|Publication number||US3402777 A|
|Publication date||Sep 24, 1968|
|Filing date||Jul 3, 1967|
|Priority date||Jul 3, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3402777 A, US 3402777A, US-A-3402777, US3402777 A, US3402777A|
|Inventors||Watson John V|
|Original Assignee||Watson Mfg Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (10), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 24, 1968 J. v. WATSON KELLY STABILIZATION SYSTEMS Filed July 3, 1967 c%%1;%%;;m BY
WTORNEY United States Patent T 3,402,777 KELLY STABILIZATION SYSTEMS John V. Watson, Fort Worth, Tex., assignor to Watson Manufacturing Company, Fort Worth, Tex.
Filed July 3, 1967, Ser. No. 651,026 Claims. (Cl. 173-147) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Following is disclosed a kelly stabilizer system which limits transverse movements of a kelly supported in a drilling mast used in earth boring operations. A stabilizer swivel through which the kelly extends is utilized in this system. The stabilizer swivel is connected With a kelly swivel on top the kelly by means of a cable system which correlates stabilizer and kelly swivel movements. The kelly and stabilizer swivels each have radially oriented and beveled rollers spaced at 90 degree intervals. Moreover, the mast has generally L-shaped roller receiving tracks spaced at 90 degree intervals. The kelly swivel has ball bearing assemblies with oppositely facing thrust shoulders secured in selected axial locations on the kelly and kelly swivel to equalize longitudinal thrust carrying capacity. Moreover, the stabilizer swivel has upper and lower pulleys for securing cables thereto, with the pulleys being spaced above and below the center of gravity of the stabilizer swivel.
Background and general description In drilling shallow foundation holes, for example, machines are utilized having mast support means that .may be obliquely oriented relative to vertical for the purpose of drilling slanted holes. A kelly having a polygon cross section is carried by the mast and slides axially through a rotary table which rotates the kelly and attached drill bit. With the drilling mast oriented obliquely, the weight of the kelly between its upper and lower supported regions is urged by gravity and dynamic forces radially outward, possibly with frequently damaging results.
My purpose is to provide a kelly stabilization system preventing such radial movement. In the embodiment shown in the drawing a kelly stabilizer swivel is adapted to support the midsection of the kelly irrespective of its disposition in the drilling mast. To minimize radial vibrations of the stabilizer swivel and kelly, I originated a roller and track system that supports the stablizer swivel on four points in the mast, as will be described subsequently. Increased stabilization is produced by using cable pulleys on the stabilizer swivel above and below its center of gravity. The kelly swivel is powered, preferably by cables, for forceful movement in both the upward and downward directions. I overcame the resulting thrust loading problem by utilizing plural ball bearings having oppositely facing thrust shoulders, with the raceways being stacked between a shoulder on the kelly swivel and an oppositely facing shoulder on the kelly.
Brief description of the drawing FIG. 1 is a side elevation view of a drilling mast (in phantom), a kelly, and a kelly swivel powered for movement along the drilling mast by a system of cables and pulleys activated by a hydraulic cylinder; FIG. 2 is a schematic side elevation view partially in longitudinal section of the hydraulic cylinder shown in FIG. 1; FIG. 3 is a side elevation view of a drilling mast (in phantom), a kelly, a kelly swivel, a stabilizer swivel, and a system of pulleys and cables which connect the kelly swivel and stabilizer swivel in a manner to correlate their movements; FIG. 4 is a top view of the kelly swivel and a cross sectional view of the mast as seen looking along the lines IV-IV of FIG. 1; FIG. 5 is a longitudinal fragmentary 3,402,777 Patented Sept. 24, 1968 cross sectional view of the kelly swivel of FIG. 4 as seen looking along the lines VV of FIG. 4; FIG. 6 1s a top view of the stabilizer swivel and cross sectional view of the mast as seen looking along the lines VII-VII of FIG. 6; and FIG. 7 is a longitudinal cross sectional view as seen looking along the lines VIIVII of FIG. 6.
Description of a preferred embodiment The numeral 11 in the drawing designates a drilling mast which includes a mounting means 12 by which it is usually secured to a mobile platform for elevation between the horizontal and upright positions. Carried by the mast are a kelly 13 and a kelly swivel 15. The kelly is rotated by a rotary table (not shown), imparting rotary motion to a drill bit (not shown) to bore a hole in the earth. The kelly swivel 15 is powered for upward longitudinal movement through the mast through utilization of a cable 17 which extends over a pulley 19 secured in a selected upper region of the mast; to a pulley 21 secured to an upper end of the hydraulic cylinder 23 carried by the mast as shown in FIG. 1; to a pulley 25 disposed above the hydraulic cylinder; to a pulley 26 alongside pulley 21; and finally to a fastener 27 secured in this instance to the mast adjacent the pulley 25.
Another cable 28 is secured to a lower portion of the kelly swivel 15 and extends to a pulley 29 secured to a lower region of the mast; to a pulley 31 secured to a lower end of the hydraulic cylinder 23; to a pulley 33 secured [below the pulley 31; to a pulley 34 alongside pulley 31; and to a fastener 35 secured to the mast in this instance adjacent the pulley 33.
A schematic illustration of the hydraulic cylinder 23 is shown in FIG. 2. The housing 37 of the cylinder sealingly receives a piston rod 39 adapted to move axially through the housing. The piston rod 39 carries a piston 41 which sealingly engages the interior surface of the housing. A fluid passage 43 extends through one end of the piston rod and communicates through an aperture 45 with the cavity 47 formed between the piston rod and the housing. Similiarly, a passage 49 extends to the other end of the piston rod and communicates through an aperture 51 inside cavity 53 on the other side of the piston 41. A hydrau-.
lic cylinder of this type and its control system are described in my US. Patent No. 3,089,550, issued May 14, 1963. When fluid under pressure enters cavity 47 through aperture 45, and simultaneously, exits cavity 53 through aperture 51, the housing 37 moves downward relative to the stationary piston 41. Conversely, when fluid enters under pressure cavity 53 through aperture 51 and is discharged from cavity 47 through aperture 45, the housing 37 is urged upward. The pulleys 21, 26, 31, 34 when moved upward or downward by housing 37 motivate the cables 17, 28 to selectively urge the kelly swivel 15 and kelly 13 upward or downward. This arrangement enables force to be effectively applied in both the downward and upward directions.
The kelly swivel is illustrated in better detail in the FIGS. 4 and 5. The mast consists in this instance of four walls 55 forming a square in cross-section and including apertures 57 for reducing weight. The walls are joined to pieces of angle iron 59 which extend longitudinally along the corners of the mast. A plurality of rollers 61 are beveled such that they engage the interior surfaces of an associated angle iron 59, being supported by arm 63 and a shaft means 65 which may be a bolt secured through apertures (not shown) in the arms 63 by suitable fasteners. Protrusions 67 extend from a body portion 69 of the kelly swivel for utilization in attaching the various cables shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The body 69 has an aperture 71 which receives a narrow end region 73 of the kelly 13. A shoulder 75 on the body 69 is adapted to receive the end portion of one of a pluraltiy of ball bearing raceways 77. The thrust surfaces in ball bearing raceway 77 are formed such that the resist downward forces applied to the kelly. The adjacent bearing raceway 79 has its thrust surfaces formed such that they resist upward forces applied to the kelly. The other bearing raceways are similarly alternately positioned such that their thrust surfaces face in opposite directions. The inner races are secured in position through utilization of the washer 81 and jam nut 83 secured to the upper portion of the narrow end region 73 of the kelly. The exterior races are secured in position through utilization of a sleeve 85 retained by a face plate 87 and a plurality of set scraws 89. A suitable lubrication means such as grease fitting 91 is carried by the face plate. A seal 93 is located in the aperture 71 on the lower region of the body 69.
Movement of the kelly swivel 15 in the upward or downward directions causes correlated movements of the stabilizer swivel 95 illustrated in FIGS. 3, 6, and 7. This swivel has a plurality of beveled rollers 97 (see FIG. 6) supported by arms 99 extending from a body 101 and retained by shaft means 103 which in this instance comprise bolts secured to the arms by suitable fasteners. Spaced 180 degrees apart and secured to the body 101 are upper and lower pulleys 105, 107 secured by arms 109, shaft means 111, and a pedestal structure 113. The body 101 has an aperture 104 in its inner, rotating portion through which the kelly 13 is adapted to slide. Referring now to FIG. 3, one end of a cable 115 is secured to an upper region 117 of the mast and extends to upper pulley 105 of the stabilizer swivel 95 and to a lower portion of the kelly swivel 15. Another cable 119 extends from an upper portion of the kelly swivel 15; over a pulley 121 secured to an upper region of the mast; along the length of the mast to a lower pulley 123 secured to a lower region of the mast; upward and over the pulley 107 on the stabilizer swivel; and down to a lower region 125 of the mast. Such an arrangement causes the stabilizer swivel to move in the same direction as the kelly swivel and at a velocity equal to one-half the velocity of the kelly swivel. As shown in FIG. 7, the body 101 of the stabilizer swivel has a rotatable interior portion 102 and a plurality of bearings 127. A fastener plate 129 and set screws 131 secure the bearing means to the body portions. Also, suitable seal means 133 and 135 are used above and below the bearing means to enable convenient lubrication of the bearings.
In operation, the mast is oriented at the selected angular relationship with vertical and fluid urged into and withdrawn from the cavities 47, 53 of the hydraulic cylinder 23, causing the housing 37 and the pulleys 21, 26, 31, 34 to move upward or downward as previously explained. If the housing and the pulleys 21, 26 are moved downward, for example, the end of the cable 17 (see FIG. 1) suspended over the upper pulley 19 is moved upward, forcing the kelly swivel 15 and the attached kelly 13 to also move upward. Simultaneously, the movement of the pulleys 31, 34 in a downward direction enables the portion of the cable 28 extending around the pulley 29 secured to the lower region of the mast to travel upward.
Conversely, upward movement of the pulleys 31, 34 urges the end of the cable 28 extending around the pulley 29 in a downward direction, while upward movement of pulleys 21, 26 enables the end of the cable 17 extending around the upper pulley 19 to also move in the downward direction. As a consequence, the kelly swivel 15 is urged in the downward direction.
Referring now to FIG. 3, downward movement of the kelly swivel 15 pulls cable 119 over pulley 121, around pulley 123, and around pulley 107, urging the stabilizer swivel 95 downward. Simultaneously, upward movement of kelly swivel 15 pulls cable 115 upward through pulley 105, urging the stabilizer swivel 95 upward.
It should be apparent from the foregoing I have provided an invention having significant advantages. The drilling mast may be oriented in any direction and if the stabilizer swivel is initially located in the midsection of the kelly between the kelly swivel 15 and the rotary table (not shown) the tendency for radial movement of the central rotating region of the kelly is prevented. Moreover, as the kelly is moved upward or downward throughout the drilling mast, the stabilizer swivel remains in the midsection between the supported regions of the kelly. Thus no matter how the kelly swivel is oriented, the stabilizer swivel may be used to support the midsection between the supported regions of the kelly. The embodiment of the kelly and stabilizer swivels shown in the drawing are especially advantageous since the four rollers engage the four corners of the drilling mast to effectively prevent lateral movements of the swivel. Thus, vibrations which might otherwise detrimentally effect system components such as bearings are effectively minimized. The bearing configuration illustrated in FIG. 5 has the ruggedness to withstand the severe forces encountered during earth boring operations. Moreover, axial force in the upward or downward directions, as well as radial forces, are effec tively transmitted through this bearing configuration. The utilization of pulleys 105, 107 above and below the body of the stabilizer swivel minimizes vibration and the tendency to skew relative to the longitudinal axis of the mast. For this purpose, the forces transmitted from the cable to the pulleys act above and below the center of gravity.
While I have shown my invention in only one of its forms it should be apparent to those skilled in the art that it is not so limited but is susceptible to various changes and modifications without departing from the spirit thereof.
1. A kelly stabilization system comprising:
a kelly carried by the mast;
a kelly swivel secured to the kelly, being powered for reciprocable and longitudinal movement along said mast;
a movable stabilizer swivel carried by said mast generally near the midsection of the supported regions of said kelly;
connection means extending between the stabilizer swivel and the kelly swivel to urge selectively the stabilizer swivel toward either end of the drilling mast;
said connection means including speed reduction means producing stabilizer swivel velocity equal to substantially one-half that of the kelly swivel.
2. The system defined by claim 1 wherein said connection means comprises a first cable extending from an upper region of the mast to a first pulley on the stabilizer swivel to the kelly swivel; and a second cable extending from the kelly swivel to a pulley on the upper region of the mast, to a pulley on the lower region of the mast, to a second pulley on the stabilizer swivel, and to a lower region of the mast.
3. A kelly stabilizer system comprising:
a kelly carried by the mast;
a kelly swivel secured to the kelly;
a movable stabilizer swivel carried by said mast generally near the midsection of the supported regions of said kelly;
connection means extending between the kelly and stabilizer swivels to correlate their movements;
said kelly and stabilizer swivels each having radially oriented and beveled rollers spaced at substantially ninety degree intervals, with said mast having generally L shaped tracks spaced at substantially ninety degree intervals to receive said rollers.
4. In a kelly stabilizer system including a mast, a kelly, and a kelly swivel for urging the kelly longitudinally along the mast, the improvement comprising a stabilizer swivel carried by said mast and engaging substantially the midsection of the supported region of the kelly; connection means extending between said kelly swivel and said stabilizer swivel to correlate their movements; and at least two ball bearing raceways with oppositely facing thrust shoulders secured in a selected axial location on the kelly and the kelly swivel to equalize longitudinal thrust carrying capacity.
5. In a kelly stabilizer system including a mast, a kelly, and a kelly swivel for urging the kelly longitudinally along the mast, the improvement comprising a stabilizer swivel carried by said mast intermediate the kelly swivel and the lower region of the mast; cable means extending between the kelly swivel and the stabilizer swivel; said stabifizer swivel having upper and lower pulleys for receiving the cable means, said pulley being spaced respectively above and below the center of gravity of the stabilizer swivel.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Arps 175- 203 Baldry 173-141 X Long 173-147 X Lee 173147 X Farque 173147 X Watson 173147 Spiri 175195 X NILE C. BYERS, JR., Primary Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||173/147, 175/203|
|International Classification||E21B19/00, E21B15/00, E21B19/02, E21B19/08|
|Cooperative Classification||E21B19/02, E21B19/00, E21B15/00, E21B19/08|
|European Classification||E21B19/02, E21B19/08, E21B19/00, E21B15/00|