US 3404486 A
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Oct. 8, 1968 E. KELLERHALS SWINGING DOORS AND DOOR LEAVES 2 Sheets-Sheet -1 Filed June 27,
d I PM w aglw INVENTOR 1968 E. KELLERHALS 3,404,486
SWINGING DOORS AND DOOR LEAVES Filed June 27, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 27 fig,
United States Patent 3,404,486 SWINGING DOORS AND DOOR LEAVES Erwin Kellerhals, Schaflhausen, Switzerland, assignor to Carl Sigerist & Cie, Schaffhausen, Switzerland Filed June 27, 1966, Ser. No. 560,562 7 Claims. (Cl. 49-386) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A swinging closure hinged along one side edge and having pivotal movement through an arc of substantially 180 with respect to a fixed support, in which a plurality of vertically spaced hinge assemblies include ball-andsocket hinge assemblies for accommodating for axial misalignment of the independent hinge or pivot pins, and a spring-urged adjustable assembly operatively connected between the swinging closure and the support for retaining the closure in a closed position or one of two open positions with respect to a door opening or the like.
Swinging doors or door leaves of the prior art, in which the door or leaf is movable in either direction from a central closed position and is automatically closed by spring action, have the disadvantage that the hinges can be mounted only on precisely aligned surfaces of the door frame, if binding in the hinges is to be avoided. It is also generally necessary to provide a cavity in the door frame for housing the spring.
An object of the invention is a swinging door or door leaf the hinges of which can be mounted on non-aligned surfaces of the door frame.
A further object of the invention is a swinging door or door leaf the closing spring of which is located within the door or leaf.
The invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a front view of a swinging door or leaf of the invention;
FIGURES 2 and 3 are enlarged elevational views partially in cross section of the lower and middle hinges, respectively;
FIGURE 4 is a view in cross section of the frame taken substantially on the plane of line IV--IV of FIG. 1;
FIGURE 5 is an elevational view partly in section of the upper hinge;
FIGURE 6 is a view along line VI-VI of FIGURE 5; and
FIGURE 7 corresponds to FIGURE 6 with the door or leaf swung through an angle of 90.
Summary of the invention An improved swinging closure capable of opening in two directions with respect to a fixed door frame or the like, and in which the closure is mounted on universally pivoted hinge pins for compensating for uneven surfaces on which the closure is mounted, in which certain of the hinge pins comprise weakened sections to obviate damage to the primary mounting portions of the closure hinge assembly; and an improved spring-urged assembly operatively connected between a pivoted closure and a fixed support in which an articulated element and fixed element include cooperating cylindrical bearing surfaces and a central bearing subject to spring-urged piston pressure for imposing an offset, toggle-pressure on said closure tending to urge the closure toward a closed and/ or one of two open positions.
Referring to FIGURE 1, the illustrated swinging door or door leaf has a frame 1 in which is mounted a panel 2 that may be of synthetic plastic. The frame 1 is pivotally mounted on the doorframe 6 by means of three hinges 3, 4, 5.
3,404,486 Patented Oct. 8, 1968 As shown in FIGURE 2, a mounting plate 7 of hinge 3 is screwed to the doorframe 6. A bearing housing 8 having a spherical inner surface extends from the plate 7. A bushing 9 having a spherical outer surface is held in the bearing housing to form a ball-and-socket joint.
The bushing has a cylindrical bore that receives the middie portion of a pivot pin 10 the two ends of which are mounted in a supporting element 11 rigidly held by the frame 1. The diameter of the pin 10 is reduced at 12, located between the middle portion and the end portions of the pin. At these reduced diameters the pin 10 acts as a shear pin. Should the door be excessively stressed, the pin shears at 12. The pin can be easily replaced and prevents damage to some other part of the door that is less easily replaced or more costly to replace.
The center hinge 4 illustrated at FIGURES 3 and 4 also has the elements 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In addition, the hinge has a sleeve 13 surrounding each end portion of the pin 10 and a rubber sleeve 14 inserted between the sleeve 13 and the bore in the supporting element 11. This arrangement facilitates the automatic alignment of the center pivot pin 4 with respect to the two pivot pins of the upper and lower hinges 3, 5.
The upper hinge illustrated at FIGURES 5, 6, 7 includes a mounting plate 15 and a bearing housing 16. A bushing 17 forms with the housing 16 a 'ball-and-socket joint. The middle portion of a pivot pin 18 is mounted in the bushing 17. The ends of the pin are located in a supporting element 19 rigidly held by the frame 1. The pivot pin 18 cannot be constructed as a shear pin and therefore, in contradistinction to the hinges 3, 4, does not incorporate the reduced diameters 12. A barrel 20 having at one end a threaded ring 21 is rigidly connected to the supporting element 19. The rod 22 of a piston 23 extends through the ring 21. Plate springs 24 are located in the cylindrical space defined by the barrel 20, the rod 22, the ring 21, and the piston 23. The springs push upon the piston. The piston incorporates a hemispherical recess receiving a ball 25. A threaded bolt 26 extending from the ball is screwed into an articulation piece 27 which has on either side a recess 28, 29 forming a portion of a cylinder. The recesses cooperate with cylindrical elements 30, 31 of a support 32. The support is rigidly connected to the mounting plate 15 through a replaceable plate 33. The elements 30, 31 are equally spaced from the sides of the pivot pin 18. Therefore, if the door leaf 1, 2 is swung in the one or other direction, the articulation piece pivots about one or the other elements 30, 31 causing the piston 23 to move down the barrel 20 and to compress the springs 24, which, in turn, press upon the piston with increased force, and thereby return the leaf to its closed position. If the leaf is swung through an angle of (FIG. 7), the axis of the piston and those of the elements 30, 31 define a common plane, as a consequence of which, there no longer being a moment offorce tending to close the leaf, the leaf remains open. The leaf closes automatically by slightly pushing it from its open position. The position of support 32 can be varied by replacing plate 33 by one of a diiferent thickness. If plate 33 is replaced by a thinner one, the axes of the piston and the elements 30, 31 will no longer lie in a common plane, a certain moment will be produced tending to close the door, even though the door or leaf is opened to 90, and the door will automatically close. Conversely, if a thicker plate is introduced, the door will be held open at some angle less than 90.
Referring to FIGURE 1, the hinge 3, mounted on a sloping surface of the doorframe 6, clearly shows how the ball-and-socket hinges of invention automatically accommodate non-aligned surfaces.
Two leaves of a door can be mounted so that their upper horizontal frames 1 lie along the same straight line.
The springs 24, instead of being located in the upper =3 horizontal portion of the frame 1 and acting perpendicularly to the axis of the pivot pins, can be located in the vertical portion of the frame 1, above or below the pivot pin 18, can act in the direction of the pivot pin axis. The springs would be supported by an angle lever.
The word closure as used in the claims shall be construed to mean doors and door leaves.
1. A closure and fixed support, in combination:
hinge means pivotally mounting said closure for movement relative to said support through an arc of substantially 180, said hinge means comprising a plurality of spaced hinge assemblies,
each of said hinge assemblies comprising a mounting member secured to said fixed support and including a laterally projecting portion having a spherical bearing open at opposite ends in the direction the support extends,
a hinge pin projecting diametrically through a substantially spherical bushing universally journaled in said spherical bearing with the hinge pin projecting through opposite ends thereof;
and a support element fixed to said closure and projecting laterally therefrom, said support element including a bifurcated portion flanking said bearing and receiving the terminal ends of the hinge pin therein whereby said hinge assemblies compensate for misaligned portions of said fixed support.
2. The structure as claimed in claim 1 in which said hinge means comprises at least an upper and lower hinge assembly, said upper hinge assembly hinge pin comprising a uniformly diametered cylindrical element, the lower hinge pin assembly comprising a cylindrical element including intermediate weakened portions flanking said spherical bushing whereby excessive torque thereon will fracture the lower hinge pin and the closure will still be pivotally carried on said upper hinge pin.
3. The structure as claimed in claim 2 in which said weakened sections comprise diaimetrical reductions in said lower hinge pin.
4. The structure as claimed in claim 1 in which said hinge means comprises an upper, lower and central hinge assembly, said central hinge assembly. including resilient sleeves circumposed about the hinge pin thereof and respectively received within the bifurcated portions flanking said bushing whereby axial alignment of the upper and lower hinge pins is facilitated.
5. A closure and a fixed support in combination:
hinge means pivotally mounting said closure for relative movement through an arc of substantially 180 with respect to said fixed support, said hinge means comprising a plurality of hinge assemblies, each said hinge assembly comprising mounting plates respectively connected to said closure and said support, one
of said mounting plates including a pivot pin extending diametrically from a substantially spherical bushing element, said other mounting plate including a substantially spherical bearing universally supporting said spherical body and pivot pin; and
means for retaining said closure in closing relation to said support and in one of two open positions,
said means comprising a housing in said closure opening toward said support, a piston reciprocably supported in said housing, spring means in said housing urging said piston toward said support, said piston including a bearing portion opposite said spring means,
a support element projecting laterally from said fixed support in opposition to said piston, said support element comprising spaced, substantially cylindrical bearing portions flanking an intermediate central recess, said cylindrical bearing portions being offset with respect ot the axis of rotation of said closure,
an articulation element having lateral articulation recesses complementary to and normally engaging the cylindrical bearing portions,
said aritculation element including a bearing element projecting laterally from said articulate recesses and engaging in the bearing portion of said piston whereby said articulation element will be subjected to pressure of said spring means and urge said closure to an open position when the closure is pivoted substantially 6. The structure as claimed in claim 5 in which said bearing element is adjustably retained in said articulation element for controlling the amount of pressure imposed by said spring means.
7. The structure as claimed in claim 6 in which said bearing element comprises a spherical element including a threaded shaft engaged in said articulation element.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,653,448 12/1927 Bommer 16-185 2,248,372 7/1941 May 16-131 3,258,887 7/1966 Mostoller 5298 3,295,589 1/1967 Pfleger et al 49386 X'R FOREIGN PATENTS 827,907 1/ 1952 Germany.
982,810 2/ 1965 Great Britain. 1,009,145 11/ 1965 Great Britain.
OTHER REFERENCES 1,096,691, December 1956, German application, Metalastik Ltd.
KENNETH DOWNEY, Primary Examiner,