminator 160 of FIGURE 9 comprises a selfpropelled disseminator, adapted to leave a trail of material. The disseminator 160 comprises a body 162 having at one end a foamed elastomer tip 164 and adjacent the other a nozzle 166. The nozzle 166 is normally closed by a meltable plug 168 and is slightly recessed from the end of the body 162. A primer 170 is packed around the meltable plug 168 and has a fuse 172 embedded therein.
The contents 174 of the disseminator 160' may be noxious substances, such as those of Examples 1 to 10 and 13 and 14, set forth below, or smoke or other markers as in Examples 11, to 19 and 24, or a combination of both, such as Example 12.
In use, the disseminator 160 functions as a self-propelled rocket. Thus, the contents are expelled forcefully through the nozzle, and accordingly, function as a rocket propellant. The container moves forward and leaves a trail of material. The elastomeric tip 164 prevents injuries to persons hit -by the disseminator. The dissemination 160 can also be fired from a gun, in which case the fuse and primer are ignited by the gun flash. Thus, the ejection of the material begins while the disseminator is already in flight.
The disseminator 176 of FIGURE 11 is somewhat similar to the disseminator 70, previously described. Thus, the disseminator 176 comprises a container 178 of conventional can construction. The container 178 includes a top end wall 180 upon which there is positioned a firing mechanism designated generally as 182. The firing mechanism 182 comprises a safety handle 184, a safety pin 186, and a firing pin 188, all similar to those previously described. Also, the firing mechanism 182 includes a primer 190 and a pyrotechnic delay column 192 disposed in a bore 193. At the end of the'bore 193 and in contact with the delay column 192 is a solder disk 194.
In operation, the removal of the safety pin 186 and the safety handle 184 results in actuation of the firing pin 188, and hence, ignition of the primer 190. Upon buming of the pyrotechnic delay column to its end, the solder disk 194 is melted, and the internal pressure in the container 178 forces the contents 196 through the passage formerly occupied 'by the primer and delay column. Thus, the disseminator 176, unlike the disseminator 70, is unidirectional, and accordingly, can be readily aimed.
As used hereinafter, the 'bore' 193 of the disseminator 176, as well as theopening 68 of the disseminator 10, may be referred to as nozzles.
The present invention comprehends that the solid matter to be disseminated be disposed within a gelled liquid. It is necessary for the purposes of the present invention that the solid matter not be appreciably soluble in the gelled liquid. I
At least a part of the gelled liquid must comprise a liquefied gas, and in some embodiments all of the gelled liquid :may comprise a liquefied gas. The relative propor' tion, of liquefied gas to the remainder of gelled liquid is dependent upon the physical'properties of the liquefied gas and of the gelled liquid. Where the liquefied gas is relatively highly volatile, namely where it has a relatively high vapor pressure, and where it has a relatively high eX- pansion ratio, as in the case of liquefied trifiuoro bromomethane orliquefied propane, the portion of the gelled liquid which consists of the liquefied gas may be relatively small, such as of the order of 5 weight percent of the total composition. The present invention comprehends compositions in which all of the gelled liquid consists of liquefied gas. Such compositions have primary utility Where the liquefied gas is one having a relatively low volatility, or in'whicha high propellent force is needed for a particular use application, or where the liquefied gas has the property of augmenting the functionality of the finely divided powder as in the case of liquefied Freon being used in a fire extinguisher.
The present invention'comprehends compositions consisting of from to'70 volume percent of finely divided powder, with the remainder being gelled liquid. Normally, there is no advantage in having the powder percentage below about 30 volume percent, since the desired properties of the composition are to a large degree dependent upon the amount of powder present in the composition. Generally, when the powders are present above about 70 volume percent, the flow properties and handling characteristics of the composition are adversely affected. Powders used with the present invention are generally in the range of 1 to microns in size.
The compositions of the present invention include a gelling agent, which should be present in an amount sulficient to effect gelling of all of the liquid present in the composition. The gelling agent should be one which has a gelling eflicacy such that no more than about 5 weight percent of the composition need be gelling agent. In some compositions, the finely divided powder possesses gelling characteristics, and the amount of gelling agent which need be present in such compositions may be reduced. Generally, at least about onehalf weight percent of gelling agent must be present to achieve satisfactory gelling of the liquid portion of the composition. A satisfactory gelling agent is the pyrogenic silica sold under the trademark Cab-O-Sil H5 by Godfrey L. Cabot, Inc., of Boston, Mass.
Examples of gelling agents include: pyrogenic silica, namely finely divided silica particles derived from the combustion of silicon tetrachloride, such materials being commercially available as gelling agents under the trademark Cab-O-Sil; carbon black having a clean microsurface and a high degree of structure with said structure being internal with particles smaller than 25 millimicrons :as measured by an electron microscope and presenting a ratio of BET surface as determined by nitrogen adsorption measurement to electron microscope surface of between 2 /2 and 6 and with larger particles being external, namely possessing persistent particular chain formation observable in the electron microscope after mulling by the procedure of Ladd; pyrogenic aluminum oxide derived from the combustion of aluminum trichloride; carboxymethyl cellulose, sulphonated polyvinyl toluene; carogeenin, and guar, etc. A suitable pyrogenic alumina is available under the trademark Alon C.
By gelled liquid as used herein is meant a material possessing a ,yield stress sufficiently high to prevent flow under low forces such as gravitation, namely a yield stress of 200 dynes per square centimeter, is adequate.
In some situations the addition of a surfactant, as in the concentration of 0.1 to 1 weight percent based on the amount of gelled liquid present is helpful. Examples of suitable surfactants include: sorbitan trioleate; polyethylene glycol ether of hydroabietyl alcohol; polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate; diethylene glycol laurate; sulfonated castor oil; triethanolamine monooleate.
The presence of the surfactant improves wetting of the finely divided powders and increases fiowability.
The function of the gelled liquid is to keep the particles making up the finely divided powder from each other so that they do not adhere to each other, as by sintering or by Van der Waals attraction.
The compositions of the present invention are kept within containers of the type described above, with such containers having a structural strength sufiicient to withstand the pressures developed under storage and use temperatures. Generally, these pressures will be of the order of 15 to p.s.i.g.
The chemical nature of the powders to be used in the compositions of the present invention will vary depending upon the use to which the powders may be put. Unlike prior dry powder dispensing compositions, it is not necessary to include flow promoting additives and antiagglomerants in the finely divided powders of the present invention. Thus, no useful purpose is served in the present invention by the addition of such flow promoting additives and/ or antiagglomerants.
The following examples illustrate compositions for dis semination in accordance with the present invention.
1 Rubber Age, volume 57, June 1945, page 299.
7 Lachrymator compositions Example 1 Parts by Component: Weight Chloroacetophenone, preground at low temperature 67.0 Perfiuorocyclobutane 32.0 Cab-O-Sil H 1.0
Example 2 Chloroacetophenone, mulled in perfluoroeyclobutane 67.0 Perfiuorocyclobutane 3 1.0 Alon-C 2.0
Example 3 Chloroacetophenone containing approximately 8% magnesium oxide, mulled in perfluoropropane 67.0 Perfluoropropane 32.0 Cab-O-Sil H5 1.0
Eye and respiratory irritant Example 4 Black pepper, ground 50.0 Nitrous oxide 48.5 Cab-O-Sil H5 1.5
Ofiensive odor compositions Example 5 Skatole 45.0 Perfiuorocyclobutane 52.0 Alon-C 3.0
Example 6 Putre seine 45 .00 Difluorodichloromethane 53.5 Cab-O-Sil HS 1.5
Bitter substance Example 7 Sucrose octoacetate 50.0 Difluorodichloromethane 47.0 Alon-C 3.0
Eye and respiratory irritant with ofiensive odor Example 8 Black pepper, ground 30.0 Cadaverine (liquid at room temperature) 20.0 Perfluorocyclobutaue 48.5 Alon-C 1.5
Emetic composition Example 9 Diphenylaminochloro arsine 60.0 Perfiuoropropane 38.8 Cab-O-Sil H5 1.2
Emetic and lachrymator composition Example 10 Diphenylaminochloroarsine 30.0 Chloroacetophenone, ground at low temperature 30.0 Perfluorocyclobutane 38.8 Cab-O-Sil H5 1.2
N onstaining marker composition (visible in ultraviolet light) Example 11 Cadmium sulfide-strontium sulfide mixture 70.0 Difiuorochloromethane 28.2 Alon-C 1.8
Staining marker and lachrymator composition Example 12 Crystal violet Chloroacetophenone, ground at low temperature Perfluorocyclobutane Cab-O-Sil H5 Foam lachrymator composition Example 13 Chloroacetophenone, mulled in perfiuoropropane Silicone rubber prepolymer Perfluorocyclobutane Alon-C Foam composition with ofiensive odor Example 14 Putrescine Silicone rubber prepolymer Dichlorodifiuoromethane Cab-O-Sil H5 Red smoke composition Example 15 Titanium dioxide Propane Cab-O-Sil H5 Black smoke compositions Example 17 Carbon black (furnace black) Butane Carbon black High color channel black) Example 18 Manganese dioxide Liquified ammonia Carbon black (high color channel black) Metallic smoke compositions Example 19 Aluminum flake Butane Green smoke composition Example 20 Chromic oxide Butane Al0n C Violet smoke composition Example 21 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydro anthraquinone l-methyl anthroquinone Propane Cab-O-Sil H5 Radar marker composition Example 22 Aluminum-coated Mylar film, chopped into thin strands of appropriate length Propane Cab-O-Sil H5 Radar marker or message disseminator composition Example 23 Mylar film printed with patterned electromagnetic reflective material or printed The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof and, accordingly, reference should e made to the appended claims, rather than to the foregoing specification as indicating the scope of the invention.
1. Apparatus for disseminating particulate material comprising a closed container, a composition in said container comprising a gelled liquid having a yield stress of at least 200 dynes per square centimeter, particulate ma terial disposed within and substantially insoluble in said gelled liquid, said particulate material comprising from 30 to 70 volume percent of said composition, at least a portion of said gelled liquid comprising a liquefied gas so that vaporization of said liquefied gas creates a positive pressure inside said container, and means coupled to said container whereby said container may be opened to permit ejection of its contents.
2. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said container is in the form of an elongated tubular projectile having a fixed closure at one end and a nozzle at the other end, said means for opening said container comprising a heat fusible plug member normally blocking said nozzle, a combustible primer adjacent said plug member, and means coupled to said primer for igniting the same, buming of said primer being effective to melt said plug and thereby open said container.
3. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said gelled liquid consists of gelled liquefied gas.
4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said particulate material comprises particles containing printed indicia.
5. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said particulate material comprises radar opaque particles.
6. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein a plurality of said containers are disposed in a block, a central bore in said block, a plurality of bores in said block extending outwardly from and in fluid communication with said central bore spaced at positions therealong, said containers being disposed in said outwardly extending bores, said means for opening said container comprising rod means movable axially of said central bore, and means responsive to movement of said rod means for piercing each container so that the contents of each container are ejected into said central bore.
7. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said container is a can member, and said means for opening said container comprises an explosive charge for rupturing said can member.
8. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said container is a vessel having walls sutficiently thin to permit deformation upon impact with a rigid surface, said means for opening said container comprising, a rigid spider member having sharply pointed ends disposed in said container with its ends in contact with the inner surface of the container so that said ends are adapted to pierce the container upon impact of the apparatus with a rigid surface.
9. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said container comprises a container body and a container cap, means clamping said container cap to said container body, said means clamping said container cap to said container body being secured by a pyrofuse wire so that melting of said wire releases said clamping means.
10. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said container comprises an inner container member having tensile strength insufficient to retain said particulate material and gelled liquid, and an outer container member, said outer container member comprising a plurality of assembled sections and restraining means for maintaining said sections in assembled relation, said means for opening said container comprising means for releasing said restraining means.
11. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said container includes a nozzle, said means for opening said container causing said contents to flow through said nozzle.
12. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said container includes a bore, said means for opening said container comprising a primer and a pyrotechnic delay column, said primer and pyrotechnic delay column being disposed in said bore, and a plug of meltable material at the end of said pyrotechnic delay column and closing said bore so that burning of said delay column melts the plug to permit ejection of the contents of the container.
13. Apparatus in accordance with claim 12 including a spring-urged pin for igniting said primer, and a safety handle for maintaining said pin in an inactive position.
14. Apparatus in accordance with claim 2 wherein said one end includes an elastomeric tip.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,548,693 8/1925 Weaver 102-65 1,878,489 9/1932 Goss 102-65 2,079,008 5/1937 Goss 102-65 2,112,758 3/ 1938 Blacker 102-49.3 2,294,415 9/1942 McBride 102-65 2,476,302 7/1949 Jeppson 102-34.4 3,014,844 12/1961 Thiel et a1. 222-394X 3,049,080 8/1962 Schermuly 102-34.4 3,068,472 12/ 1962 Dellaria 222-394X 3,134,720 5/1964 Green et a1. 222-394X 3,242,270 3/1966 Flanagan 102-65 X 3,269,313 8/1966 Willmann et al. 102-49.7
FOREIGN PATENTS 705,643 3/1965 Canada.
BENJAMIN A. BORCHELT, Primary Examiner. W. KUJAWA, Assistant Examiner.
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|WO1991001479A3 *||Jun 29, 1990||Mar 7, 1991||Gustav Thorban||Dye-spray generator|
|WO1999065847A2 *||May 24, 1999||Dec 23, 1999||Vrp Eco-Tek, Corp.||Malodorant compositions, related non-lethal weapon systems, and methods of their use|
|WO1999065847A3 *||May 24, 1999||Mar 9, 2000||Vrp Eco Tek Corp||Malodorant compositions, related non-lethal weapon systems, and methods of their use|
|WO2014033049A1 *||Aug 22, 2013||Mar 6, 2014||Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh||Irritation projectile|
|U.S. Classification||102/368, 222/95, 222/192, 222/87, 222/394|
|International Classification||C06D7/00, F42B12/50, C06D3/00, F42B12/02|
|Cooperative Classification||C06D7/00, C06D3/00, F42B12/50|
|European Classification||C06D7/00, F42B12/50, C06D3/00|
|Jun 20, 1986||AS02||Assignment of assignor's interest|
Owner name: AUTOMATED FINANCIAL SYSTEMS, INC., 1016 KING OF PR
Effective date: 19860421
Owner name: GREENWOOD, JAMES E.
|Jun 20, 1986||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: AUTOMATED FINANCIAL SYSTEMS, INC., 1016 KING OF PR
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:GREENWOOD, JAMES E.;REEL/FRAME:004565/0916
Effective date: 19860421
|Nov 19, 1984||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FIRE CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, INC., C/O MARKETCORP VE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:ENERGY & MINERALS RESEARCH CO.;REEL/FRAME:004331/0166
Effective date: 19841115
|Nov 19, 1984||AS02||Assignment of assignor's interest|
Owner name: ENERGY & MINERALS RESEARCH CO.
Owner name: FIRE CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, INC., C/O MARKETCORP VE
Effective date: 19841115
|Jun 13, 1984||AS06||Security interest|
Owner name: ENERGY & MINERALS RESEARCH CO., A PA CORP.
Owner name: GREENWOOD, JAMES E.
Effective date: 19840404
|Jun 13, 1984||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GREENWOOD, JAMES E.
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ENERGY & MINERALS RESEARCH CO., A PA CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004269/0495
Effective date: 19840404
|Sep 28, 1981||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ENERGY & MINERALS RESEARCH CO., 964 E. SWEDESFORD
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:SONOBOND CORPORATION,;REEL/FRAME:003914/0180
Effective date: 19790615
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SONOBOND CORPORATION,;REEL/FRAME:003914/0180
Owner name: ENERGY & MINERALS RESEARCH CO., A CORP. OF PA., PE
|Sep 28, 1981||AS02||Assignment of assignor's interest|
Owner name: ENERGY & MINERALS RESEARCH CO., 964 E. SWEDESFORD
Effective date: 19790615
Owner name: SONOBOND CORPORATION,