US 3404477 A
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Oct. 8, s' D. 5|| SBY SEMIAUTOMATIC GRENADE LAUNCHER 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May 23, 1961 Oct. 8, 1968 SEMIAUTOMATIC Filed May 23, 1961 S. D. SILSBY GRENADE LAUNCHER 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 |06 "o n2 ne "4f :N1/mma.
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United States Patent O 3,404,477 SEMIAUTOMATIC GRENADE LAUNCHER Stanley D. Silsby, Granby, Mass., assigner to the United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Army Filed May 23, 1961, Ser. No. 112,123 6 Claims. (Cl. 42-1) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates to attachments for rearrns and more particularly to devices for launching grenades therefrom.
It is one object of this invention to provide for a releasable attachment to firearm barrels a launcher for projecting semiautomatically a plurality of grenades carried thereby.
It is another object of this invention to provide such a grenade launched which utilizes as a barrel a discharge tube which is preloaded with a grenade, a propellant charge for projection of the grenade from the tube, and a primer provided with a primer-energized piston which effects semiautomatic operation of the launcher.
It is a further object of this invention to provide such a grenade launcher wherein a plurality of the tubes are retained in a rack which directs the tubes successively into the receiver for discharge with the tubes being releasably held against forward displacement when in the receiver by firing pin actuated retainers.
It is another and still further object of this invention to provide such a grenade launcher in which the firing pin carries an ejector disposed for automatic ejection of the tired tube and for synchronized operation with the retainers.
It is still another object of this invention to provide in such a launcher a pair of retainers which replaceably hold the tube against longitudinal displacement when positioned in the receiver and which are disposed for operational cooperation with the tiring pin so as to be positioned for engaging the tube when inserted into the receiver and for disengaging the tube in time for ejection thereof from the receiver by the ejector.
The specific nature of the invention as well as other objects and advantages thereof will clearly appear from a description of a preferred embodiment as shown in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. l is a side view of the launcher mounted to the barrel of a rie with the launcher being partially sectioned to show the relationship of the parts when the tiring pin is in the cocked position;
FIG. 2 is a view taken along line 2-2 of FIG. l;
FIG. 3 is a view taken along line 3 3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a view taken along line 4 4 of FIG. l;
FIG. 5 is a view taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 is a view taken along line 6--6 of FIG. 3 but showing the striker in the striking position;
FIG. 7 is a side view of the launcher showing the tiring pin in the overtravel position;
FIG. 8 is a view similar to FIG. 7 but showing the firing pin held by the trigger-scar device in the cocked position and the tube propelled forwardly by the ejector for ejection from the receiver;
FIG. 9 is a view taken along line 9 9 of FIG. 4;
FIG. l() is a view similar to FIG. 9 but showing the retainer biased to the position for release of the case;
FIG. 11 is a view taken along line 11-11 of FIG. 8, and
FIG. l2 is a perspective, partially exploded view of the ring pin group including the firing pin spring-biasing means and ejector.
Shown in the figures is a rille 12 with a barrel 14 which 3,404,477 Patented Oct. 8, 1968 ICC supports a launcher 16 for projecting a grenade 18. Launcher 16 is fixed at the rear end by T-slot means 22 to a barrel-mounted gas cylinder 20 and at the front end by latch means 26 to a bayonet lug 24.
Grenade 18 is integrally chambered in a discharge tube 28 which is also preloaded with a propellant charge 32 for projecting the grenade from the tube. Tube 28 extends forwardly of the front end of grenade 18 and is rifled inside, as noted at 36. Grenade 18 is provided with a rotating band 30 which is pre-engraved, as noted at 38, to engagingly cooperate with riing 36 for imparting a rotational component of movement to the grenade when projected forwardly in tube 28. The base of tube 28 is provided with an axial, concentrically stepped bore 40 which receives a primer 42 for discharge of propellant charge 32. A piston 44 is mounted in bore 40 for sliding displacement so as to be actuatable against primer 42 for initiation thereof and so as to be displaced rearwardly responsive to the energy produced by the initiation. An annular groove 46 is formed around tube 28 adjacent the base thereof.
The front portion of launcher 16. equal to the length of tube 28, is reduced in thickness by cutting away the lower section of such front portion to form a receiver 48 having a longitudinal channel 50 of arcuate cross-section. The radius of channel 50 is similar to that of tube 28 so that the tube is receivable by such channel when pressed upwardly thereinto.
The rear end of receiver 48 is terminated by a vertical wall 54 which is also the front end of a breechblock 56 formed in launcher 16 rearwardly of the receiver. A rack is xedly mounted at one end to breechblock 56 adjacent wall 54 so as to extend downwardly from the breechblock normal to the longitudinal axis of receiver 48. If desired, rack S8 may be pivotally mounted on breechblock 56 so as to be swung up under receiver 48 when the rack is empty.
The front surface of rack S8, noted at 68, is arranged to be in alignment with wall 54. Extending forwardly from opposite sides of rack 58 are L-shaped flanges 70 which are oppositely received by groove 46 of tube 28 when loaded in rack 58 to slidingly maintain the loaded tubes in the rack and direct the tubes to receiver 48. Rack 58 is arranged as to length so as to hold two additional tubes 28 when one is positioned in receiver 48. Flanges '70 are relieved, as noted at 72, at the upper end to permit forward ejection of tube 28 after discharge thereof from launcher 16. However, a pair of retainers 74, to be hereinafter described, are mounted in breechblock 56 to releasably retain tube 28 in receiver 48 against longitudinal displacement.
The lower end of rack 58 is bifurcated by a slot 76 which is traversed by a laterally disposed pin 78. Pivotally mounted on pin 78 is a follower 80 which is biased by a torsional spring 88 against the bottom one of the tubes 28 in rack 58 for pressing such tubes towards receiver 48.
Primer 42 is initiated by a firing pin 92 which is disposed for longitudinal reciprocation in launcher 16 between a forward striking position and a rearward overtravel position. Firing pin 92 includes a laterally disposed cross-piece 94, which is reecived by breechblock 56, and an integral pair of piston portions 96 which extend respectively from the lateral ends thereof so as to be slidingly reecived by mating bores 98 extending longitudinally from breechblock 56 through receiver 48 on opposite sides of channel 50. A striker 100 extends forwardly from crosspiece 94, as hereinafter explained, so as to be extendable through an orifice 102 in breechblock 56 for striking contact with piston 44 of tube 28 when positioned in receiver 48.
Each of the piston portions 96 is axially bored at 104 from the front end and a rod 106 is pressed thereinto and fixed by pin means. A collar 108 is fixed to the front end of each of the rods 106 and is arranged to slide in the corresponding bore 98. Each rod 106 extends through a bushing 110 fixed within the related bore 98 and a compressible coil spring 112 is operationally disposed between collar 108 and bushing 110 in each of the bores for biasing tiring pin 92 forwardly to the striking position. A handle 114 is pivotally mounted in collar 108 on the right one ofthe rods 106 by means of a vertically disposed pin 116 and is arranged to be extendable through a mating clearance 118 in receiver 48 to provide manual means for `retracting firing pin 92 to the overtravel position thereof. Handle 114 is also arranged to be folded back within the associated bore 98 when not in use and for disassembly.
Piston portions 96 extend into bores 98 suiciently to engageably cooperate with retainers 74 for actuation thereof between an inner engaging position and an outer disengaged position. Each of the retainers 74 is slidingly received by bottomed wells 120 which extend radially in breechblock 56 to the bores 98. A spring 122 is operationally disposed between each of the retainers 74 and the bottom of the associated well 120 for biasing the retainers outwardly to the disengaged position. A pair of slots 124 extend into breechblock 56 from wall 54 to communicate respectively with the wells 120. Each one of the slots slidingly receives a pin 126 extending from the associated retainer 74 to limit the radial displacement thereof between the engaging and disengaged positions. Retainers 74 are respectively provided with a hook 128 which extends downwardly, forwardly of wall 54, for insertion into groove 46 of tube when positioned in receiver 48, whereby the tube is held against forward displacement when the retainers are in the engaging positions.
Retainers 74 are actuated to the disengaged position for release of tube 28 by sliding engagement of a cam surface 130 on each of the piston portions 96 with a cooperating cam portion 131 on the outer end of the associated retainer. Cam surfaces 130 are formed at the rear ends of slots 132 which extend rearwardly in the piston portions 96 from the front ends thereof. Cam surfaces 130 are positioned so that, when firing pin 92 is disposed rearwardly of the position wherein it is held cocked by a trigger-scar device 134 and is adjacent the overtravel position, the outer ends of the retainers 74 are received `by the slots 132 which provide clearances so that the retainers are free to be biased by the springs 122 to the disengaged positions. When firing pin 92 is disposed `between the cocked and the striking positions, the retainers 74 are held depressed in the engaging positions thereof b-y the contact Of the tops of the retainers with the outside surfaces of i the piston portions 96. Cam surfaces 130 and cam portions 131 come into contact when firing pin 92 moves into cocked position from the overtravel position.
A trigger-Sear device 134 is slidingly mounted in breech block 56 for lateral displacement between a normal and a release position, and so as to be cooperable with crosspiece 94 of tiring pin 92 for releasably holding the firing pin in the cocked position. Trigger-Sear device 134 includes a primary sear 136 having an integral trigger 138 which projects from the right side of breech-block 56 for manual actuation of the primary sear to the release position, and a secondary scar 140 which is disposed for lateral displacement in the primary sear so as to stop firing pin 92 prior to reaching the cocked position when trigger 138 is pressed inwardly to the fire position.
Cross-piece 94 includes a `rectangular lug 142 `which depends centrally of the lateral ends thereof to provide support for striker 100 and latching cooperation with trigger-scar device 134.
Tube 28 is automatically ejected from launcher 16, after grenade 18 is projected therefrom, by an ejector 162 which is more fully disclosed in a copending patent application Ser. No. 112,124, filed May 23, 1961, for A Firearm Ejector by Albert J. Lizza. Ejector 162 is mounted in a vertical slot 164 which is formed between a pair of laterally disposed anges 165 extending upwardly and rearwardly from the top of cross-piece 94 and is pivotal on a pin 166 laterally disposed through the flanges. Ejector 162 is L-shaped in configuration and includes an arm 168, which extends forwardly from cross-piece 94 to be receiveable by a slot 90 in receiver 48, and a leg 170 which extends donwwardly rearward of cross-piece 94. A spring-pressed ball 172 is housed within a bore 174 extending longitudinally into cross-piece 94 from the rear end thereof and is dispo-sed for contact with the front face of leg 170 for biasing ejector 162 so as to displace the free end of arm 168 downwardly from slot 90 for contact with the base of tube 28. Arm 168 is held in slot 90 against the bias of ball 172 by tube 28 when moved into receiver 48 by follower 80. Positive synchronization between ejector 162 and retainers 74 is provided by having the functions of these elements controlled by firing pin 92. Stich cooperation is required when tubes 28 are fed vertically and without longitudinal movement into receiver 48 and by such feeding movement tubes 28 may be fed solely by follower 80 without the assistance of any operating member.
Thus, when launcher 16 is fully loaded, three tubes 28 are installed in rack 58. The two bottom tubes 28 are held against forward displacement by the sliding engagement of the grooves 46 therein with anges 70. The top one of the tubes 28 is prevented from forward displacement through the engagement thereof by retainers 74.
Launcher 16 is discharged by manual actuation of trigger-scar device 134, whereby tiring pin 92 is released and sent to the striking position by springs 112. When piston 44 is struck by striker 100, primer 42 is initiated to discharge propellant charge 32, for projection of grenade 18. The initiation of primer 42 also energizes piston 44 for rearward displacement against striker 100, whereby firing pin 92 is rearwardly displaced to the overtravel position carrying with it ejector 162. During initial rearward placement of ejector 162, arm 168 slides along on top of fired tube 28. When firing pin 92 is adjacent overtravel position, the front end of arm 168 is clear of fired tube 28 and, therefore, is free to be biased downwardly in back thereof by spring-pressed ball 172. During sequential forward travel of firing pin 92 responsive to the energy stored in springs 112 through the rearward displacement of the firing pin, arm 168 acts against the base of fired tube 28 for forward ejection thereof from receiver 48. Such ejection is permitted as retainers 74, when ejector 162 contacts tired tube 28, are in registery with slots 132 and, therefore, are free to be biased by springs 122 to the disengaged positions so that hooks 128 are removed from groove 46 of the fired tube. When firing pin 92 approaches the cocked position thereof, ejector 162 has ejected tired tube 28 forwardly from receiver 48 and cam surfaces 130 on pist-on portion 96 contact cam portions 131 on retainers 74 for actuation thereof downwardly to the engaging positions thereof. Consequently, hooks 128 are positioned to be received by groove 46 of the next one of the tubes 28 which is pressed upwardly in rack 58 by follower 80 to replace in receiver 48 the ejected tube. When the subsequent tube 28 is moved into receiver 48, arm 168 is pushed upwardly into slot 90 by such tube.
From the foregoing it is clearly apparent that the grenade launcher described herein is adapted for semiautomatic discharge of the grenades and is especially well adapted for mounting to a rie barrel because the operating means which provide the semiautornatic operation are simple but rugged in construction and provide for a launcher which is light in weight. It is also clearly apparent that the operating means may be adapted to other types of firearms for discharge of ammunition rounds where simplicity of the operating means and lightness of weight are sought.
Although a particular embodiment of the invention has been described in detail herein, it is evident that many variations may be devised within the spirit and scope thereof and the following claims are intended to include such variations.
l. Ordnance including in combination a launcher provided with a fixed breechblock and a receiver, a grenade, a separate discharge tube receivable by said receiver, said tube being preloaded with the grenade, a propellant charge for projecting the grenade from said tube, a primer for discharging said propellant charge and a piston disposed for initiating said primer when struck and for rearward displacement by the initiated primer, a rack mounted on said launcher for holding said tube and directing said tube by vertical movement relative to said launcher into a firing position in said receiver, retainer means mounted in said breechblock for releasably holding said tube when in said receiver against longitudinal displacement, spring means for biasing said retainer means to a position for disengagement from said tube, ejector means for ejecting said tube longitudinally forward from said receiver after discharge therein, a firing pin mounted in said launcher for reciprocation between a forward piston striking position and a rearward overtravel position, means for biasing said firing pin to the striking position, a trigger-scar device for releasably holding said tiring pin in a cocked position between the striking and overtravel positions, cooperating means on said retainer means and said firing pin for positioning said retainer means for engagement with said tube when said tiring pin is in the cocked and striking positions and for releasing said retainer means for displacement by said spring means to positions for disengagement from said tube during movement of said firing pin from the overtravel position and prior to reaching the cocked position, and means for actuating said ejector means for ejecting said tube from said receiver during movement of said firing pin from the overtravel position to the cocked position.
2. The combination as defined in claim 1 wherein said rack is provided with anges disposed for engagement with an annular groove in said tube for preventing longitudinal displacement thereof when in said rack, said anges being terminated adjacent said breechblock to free said tube for longitudinal displacement when received by said receiver, and said retainer means include a pair of retainers each having a hook receivable by said groove when said tube is moved into said receiver.
3. In combination with a round of ammunition having a tube, a firearm including a breechbrook, a receiver extending forwardly from said `breechblock for receiving said tube by vertical insertion, a firing pin mounted in said breechblock for longitudinal reciprocation between a forward striking position for discharge of said round of ammunition and a rearward overtravel position, a
trigger-Sear device for releasably holding said firing pin in a cocked position between said striking and overtravel positions, retainer means actuatable for releasably holding said tube against longitudinal displacement when received by said receiver and when said round of ammunition is discharged by said tiring pin, ejector means disposed for ejecting said tube forwardly from said receiver during movement of said firing pin between the overtravel and cocked positions, and cooperating means on said firing pin and said retainer means for actuation thereof to a position for engaging said tube to prevent longitudinal displacement thereof when said firing pin is in the cocked and striking positions and to provide for actuation of said retainer means to a position in disengagement from said tube prior to ejection thereof by said ejector means.
4. The combination as defined in claim 3 wherein said receiver is provided with a longitudinal channel along the bottom thereof for receiving the tube by vertical insertion thereinto, a rack depending vertically from said breechblock for holding a plurality of said tubes, ange means on said rack for directing said tubes therein vertically without longitudinal displacement into said receiver in position for discharge, said ange means being terminated at the top ends to free the uppermost one of said tubes for longitudinal displacement when in said receiver, and follower means mounted on said rack for biasing the tubes therein towards said receiver.
5. The combination as defined in claim 3 wherein said receiver is provided with a longitudinal channel along the bottom thereof for receiving said tube by vertical insertion thereinto, wherein said firing pin includes a cross-piece disposed for longitudinal reciprocation in said breechblock and a pair of piston portions extending forwardly from the lateral ends thereof for sliding reception by a pair of mating bores extending forwardly into said receiver on opposite sides of said channel, and wherein said retainer means include a pair of retainers reciprocally mounted in said breechblock for respective extension into said bores so as to be engageable by said piston portions, and said retainers each include a hook which extends downwardly forward of said breechblock for insertion into said groove.
6. The combination as defined in claim 3 wherein said ejector means is carried by said tiring pin and is arranged to eject said tube from said receiver after said retainer means are actuated by said firing pin for engagement from the tube.
No references cited.
BENJAMIN A. BORCHELT, Primary Examiner.
R. V. LOTTMANN, Assistant Examiner.