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Publication numberUS3406491 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 22, 1968
Filing dateJun 20, 1966
Priority dateJun 25, 1965
Publication numberUS 3406491 A, US 3406491A, US-A-3406491, US3406491 A, US3406491A
InventorsHarding Brian
Original AssigneeMetal Sections Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Panelling arrangements
US 3406491 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

oct. 2z, 196s E. HARDING 3,406,491

PANELLING ARRANGEMENTS' I Filed June 2o, 196e e sheets-sheet 1 Oct. 22, 19 E. HARA-.UNG

PANELLING ARRANGEMENTS 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed` June 20, 19,66

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Oct. 22, i963 Q HARDlNG 3,406,491

PANELLING ARRANGEMENTS l Filed June 20, 1966 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Oct. 22, 1968 E, HARDlNG,

PANELLING ARRANGEMENTS 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed June 20, 1966 Mza 225,5@

B. HARDI NG PANELLING ARRANGEMENTS Oct. 22, 1968 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed June 20, 1966 Oct. 22, 1968 B. HARDING PANELLING ARRANGEMENTS 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed June 20, 1966 NNI Mw m United States Patent 3,406,491 PANELLING ARRANGEMENTS l Brian Harding, West Bromwich, England, assignor to Metal Sections Limited, Oldbury, Birmingham, England Filed June 20, 1966, Ser. No. 558,819 Claims priority, application Great Britain, June 25, 1965, 26,971/65; Sept. 30, 1965, 41,504/65; Dec. 1, 1965, 50,931/ 65 13 Claims. (Cl. 52-238) ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE A panel for building construction comprises two spaced parallel extended sheet members defining the inner and outer surfaces of the panel. A rigid metal edge frame defines the entire peripheral edge of the panel and is interposed between the sheet members. There is a lling of foamed thermal insulation material bonded to the sheet members and to the edge frame. The metal edge frame is connected to at least one of the sheet members by means of a plurality of timber members interposed therebetween to separate the sheet member from thermal contact with the edge frame.

This invention relates to panelling for use in building construction and has as objects to provide a convenient form of panel for use in the erection of panelling and to provide panelling assemblies making use of such panels.

A panel in accordance with the invention comprises a pair of spaced parallel sheet members, a metal edge frame, a filling of a foamed insulation material bonded to the sheet members and the edge frame and timber members spacing at least one of the sheet members from the edge frame.

The invention also resides in panelling incorporating a plurality of panels as above defined.

Reference is now made to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIGURE 1 is a vertical section through panelling including examples of panels in accordance with the invention,

FIGURE 2 is an exploded perspective view of a panel as shown in FIGURE l,

FIGURE 3 is a horizontal section through a joint between two panels in the panelling shown in FIGURE l,

FIGURE 4 is a vertical section through panelling incorporating modified panels,

FIGURE 5 is a horizontal section like FIGURE 3 but showing the modified panels,

FIGURES 6 and 7 are horizontal sections like FIG- URE 5 but showing alternative joint constructions,

FIGURE 8 is an exploded perspective view illustrating a construction utilizing the panels shown in FIGURE 4,

FIGURE 9 is a horizontal section through a joint in the construction shown in FIGURE 8,

FIGURE 10 is a fragmentary vertical cross-section through panelling incorporating panels of dilerent construction,

FIGURE ll is a horizontal section on line 11-11 in FIGURE l0, and,

FIGURE l2 is a perspective view of a part of the panels shown in FIGURES 10 and ll.

Referring firstly to FIGURES 1 and 3 of the drawings, the panelling is made up of rectangular panels 20. Each panel comprises a pair of spaced parallel sheet members 21 and 22. The member 21 is formed of sheet metal and is provided around its entire periphery with a web portion 23 projecting towards the sheet member 22 and anges 24 bent back parallel to the sheet member 21.

3,406,491 Patented Oct. 22, 1968 ice The sheet member 22 is formed of any convenient material such as chip-board, fibre-board, or asbestos.

The panel 20 also includes an edge frame 25 made by mitre-jointing four lengths of a suitable sheet metal section. This section includes a channel portion 26 provided with co-planar flanges 27, 28 which terminate in inwardly-turned flanges 29, 30. As shown the channel portion 26 opens outwardly and thus provides a groove extending around the entire periphery of the panel.

The edge frame is arranged with its flanges 30 lying close to the iianges 24 on the sheet member 21 and with its flanges 29 lying close to the sheet member 22.

The edge frame 25 is connected to the sheet members 21, 22 by means of timber members. For joining the frame 25 to the sheet member 21 there are provided two pairs of timber members 31, 32. Each of these members is formed with a longitudinal groove 33 so that there is provided on one side of the groove 33 a tongue 43 adapted to fit into the space between a flange 24 and the sheet member 21. On the other side of the groove 33 the timber member 31 or 32 has a tongue 35 to iit into the channel formed between the channel portion 26 and the liange 30 of the edge frame 25. The timber members 31 fit along the whole lengths of the upper and lower edges of the panel (in the orientation depicted by the drawings) whilst the members 32 fit along the vertical edges between members 31. Thus the edge yframe 25 can be assembled to the sheet member 21 by engaging the members 31 first and then sliding in the members 32- and securing in position, for example, by means of staples. As shown, a sealing strip 36 is seated in the bottom of the groove 33 and engages the edges of flanges 24 and 30.

Timber members 37 and 38 are employed for mounting the sheet member 22 on the edge frame 25. Each of these is rebated to allow the tongue portion thus formed to fit into the channel formed between the channel portion 26 and the iianges 29 on the edge frame 25. As shown, the outer face of the flange 29 is flush with the outer face of the members 37, 38. As before, the members 37 are inserted first and the members 38 are slid 'into position afterwards. The sheet member 22 is carried on the timber members 37, 38 and may be secured in place by means of nails or screws which do not touch the edge frame 25. Such nails or screws are not, however, essential since the foam filling is bonded to the sheet members and holds these firmly in position. A sealing gasket 39 is interposed between the sheet 22 and the timber members 37, 38, and project all round the edge of the panel for the purpose mentioned below.

When the panels have been assembled as described above, the entire interior space is filled with insulating material such as foamed polyurethane which becomes bonded to the sheet members 21, 22 and to the edge frame. This serves both to reduce heat losses through the panel and to make the metal sheet member 21 more rigid. In addition it prevents subsequent movement of the timber members 31, 32.

The use of the timber members 31, 32, 37 and 38 to connect the sheet members 21, 22 to the edge frame 25 gives rise to many advantages. Firstly, it allows a relatively simple construction technique to be employed. The whole structure is self-jigging so that no temporary supports are required to hold the various parts in theirl correct relative positions as the insulation foam is introduced. In addition, there is no direct heat conductive path from the external metal sheet member 21 to the interior of the building of which the panelling forms the external wall.

Furthermore the outer layer is secured to the edge frame without screws or fasteners of any kind. With a metal outer sheet this is important. It will also be noted that the screws or nails securing the inner sheet 22 in position are not chilled by contact with the edge frame and thus do not make condensation marks on the finished internal surface of the inner sheet member 22.

Finally, the combination of the rigid metal edge frame and the timber members makes the panelling more resistant to tire damage than would be the case if the inner sheet member 22 where attached directly to the metal edge frame. A panel with an asbestos inner sheet member 22 directly attached to a metal edge frame and of thickness to give a tire rating of half of an hour, would be improved by the provision of the timber members to increase the fire rating to at least one hour. Not only is the transmission of heat to the edge frame reduced considerably, but the timber members also retain their structural strength at temperatures which would cause the metal edge frame to soften and collapse. The timber members can char extensively Without significantly weakening. The resistance of the timber to charring can, of course, be further improved by treating it by any of the known processes which have been devised for this purpose.

The use of a metal edge frame is very much more convenient than the use of timber alone, since it is relatively simple to make welded mitre-joints between two sheet metal sections than it is to make a satisfactory joint between two lengths of timber. In addition, the metal edge frame section can, as shown, be made symmetrical about its longitudinal centre line so that mitre-jointing is still further simplified. The construction also allows a groove to be formed around the entire periphery of the panel for locating adjacent panels together along the whole length of the joint as will be explained hereinafter. Additional grooves can also be formed at the juncture of the metal edge member with the timber members to house seals for Weather-sealing joints between panels. In the example shown in FIGURES 1 to 4, only one such groove izsformed and that is on the external side of the channel In a simple vertical joint as illustrated in FIGURE 3, these outer seal grooves receive a T-shaped seal element 40 and an inner weather-seal is provided by the gaskets 39 abutting together. A square tube 41 is inserted into the passageway formed by the opposed channels 26 of the two edge frames and thus, as mentioned above, forms a continuous key along the joint.

As FIGURE 1 shows, the panels are mounted between two rails 42, 43 each of which has a channel portion projecting into the grooves at the top and bottom of each panel. Tie rods 44 extending through the tubes 41 are provided with nuts 45 which clamp the rails 42, 43 and the panels together to make them into a solid wall which can, if desired, be transported whole and erected quickly on site.

In the wall mentioned the outer seal grooves at the tops and bottoms of the panels are aligned and a single T- shaped seal 46 is engaged, on erection, in the bottom groove and a strip 47 is inserted into the top groove. As shown, these coact respectively with floor and roof parts.

Turning now to the panelling illustrated by FIGURES 4 and 5, the individual panels are substantially the same as those used in the panelling illustrated in FIGURES 1 to 3. In this case, however, there is provided an additional sheet member 61 intermediate the external and internal sheet members 21 and 22. This sheet member 61 can be formed of hardboard, chip-board, asbestos or any other convenient material, and serves to provide a space 62 behind the internal sheet member 61 which is free of polyurethane foam.

In assembling a panel including the additional sheet member 61, the external sheet member 21 is joined to the edge frame 25 as before, using timber members 31, 32. Spacing pieces 63 are then placed on the timber members 31, 32 and the additional sheet 61 is placed on these pieces 63. The depth of the pieces 63 is chosen so that the upper face of the additional sheet member 61 in flush with the upper sides of the channels 26 of the edge frame. Thus, when the timber members 37, 38 are inserted, the sheet member 61 will be locked into position.

The space between the sheet members 22 and 61 may. be left empty and will then serve to attenuate sound transmission through the panelling. Improved sound attenuation can be obtained by inserting into this space a blanket 64 of sound insulation material (such as Rocksil) as show in the lower half of FIGURE 4 and on the right hand side of FIGURE 5. Where sound attenuation is important the external seal 40a (corresponding to seal 40 of FIGURES l to 3) can be formed of a sound damping material such as lead-loaded polyvinylchloride extrusion.

FIGURES 4 and 5 also show an alternative arrangement for mounting the panels. Instead of using both a tube 41 and a tie rod 44 at each vertical joint, the ends of the tube are provided with end plates 65 each of which has a screw threaded central hole. Bolts 66 are used to secure the rails 42, 43 to these end plates so that the tubes 41 are held in tension and act as tie rods.

An H-shaped seal -may be used instead of the seal 40a and provides two weather-seal lines.

FIGURE 6 shows one arrangement for incorporating a shadow line feature in panelling as shown in FIGURES 5 and 6. The feature consists of a thin sheet metal section 67 of basically channel shaped form with inturned flanges 68 at its mouth. The tlanges 68 terminate in spaced parallel webs 69 extending into the gap between adjacent panels 20. The webs 69 have outwardly directed anges 70 which enter the seal grooves in the adjacent edges of the panels. A weather-seal is obtained by means of a pair of gasket strips 71 interposed between the external faces of sheet members 21 and the flanges 68.

FIGURE 7 illustrates another type of shadow line feature utilizing a timber section 72. In this case the tube 41 is replaced by a pair of unsymmetrical top-hat sec tions 73 identical to those used to form the -rails 42, 43. These sections are arranged with their channel portions projecting outwardly and with their flanges lying faceto-face. The longer anges 74 project beyond the external faces of the panels and into a narrow groove in the section 72. Gasket strips 75 are interposed between the section 72 and the external faces of the panels to form a weather-seal.

In the panelling construction illustrated by FIGURES 8 and 9 the idea of using the locating tubes as tie rods is extended for multi-tier constructions. A Wall is to be constructed using stanchions 76 which are merely long, narrow panels substantially similar to those shown in FIGURES 5 and '6. The panels 77 in the lower tier and the panels 78 in the upper tier are again of the same construction. In the middle tier, however, there may be a window 79, as shown, or another panel like panel 77. The window frame, which may be wooden, is formed with a peripheral groove like those formed in the panel edges.

The stanchion 76 is provided in its interior with a pair of sheet metal trays which abut against the timber members and which contain no polyurethane foam. Each of these trays may have its side walls formed from a short length of square section tube of appropriate size and have a separate base welded t0 one end of the tube length. Alternatively, the tray 80 may be formed as a pressing. In either case the width of the tray would be Such that a pair of opposite side walls lie against the channel portions 26 of the edge frame 25. Aligned bores are formed in these side walls andthe bases of the channel portions 26 to allow socket headed bolts 81 to be inserted from inside the tray 80.

To allow access to the interior of the tray 80 during erection of the panelling, the internal sheet member 22 is not initially secured in position. -In addition a hole is made in the intermediate sheet member 61 to open into the interior of each tray 80' and each such hole may have a cover 82. One tray 80 is disposed at the horizontal level of the joint between panel 77 and window 79 and the other at the level of the joint between panel 78 and window 79.

There are also provided at the top end of the stanchion 76 a nut 83 welded or otherwise secured to the channel 26 of the short end portions of the edge frame 25. The bottom end has another tray having a hole opening into the channel 26. Thus, the stanchion 76 can be secured to a foot rail 84 by means of a 'bolt passed from the tray through a hole in the rail and engaged with anut secured to the rail. The panel 77 is then positioned besides the stanchion 76 and a length of square tube 86 is inserted into the opposed grooves in the edges of the stanchion 76 and the panel 77. A length of square tube 87 is laid along the groove in the top of panel 77. This tube 87 has end plates 88 formed with tapped holes and the appropriate bolt 81 is loosely engaged with one of these end plates t retain the tube 87.

The window 79 is now placed over the panel 77 located by a tube 86a and a second tube 89 is laid in the groove in its upper edge. Tube 89 is identical to tube 87 and is again loosely engaged by the appropriate one of the bolts 81 in the upper tray. The panel 78 is placed on the top of window 79 located by a tube 86b and a second stanchion 76 (not shown) is then positioned next to the panels 77, 78 and the window 79 and is loosely bolted to the foot -rail 84. The `bolts 81 of this second stanchion 76 are engaged with the tubes 87, 89 and a locking plate 90 projecting in both directions from the top of the stanchion 76 is secured in position by means of a bolt 91. The various bolts can then be tightened placing the tubes 87 and -89 in tension and tensioning the stanchion- 76 longitudinally. The forces applied by the bolts 81 do not distort the stanchion 76 since the trays 80 take substantially all the stress imposed by these bolts and thus may be considered as acting as bracing elements for the stanchions.

The construction may alternatively employ a single tube 86 extending along the full height of the stanchion and drilled to take the bolts 81.

The panelling just described is suitable for erection on site rather than the method employed with other panelling described herein of assembling the panels into Wall units for transport complete to the building site.

Turning now to FIGURES to 12, the panels shown are of considerably modified construction and the arrangements for joining panels together and making up walls are also modified.

The external sheet member 101 of each panel is formed of suitably treated weather-resistance boarding instead of sheet metal as in the previously described examples. The internal sheet member 102 is formed of relatively thick -asbestos board. The intermediate sheet member 103 is formed of thin hardboard. The space between the external sheet member 101 and the intermediate sheet member 103 is filled with polyurethane foam 104. The space between the internal sheet member 102 and the intermediate sheet member 103 contains a blanket 10S of sound deadening material, such as Rocksil.

The edge frame 106 is sunbstantially the same design as those employed in the above described examples of the invention, consisting of a channel portion 107, a pair of co-planar webs 108, 109 on the sides of the channel portion, and a pair of turned-back flanges 110, 111 on the webs 108, 109 respectively. The timber members are again used for attaching the external and internal sheet members 101, 102 to the edge frame 106. In each case however, the timber members 112, 113 are merely rebated to receive the appropriate flange 110, 111 of the edge frame, and inner seal groove 114 being left between the flange 110 and the internal sheet member 102 and an outer seal groove 115 being left between the ange 111 and the external sheet member 101.

The inner seal groove is employed to contain a strip 116 of asbestos board at joints between panels. This serves to increase the fire rating of the panelling considerably since the strip 116 effectively prevents hot gasses entering the gaps between panels and prematurely heating up the edge frames. The outer seal grooves 115 receive inter-panel sealing strips 117 and top and bottom seals as before.

For the purpose of joining panels together and to top and bottom rails, foam free spaces 118` are left at the corners of each panel. To form these spaces 118, metal trays 119 are included in the construction of the panels. As shown in FIGURE 12, each tray 119 comprises a base 120 with sides 121, 122 and 123 bent up from three of its edges. At t-he remaining edge a lug 124 is bent up leaving tongues 125 projecting in the plane of the base 120 beyond the lug 124. The lug 124 and an adjacent side 121 are formed with holes aligned with holes in the web of the channel portion 107.

As shown in FIGURE 11, the tongues 125 of each tray 120 are inserted between the timber members 113 and the sides of the channel portion 107. The trays are thus firmly held in position during assembly of a panel and also act as spacers for the intermediate layer 103. When it is required to join two panels together as shown in FIGURE 12, a bolt 126 is inserted through the aligned holes in the channels 107 and the lugs 124 and a nut 127 is engaged with the bolt. Thus, the head of the bolt 126 is within one tray 120 and the nut 127 is within the other. As before, a loose square section tube 130 is engaged in the two opposed channels 107 to provide a continuous -key Ialong the adjacent edges of the panels. Bolts 128 are likewise employed for securing the panels to the bottom rail 129 and to the top rail (not shown).

In a wall made up as shown in FIGURES l0 to 1l, the panels are thus rigidly secured together at their corners and are located together along adjacent edges by the tubes 130. Thus, a very strong and rigid wall structure is provided. It will be appreciated, of course, that the internal sheet members 102 cannot be fastened to the timber members 112 until after the bolts 127, 128 have been inserted and tightened. T-he panels are therefore most conveniently assembled into walls in the factory and delivered complete to the building site.

In all of the panelling -arrangement in which an intermediate sheet member 61 or 103 is employed, there is a space which is free from t-he polyurethane foam. As described, this space can be left empty or filled with a fibrous or other sound insulation material. The space can also be employed for various services such as electric cables and gas or water pipes. In addition, part of the internal sheet member could, if desired, be cut away to enable an electric fire or a central heating radiator to be mounted in the recess left.

Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A panel for building construction comprising first and second spaced parallel extended sheet members, a metal edge frame interposed between said sheet members and defining the entire peripheral edge of the panel, a filling of foamed thermal insulation material bonded to said sheet members and to said metal edge frame, and a plurality of timber members interposed between at least one of said sheet members and the edge frame, so as to separate said one sheet member from thermal contact with said edge frame.

2. A panel as claimed in claim 1 in which there are a plurailty of timber members interposed between each of said sheet members and said edge frame.

3. A panel or use in building construction comprising a metal edge frame made up of a plurality of lengths of ametal section joined together at their ends to form a rigid polygon, said frame providing first and second channel portions extending around said polygon and having mouths opening into the interior of said polygon; a first plurality of elongated timber members having tongue portions fitting into said first channel portions of the frame; a second plurality of timber members having tongue portions fitting into said second channel portion of the frame, a first sheet member overlying said first plurality of timber members; a second sheet member overlying said second plurality of timber members; the edge frame, the timber members and the sheet members forming between them a closed space; and foam insulation material lling said space and bonded to the sheet members, the timber members, and the edge frame.

4. A panel as claimed in claim 3 in which each of the timber members of said second plurality of timber members is formed with a second tongue portion disposed beside the tongue portion iitting into the channel portion of the edge frame, and said second sheet member is provided around its periphery with a reversed ange behind which said second tongue portions iit.

5. A panel as claimed in claim 3 in which the metal section from which the edge frame is constructed also forms a channel having an open mouth directed outwardly to provide around the entire periphery of the panel a groove.

6. A panel for use in building construction comprising a metal edge frame formed from a plurality of lengths of a metal section joined together at their ends to form a rigid polygon, the section providing first and second spaced channel portions extending around the entire periphery of the polygon and having open mouths directed into the interior of the polygon; a plurality of first elongated timber members having tongue portions iitted into said first channel portion of the edge frame; a plurality of secondl timber members each having a tongue portion fitted into the second channel portion of the edge frame; a first sheet member overlying said rst timber members and attached thereto; a second sheet member overlying the second timber members; spacing members supported on the second timber members and extending towards the first sheet member; an intermediate sheet member lodged between said spacing members and the rst timber members; said intermediate sheet member, said second sheet member, said timber members and said edge frame defining a closed space; and a filling of a foamed insulation material occupying said closed space and bonded to said intermediate sheet member, said second sheet member said edge frame and said timber members.

7. A panel as claimed in claim 6 including a mat of sound insulation material disposed between said intermediate sheet member and said first sheet member.

8. A panel as claimed in claim 6 in which the channel 8 portions of the edge frame have outer sides which are spaced from the first and second sheet members to form inner and outer seal grooves respectively, said seal grooves extending around the entire periphery of the panel,

9. A panel as claimed in claim 8 in which the channel portions of the edge frame have sides opposite the sides defining the seal grooves and forming the sides of a locating groove having an open mouth directed outwardly and extending around the entire periphery of the panel.

10. Panelling comprising a plurality of panels as claimed in claim 9 arranged in a side-by-side relationship, secured to top and bottom rails and located relative to one another by means of lengths of square section tubular material, each length of which is engaged in the locating groove of a pair of adjacent panels.

11. Panelling as claimed in claim 10 in which the panels a-re secured to the top and bottom rails by means of tie bolts extending through the locating tubes and engaged at their ends with the top and bottom rails.

12. Panelling as claimed in claim 10 in which the locating tubes are provided at their ends with end plates each of which is formed with a tapped bore, the panels being secured to the top and. bottom rails by means of bolts inserted through holes in the top and bottom rails and engaged with the end plates of the locating tubes.

13. Panelling as claimed in claim 10 in which the iirst sheet member of each panel consists of an asbestos sheet and a strip of asbestos board is inserted in the inner seal grooves of adjacent panels to protect the metal edge frames thereof against hot gases entering the space between adjacent panels in the event of a fire.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,872,710 2/1959 COX 52--615 XR 3,121,264 2/1964 Hammar 52-617 3,147,336 9/1964 Mathews 52-584 XR 3,254,464 6/ 1966 Hoyt 52-241 XR 3,322,879 5/1967 Lindgren 52-615 XR FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.

P. C. FAW, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2872710 *Aug 5, 1954Feb 10, 1959Cox Henry CConstruction panel providing sound and heat insulation
US3121264 *Dec 4, 1961Feb 18, 1964New Moon Homes IncDoor
US3147336 *Apr 17, 1962Sep 1, 1964Mathews Howard GLaminate panels for constructing enclosure
US3254464 *May 7, 1962Jun 7, 1966Union Carbide CorpHollow building module of corrugated polyurethane foam sections with elongated edge members
US3322879 *Jan 12, 1965May 30, 1967Lindgren Erik ASoundproof screen room
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3757480 *Nov 8, 1971Sep 11, 1973Redpath Dorman Long LtdPartitions
US4177612 *Jul 17, 1978Dec 11, 1979Tochihara Joe IBeauty operator wall structure
US4548003 *Mar 8, 1983Oct 22, 1985Alnova Bygg AktiebolagPrefabricated balcony platform
US5970672 *May 5, 1997Oct 26, 1999Amisk Technologies Inc.Building system
DE3440297A1 *Nov 5, 1984May 22, 1986Greschbach ManfredPlattenfoermiges wandelement
DE3440297C2 *Nov 5, 1984Oct 19, 1989Greschbach, Manfred, 7637 Ettenheim, DeTitle not available
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/238.1, 52/787.1, 52/584.1
International ClassificationE04B2/90, E04B1/61
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/6158, E04B1/6145, E04B2/90, E04B1/6187
European ClassificationE04B2/90, E04B1/61D3C3, E04C2/46, E04B1/61D3C, E04B1/61D4