US 3402933 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P 24, 1968 G. E. DE VOGELAERE 3, 0 ,933
MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING TARGET FILM 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 16, 1964 FIG. 1
INVENTOR. GEORGE E. DEVOGELAERE FIG. 3
Sept. 24, 1968 G. E. DE VOGELAERE MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING TARGET FILM Filed Jan. 16, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 W FIG. IO FIG. ll
75 @75 INVENTOR. H 6 3 I] BYGEORGE E. DEVOGELAERE FIG. l2 AT:ORZEY United States Patent 3,402,933 MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING TARGET FILM George E. De Vogelaere, Brighton, N.Y. (594 Landing Road N., Rochester, N.Y. 14625) Filed Jan. 16, 1964, Ser. No. 338,239 4 Claims. (Cl. 273105.1)
This invention relates to a system and apparatus for training marksmen, and more particularly to apparatus for training and testing marksmen in the use of conventional combat-type firearms especially for military and law enforcement requirements. In a broader sense, however, the invention relates to equipment for training and testing any marksmen.
Heretofore most firing ranges for training military and law enforcement personnel in the use of firearms (revolvers and rifles) have had to be located out-of-doors, or in specially constructed rooms in which the weapons could be fired safely. To obtain the necessary range length these rooms have had to be quite long, even for revolver practice; and there are, therefore, only a limited number of such available around the country. The ordinary shooting club could not afford to construct one; and only military and large law-enforcement agencies can afford them. Marksmen interested in shooting merely for sport usually have to find a suitable out-of-door range; and that may mean in some cases traveling considerable distances.
One object of this invention is to provide apparatus and a system for training marksmen which may be safely utilized in any classroom for instruction or demonstration, and which also may be set up in a cellar, garage, or any other restricted but available area in a building or home.
A further object of this invention is to provide training equipment for combat type shooting which is portable and compact.
Another object of the invention is to provide training equipment for combat type shooting which is adapted to be used in conjunction with conventional firearms.
A further object of this invention is to provide compact equipment, which can be used not only for training and testing military and law enforcement personnel but also for training and testing for National Match and Olympic firing courses.
Another object of this invention is to provide firing apparatus of the type described which is capable of training and evaluating both the mental alertness and physical shooting ability of a person under simulated combat situations or the like.
To this end, another object of theinvention is to provide a target system which can be incorporated as part of strip film for use in a conventional projector, and in which the individual film frames may embody not only the true target or targets, but also decoys or false targets, and indicia for indicating the true target or targets. The projection time of each frame can be varied, so that the marksman must identify the true target or targets and fire at such target or targets within an adjustable controllable time period.
Other objects of the invention will be apparent hereinafter from the specification and from the recital of the appended claims, particularly when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a carrying case containing portable apparatus made in accordance with one embodiment of this invention, the removable case cover being cut away in part;
FIG. 2 is an end view of this case;
FIG. 3 is an elevational view looking at the case from the opposite side from FIG. 1 and showing the collapsible target screen in its erected or operative position, parts of the screen support and case being cut away;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line 4-4 in FIG. 3 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line 5-5 in FIG. 3 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view on the same scale as FIG. 5, and taken along the line 66 in FIG. 3 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view on the same scale as FIG. 5 and taken along the line 7-7 in FIG. 3 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary view showing one of the frames of a strip of film, which is adapted to be used for projecting the images of targets onto the target screen illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4;
FIG. 9 is an enlarged view of another one of the frames of this strip;
FIG. 10 is an enlarged view of another frame such as may be incorporated in a target strip;
FIG. 11 is an enlarged view showing still another frame which may be incorporated in a target strip.
FIG. 12 is an enlarged view of a still further frame incorporable in a target strip;
The target training and testing system of this invention is adapted to be used in any area fifteen to thirty feet long and eight to ten feet wide, and even in a room in a home or building which normally would not be used for target practice, because of the usual dangers inherent With the discharge of a firearm within a building. The apparatus comprises a portable case having a removable cover section, and containing a target screen, a film strip projector for projecting the images of targets onto the screen when it is erected, film strips for the projector, and a supply of special, target-practice ammunition.
The screen comprises a blank paper sheet supplied from a roll rotatably mounted in the lower section of the case. The cover section of the case is adapted to be supported by a pair of telescopic legs which telescope and fold into the lower section of the case when not in use.
When the top or cover section is lifted off the case, the legs can be unfolded and pulled upwardly, and may then be locked in erected position. They can then support the top or cover section of the case in elevated position. Rotatably mounted in this top or cover section is a take-up roll for the paper screen; and secured to this section is a motor for driving this take-up roll. The roll of screen paper is unwound sufiiciently from the supply roll in the lower section of the case to enable its lead end to be secured to the take-up roll. The target is then ready for use. When one section of the paper has been used up, perforated by missiles, the paper can be advanced by energizing the motor to rotate the take-up roll.
Supported in the cover behind the take-up shaft is a piece of nylon sailcloth, or the like. When the screen support legs have been erected, and the section is supported therein in raised position, this piece of cloth depends behind the paper screen, and functions as a shield to stop slugs which are fired at the target paper, after they pass through it.
The projector which may be of conventional construction, will preferably be of a type to project individual frames of film one at a time onto the target paper or screen; and ordinarily each frame will project a different image onto the target paper in order to simulate successively different conditions which the marksman may be expected to face in a combat situation or the like.
In a preferred arrangement, each frame of the film has a plurality of images on it, all of which might be viewed as targets, but only one of which is intended to be shot at, if, for instance, a single marksman is firing at the target. In order to tell which target image he should shoot at, there is an indicium or indicia provided on each frame.
These indicia are located in different places on different frames to test the marksmans reactions thoroughly. Moreover, the possible target images may be so arranged as to deceive the marksman unless he is very alert. Thus, the marksman must first locate the indicia, then locate the target corresponding to that indicia, and then fire, all in a limited period of time as determined by his training and experience.
The marksman is given a supply of ammunition corresponding to the caliber of his firearm. Each piece of ammunition comprises a conventional shell casing, a primer cap, anda modified slug which will act as a normal bullet when fired and during flight, but which will become spent after passing through the target paper and will drop harmlessly into the case after striking the sailcloth suspenrded behind the target.
The marks-man position himself some to feet in front of the target paper or screen. By an electrical pushbutton mechanism connected to the projector, the instructor causes a target to be flashed onto the target paper for the time allotted to the marksman. The marksman fires at the image during this allotted period. Then the image disappears from the target screen. Then the instructor once again flashes the same target onto the target paper to determine where the marksman has hit the target paper. When the exposed portion of the target paper has been used up, the instructor operates another electrical pushbutton mechanism which cases the take-up shaft in the cover section to be rotated long enough to wind-up the perforated portion of the target paper, and to draw a new, unperforated portion into position.
After use, the telescoping target support legs may be folded down into the lower section of the carrying case, the projector may be stored therein, and the cover section may be secured thereover, to be stored away until the next lesson or practice.
Referring now to the drawings by numerals of reference, and first to FIGS. 1 to 7, the novel screen range apparatus shown comprises a generally rectangular carrying case 21 having a hollow bottom or body section 22, and a hollow cover section 23 which is adapted to be removably secured on top of the lower section 22 by means of a plurality of conventional pivotal clamps 24, and by a hasp 28, a staple 30, and padlock 29. Beneath the staple there is a door 33 hinged to the lower section 22 of the case to provide access to, and to close, the storage space 34 in this lower section. A handle 35 is provided for carrying the case. If desired, the case 21 can also be mounted on castors or wheels so as to make it more easily transportable.
Connected at one end thereof by a hinge 41 to the bottom of the lower section 22 adjacent one of its corners is a rectangularly-shaped tube 42. Hinged to a plate in the longitudinally opposite corner of the bottom of the lower section 22 of the case to swing about an axis parallel to the axis of swing of tube 42 is a second rectangularly shaped tube 43.
Telescopically mounted in the tubes 42 and 43, respectively, are elongate angle irons 46 and 47, respectively. When the tubes 42 and 43 are swung upwardly about their hinges 41 and 44, respectively, the angle iron sections 46 and 47 can be pulled upwardly to erect the frame for supporting the target screen. Conventional slide bolts 51 which are secured to the inside faces of one leg of each angle iron 46 and 47 adjacent one end thereof (the lower end in FIGS. 3, 4 and 6) by anchor plates 48 (FIGS. 5 and 6) are provided to lock the angle iron sections 46 and 47 in upward extended or erected positions. In locking position, each slide bolt 51 projects through an opening 55 in one of the legs of the associated angle iron 46 or 47, and rests on the upper end of the associated tube 42 or 43 (FIG. 6).
When erected, the upper ends of the angle irons 46 and 47 can be engaged in sleeves 56 (FIGS. 4 and 7) secured in corners of the cover section 23 to support the cover 4 section above the lower section 22 as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4.
Rotatably journaled in bearings 62 (one of which is shown in FIG. 3) that are secured to the inside of the lower section 22 at opposite ends thereof, is a supply shaft 61. Preferably shaft 61 is of the spring-loaded, window shade-type, and has wound thereabout a roll R (FIGS. 3 and 4) of target paper.
Rotatably journaled at opposite ends thereof in opposite ends of the cover section 23 is a take-up shaft 63. At one end thereof (the left end in FIG. 3) the shaft 63 is coupled to the armature or output shaft 64 of a gear head motor 65, which is mounted by a bracket 66 to the exterior of the cover section 23.
Looped over a further shaft 67, which extends between opposite ends of the cover section 23 behind and parallel to the shaft 63, is an endless fabric shield S, made of a tough, flexible material such as nylon sailcloth, or the like. When the case 21 is closed (FIGS. 1 and 2), the flexible shield S folds readily into the lower section 22 of the case.
To prepare the apparatus for target practice, the cover section 23 is removed from the lower section 22, the legs 42, 43 are swung up and their telescopic sections 46, 47 are extended, and the cover section is mounted on the upper ends of the angle iron sections 46 and 47 as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. The free end of the roll R of target paper is then connected to the take-up roll 63 so that a blank portion P (FIGS. 3 and 4) of the paper is disposed in a vertical plane. The shield S drops out of the cover section and is suspended in a vertical plane behind and parallel to the exposed portion P of the target paper. It provides a double-thickness, flexible wall for stopping and deflecting a slug that is fired at and pierces the paper screen.
A conventional film strip projector (not illustrated) is then set up at some fifteen to thirty feet from the exposed target paper P; and a strip of film is inserted into the camera to project a target onto the paper P.
Portions of typical strips F of film are shown by way of example in FIGS. 8 to 12. Each film frame 70 to 74 is adapted to project a different target image onto the exposed portion of the target paper P. Each frame has thereon the images of a plurality of potential targets 75, and an image of a symbol or identifying mark 76 to indicate which of the potential targets is the proper one at which to shoot. These symbols or indicia 76 are smaller in size than the potential target 75, and are located on different frames at different points, respectively, around, for instance, the marginal edges of the frames. Thus, the indicium (the numeral 4) in FIG. 9 is located near the upper left hand corner of frame 71, the indicium (the letter H) in FIG. 10 is located near the upper right hand corner of frame 72, the indicium (a black dot) in FIG. 11 is located near the center of the lower edge of frame 73, and the indicium (a half black-half white circle) in FIG. 12 is in the left hand bottom corner of frame 74. The indicia employed to represent potential targets 75 may differ from frame to frame, the potential targets on frames 70 and 71 being represented, for instance, by numerals, the targets on frame 72 by letters, and the targets on frames 73 and 74 by colored circles, either all one color or part one color and part another. A whole series of frames, however, may have the same type of indicia for denoting the correct targets. Thus, all of the frames may have numerals as target indicators. One frame may then be like frame 70 (FIG. 8) and have the numeral 4 located near its bottom left hand corner, while the next frame may have its numeral, which may be 4, or some other numeral, located in some different position around the margin of the frame, as, for instance near the upper left hand corner (FIG. 9), the middle of the left-hand edge of the frame, etc. Preferably the indicia will be located in quite different positions on different frames and without any given sequence, so that the marksman will have to look for them, and will not be able to anticipate where they will be on different frames. The symbols or identifiers may appear in various shapes, forms, letters, numbers, color codes, color gadgets, silhouettes, or whatever shapes or forms are decided upon for that particular film strip phase.
In use, when, for instance, frome 71 is flashed onto the target paper P, the symbol 76 bearing the numeral 4 indicates to the marksman that the potential target 75, which bears the numeral 4, is the actual target at which he must shoot, and that he should not fire at a potential target bearing some other numeral as, for instance, numeral 2 or 5. When frame 72 is projected onto the target paper P, the legend 76 bearing the letter H near the upper right hand corner indicates that the marksman is or are to fire at the two targets bearing the letter H, but not at the potential targets designated by the letters M, B and K. When frame 74 is projected, the legend 76 in the lower left hand corner indicates that only the potential targets represented by the circle having a shaded upper half should be fired upon. With a frame like this frame 74 it is possible further to test the marksman for alertness because one or more of the potential target images can be made with a circular center portion having the white and black portions reversed from the indicium 76 of this frame, that is, having a black instead of white upper half and vice versa with respect to the lower half. Such a target image should, of course, not be fired upon when the indicium is as shown at 76 in FIG. 12. A frame of this nature is purposely designed and has its target areas purposely positioned to possibly confuse the shooter and force him to exercise his mental ability and adopt correct firing procedures.
Frame 73 illustrates a target image frame which is adapted to be employed when at least two marksmen are to fire at the same screen target image. In such instance, each marksman is advised ahead of time as to the nature of his 'legende.g., one marksman may be told to shoot at black targets, at targets bearing the lower of two indicator numbers or the precedent of two indicator letters, etc., While the other marksman is told to shoot at white targets, at targets bearing the higher of two indicator numbers or the trailing of two indicator letters, etc. Therefore, when slide 73 is projected, one marksman will shoot at the two potential targets bearing the white spots, while the other marksman is to shoot at the potential targets 75 hearing the black dots. This two-man combat series may be fired simultaneously by the instructor and his trainee for training and demonstration, or two trainees or marksmen may shoot simultaneously in competition with one another. This two-man combat series is intended to put the shooters under pressure both mental and physical, as each tries for the higher score.
A trapdoor on the base side of the lower section of the carrying case, when opened, permits sweeping out all the screen range ammunition projectiles which the nylonsailcloth backstop catches and which drop into this lower section.
The equipment of this invention may be employed in instructing marksmen in firing both from a position in which the revolver is holstered as well as in a position in which the weapon is unholstered. Also there will be difierent situations propounded that will call for draw, point and fire as well as draw, aim and fire. The allotted firing time will vary with the problem; and whether the marksman must fire two shots at the target rather than onee.g., a three second allotment for one shot, a four second allotment for two shots, and so on. These conditions may vary according to the requirements of the organization or service with which the marksman happens to be associated.
The instructor or range operator assumes a safe position to the side or rear of the marksman, and tells the marksman to prepare to fire. The marks rnan replies Ready, and then the instructor operates the film stripprojector to project a target onto the target paper P. This he may do through the agency of a standard pushbutton control switch (not illustrated) which is adapted to be connected by a cord to a projector of the type above described. During the time the target image is exposed, the marksman locates thereon the identifier or legend 76, and then selects and fires at the corresponding target image or images 75. After the allotted firing time the instructor once again pushes the control switch to cause the target image to disappear from the target paper, thereby indicating to the marksman that the firing time for that particular target has expired. Directly after the marksman ceases to fire, the instructor again flashes the same target image on the target paper to score the marksmans firing hits or misses. A new film frame is then advanced in the projector. Ordinarily in order to use the target paper to maximum advantage the frames are arranged on the film strip so that each will project target images onto only a sector of the exposed portion of the target paper P. However, successive frames are related so that they project their target images, respectively, over different portions of the exposed part of the target paper. Thus, with exposure of several successive frames the target paper P will be used over its whole width. Then, through the agency of a conventional ON and OFF switch, which is connected by a long cord to the motor 65, the instructor actuates motor 65 long enough to cause the used, punctured tar-get paper P to be wound onto the take-up roll 63, and to advance a new portion P of the target paper into an exposed position between the case sections 22 and 23.
Three series of film strips are ordinarily provided-a training series for novices, an advanced series for advanced or professional marksmen, and a combat series for law enforcement or military personnel who must be qualified for defense or combat shooting. In the training series, target images of the type shown in FIGS. 9, 10 and 12, for instance, are provided. These are designed to teach novices how to select their target, when and when not to shoot, and what targets to shoot at first. The film rframes may include pictures of individuals and may illustrate, for instance, problems which present simultaneously target images of two men, one of whom is aiming a rifle at the marksman and the other of whom is about to throw a hand grenade at the marksman. The trainee must, during the time allotted him, positively identify both men as foes or targets by the identifying symbol which may appear anywhere around the edge of the target image; and then the trainee must in the seconds available evaluate the projected combat situation and make a decision on which man to shoot first, the man with the grenade or the man with the rifle. A marksman, who selects properly, will shoot first at the enemy riflernan, because he constitutes a more instant threat to the marksman, and then at the enemy who is about to throw a hand grenade. These film phases afford the new shooter the opportunity to examine and exercise both his mental and physical shooting ability. After initial qualification, a marksman may be tested by the advanced and combat series.
The combat series may contain targets of the type represented in FIG. 11, wherein two marksmen may be made to compete with one another for a high score against a single target image. The combat series of film strips may also comprise true-life target images in which the marksman is expected to shoot at a particular type of uniform, arm band, color or the like whenever it appears on one of the target images. For instance, the marksman could be instructed that red is the color code, and that anything that appears on the screen with red on it is identified automatically as the target which is to be fired upon. Therefore, anyone wearing a red jacket, red gloves, red hat, red shoes, red scarf, red tie, etc., is a target to be fired upon. Again there may appear one or several targets on the screen. Red, green, yellow, etc. colors, uniforms, arm-bands, etc. may be used as identifiers as well as any other piece of equipment, material, etc.
Besides the specially designed training, advanced, and combat film series above described, it is possible also to prepare film strips for projecting images of approved police targets; National Match and Olympic shooting courses; images of wild life for sportmen or hunters; and slightly smaller versions of the apparatus shown in FIGS. 1 and 7 especially adapted for use by children.
The system of this invention allows any organization or unit to pick its highest qualified men for the most exacting law, combat, or competition assignments and permits of eliminating in the early training phases any clearly unqualified personnel and of selecting for more intensive or advanced training any trainees who demonstrate the mental ability and physical reflexes to evaluate and handle combat or similar situations correctly.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that applicant has provided a novel target system which will substantially eliminate the need for building conventional indoor or out-of-door firing ranges. Moreover, when the apparatus is not being used, it may be carried about in the compact case 21 in much the same manner as a conventional suitcase. Furthermore, since applicants apparatus is suitable for use in the basement or garage of a home, it affords an opportunity for a far greater number of people to develop an interest in target shooting than heretofore was possible because of the very limited number of practice ranges available. Applicants apparatus simulates the actual firing of a firearm, so that marksmen will know exactly what to expect when they subsequently encounter actual firing conditions. Moreover with applicants apparatus there is a minimum of target replacement cost, since the marksman fires only at images, rather than a printed target; so that the only operational expense is that of replacing the target paper P when the supply roll on shaft 61 is exhausted. This cost is almost negligible compared to the replacement costs of targets in conventional firing ranges.
Applicants special ammunition, while permitting one to simulate actual firing condition of a weapon, at the same time reduces to almost zero the possibility of accidental bodily injury because of ricocheting bullets.
While the shield S employed with applicants apparatus is described as being made from nylon sailcloth, it is to be understood that other materials can be employed as substitutes or in addition to the nylon sailcloth, such as a plurality of aluminum sheets or strips which can be suspended from shaft 67 when the cover is in the position shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, and which are capable of being stored in the case 21 when the latter is closed.
While the invention has been described in connection with a specific embodiment thereof, it will be understood that it is capable of further modification, and this application is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention following, in general, the principles of the invention and including such departures from the present disclosure as come within known or customary practice in the art to which the invention pertains and as may be applied to the essential features hereinbefore set forth, and as fall within the scope of the invention or the limits of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. Target apparatus comprising (a) a film strip having frames adapted to be projected onto a screen,
(h) each frame having a plurality of potential target images thereon, and the image of a symbol indicating which potential target image is the image of a target that is to be fired at when that frame is projected onto said screen, the image of said symbol corresponding visually with the image of a portion of at least one of the targets of a frame.
2. Target apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the symbol image is differently located on different frames of said film strip.
3. Target apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein there are a plurality of different symbol images on a frame of said strip indicating different potential targets to be fired upon by different marksmen, respectively, when that frame is projected on the screen, and each of said symbol images corresponds visually to a portion of a different one of said potential target images.
4. Target apparatus comprising (a) a film strip having frames adapted to be projected onto a screen,
(b) each frame embodying a plurality of potential target images, and an identifier image for designating whether or not a target image is to be fired upon when the frame is projected onto the screen, each identifier image corresponding visually to a portion of the designated target image of a frame.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,474,951 11/1923 Thompson 273105.1 1,886,562 11/1932 Le Fever 273102.4 X 2,230,149 1/1941 Weddington 273105.1 X 2,271,199 1/1942 Mandell 273105.1 2,398,813 4/1946 Swisher 35-25 X 2,456,857 12/1948 Bergh 273105.1 3,122,367 2/1963 Dale 273102.4 1,207,411 12/1916 Keen 273-1051 2,406,574 8/1946 Waller et al 273105.1
FOREIGN PATENTS 89,994 1896 Germany. 13,297 1884 Great Britain.
ANTON OECHSLE, Primary Examiner.
M. R. PAGE, Assistant Examiner.