US 3408086 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 29, 1968 w. N. BENNETT 3,408,086
THREE-DIMENSIONAL SURFACE FOR SKIS AND THE LIKE Filed 00T.. 25, 1966 8 FIG. 3
IIOFIGQ2 E FIG. 4
INVENTOR WILLIAM N. BENNETT ATTORNEY United States Patent C 3,408,086 THREE-DIMENSIONAL SURFACE FOR SKIS AND THE LIKE William N. Bennett, Miami, Fla., assignor, by mesne assiglments, to Skisearch, Inc., Boston, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts Continuation-impart of abandoned application Ser. No. 558,738, June 20, 1966. This application Oct. 25, 1966, Ser. No. 589,398
13 Claims. (Cl. 280-11.13)
ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE A bottom surface for an elongated element for gliding over a surface, eg., skis, said surface having a three-dimensional pattern including a series of protuberances which are arranged in a generally continuous pattern along the bottom of the elongated element and each of which presents an exposed face inclined relative to the general plane of the bottom, each inclined exposed face terminating in a rearward direction in a convexly curved dropoff edge, said exposed faces being arranged generally in at least two parts, a forward part and a rearward part, the rearward part being at an angle of lesser inclination relative to the general plane of the bottom than is the forward part of the face, and in fact said rearward face part of lesser inclination being in some cases generally parallel to the general plane of the bottom of the elongated element.
This invention relates to skis, surf boards, etc., and similar devices for sliding or gliding over water, snow, ice, etc., and guided by a human practitioner, and relates to a scale surface therefor as explained in my copending patent application Ser. No. 558,738, filed June 20, 1966 `and now abandoned. Attention is also directed to United States Patent 3,269,892, dated Aug. 30, 1966.
Skis generally are provided with one or more longitudinal grooves formed in the base thereof for the purpose of straight and traverse tracking and stability on turns. The new scaled bottom surface does not require the use of such grooves as it tracks better and has far more stability in turns than the prior art grooved ski surface. The scaled bottom ski is easier to turn and control and the scales themselves provide a series of groove-like configurations of small size compared to the grooves in the conventional ski.
It has been discovered that by placing a land or flat on individual scales over the running surface thereof friction is further reduced. That is, the edges of the scales which contact the snow or ice or water) are as it were blunted, and this provides for even better action with less friction than heretofore, but with control still intact.
Also in order to even further reduce friction while at the same time adding control, the scales are tapered off to a point of elimination in a fore-and-aft or longitudinal direction adjacent the edges of the skis, i.e., just inwardly of the steel edges: and by tapering or blending the same inwardly from no scale to a complete scale pattern covering most of the bottom of the ski, even more friction is eliminated or drastically reduced and maneuverability is increased.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear hereinafter,
Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a bottom plan view of a section of the ski embodying the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view on line 2-2 of FIG. l;
FIG. 3 is a transverse section on line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
3,408,086 Patented Oct. 29, 1968 ice FIG. 4 shows the scale outline of my previous application above identified;
FIG. 5 is a transverse diagramamtic showing to explain the construction; and
FIG. 6 is a section showing a modification.
In carrying out the present invention, the scale pattern is clearly shown in FIGS. 1 and 3 for instance, this pattern having lbeen fully explained in my above identified application. In the present case however these scales have been flattened in the areas at 10, see for instance FIG. 2. This should be compared with FIG. 4, the latter showing the previous construction.
The effect is that the dropoff edges 12 in FIG. 2 are not as high as the dropof edges in FIG. 4 nor yare they as sharp. On the other hand the tapering edges 14 may be impressed deeper than the corresponding tapering edges in FIG. 4 so as to make the dropoff edges at 12 of approximately equal height with those shown in FIG. 4 and this invention contemplates either construction.
This novel form of `of scale has less friction on snow and ice (and water) than the previous scale formation, i.e., in FIG. 4, when proceeding in a forward direction, but the control on making turns is as great as before and the resistance to sliding in a rearward direction is also approximately as great.
The present invention also contemplates the use of blanked out areas in the regions at 18 adjacent the edges of the skis so that the scale formation here actually tapers off in a lateral direction toward the outside of the ski edges from a full scale pattern in the central portion. The actual construction is one in which this formation is gradually tapered off as is attempted to be shown in dotted lines in FIG. 5. There is actually no abrupt discontinuance of the scale pattern but instead the scale pattern gradually phases out at the extreme edge of the pattern whether this be at the edge `of the ski or adjacent the steel edges as shown herein.
On the other hand the bottom of the ski is essentially flat as is indicated by the line indicated at 20 in FIG. 5. In this figure, the dotted lines 22 above line 20 have been eliminated either by scraping or grinding off or by simply making the mold to that shape in the first place. This provides the flats 10 as well as the fading and blank areas 18.
This can be done either by making the mold forming the scale formation according to the description above; or in a case where a ski without the plastic bottom but embodying the parts generally indicated as at 24 in FIG. 3, is provided with a matte or owable plastic material upon which the scale pattern is pressed. When this is done, the scale pattern is slightly depressed in the center of the ski, i.e., along the longitudinal axis thereof, because this is where the pressure is formed to the greatest extent. This forms a slight concavity so that the ski is then left appearing as in FIG. 5 where the dotted lines 22 are representative of the scale pattern. When this is cut off, or ground off, along the line 20, it will be seen that the entire scale pattern adjacent the edge of the ski is sheared off; but moving inwardly therefrom, only the tops of the scale pattern are removed leaving the same flat at their highest edges or what were the highest edges in FIG. 4 and are now represented by the flats 10 in FIG. 2.'
The scale formation has a very peculiar property which is that if the pattern is carried to the extreme edges of the article, there is a crowding in towards the center of the material of the surface over which the ski is passing. That is, for instance in light powdery snow, the snow tends to crowd in towards the center of the ski due to the scale effect and fail to liow outwardly.
However with the phased or faded out pattern as described above, this does not happen, and the bottom surface of the ski therefore does not tend to become jammed with snow, etc. For this reason the present invention retains all the advantages of the scale surface as in my copending patent application identified above, but at the same time speed in a forward direction is enhanced and lateral control as for instance on turns, etc., is retained.
As shown in FIG. 6, if the scales are slightly undercut, they will tend to hinge or pivot as shown by dotted lines at 26. It will be seen that this action will not cause any adverse action in a forward direction but will definitely increase resistance to sliding backwards when skiing uphill, see 28.
It is pointed out that both FIGS. 5 and 6 are exaggerated in order to more clearly show the construction and the action involved in these forms of the invention.
Another effect of the scale pattern resides in the fact that where the scales join in transverse rows, as at 30, 30, there are actually formed a series of parallel longitudinal small grooves. These grooves are interrupted of course by each alternate row of scales but nevertheless the groove is present and tends to stabilize the forward motion of the ski so that no groove formation as is common in conventional skis is either desired or necessary but on the other hand the plurality of small grooves as described between adjacent scales adds to the stability of the ski in the forward motion thereof.
1. A device for gliding over a surface comprising an elongated element having a main body portion, a ont end and arear end, and a three dimensional patterned bottom, the pattern including a plurality of protuberances which extend outwardly from the main body portion of the element, certain of said protuberances presenting a convexly curved edge located at an angle to the general plane of the bottom of the element, each edge including a portion facing rearwardly, certain of said protuberances having surface-contacting areas which incline relative to the plane of the bottom from a minimum thickness in the forward direction of motion of the element to a maximum in a rearward direction and terminating in said edges, said protuberances being aligned in rows transverse of the element, certain rows being aligned in a fore-and-aft direction relative to the element, and certain rows being misaligned in the fore-and-aft direction.
2. A device for moving relative to a medium comprising an elongated element having a main =body portion, a front end and a rear end, and a bottom having a threedimensional pattern,
the pattern including a plurality of protuberances certain of which each present a convexly curving edge located at an angle to the general plane of the bottom of the element, each edge presenting its curve generally toward the rear,
certain of said protuberances each having an exposed face which includes a forward part and a rearward part, the forward part of each exposed face being located on an incline extending outwardly from the general plane of the bottom toward the rear, from a minimum forwardly thereof to a maximum rearwardly,
certain of the rearward parts of said exposed faces lying at a lesser degree of inclination to the general plane of the bottom than do the forward parts of the respective exposed faces of the protuberances.
3. The device of claim 2 wherein certain of the rearward face parts are substantially parallel to the general plane of the bottom.
4. The device of claim 2 wherein certain of the protuberances are relatively reduced in height.
5. The device of claim 2 wherein certain of the protuberances are reduced in height in certain longitudinal areas thereof.
6. The device of claim 2 wherein certain of the protuberances are reduced in height in certain longitudinal areas to substantially zero.
7. The device of claim 2 wherein certain of the protuberances are reduced in height in certain longitudinal areas to substantially zero adjacent the side edges of the element.
8. The device of claim 2 wherein certain of the protuberances are reduced in height in certain longitudinal areas to substantially zero adjacent the side edges of the element, there being a central full scale area between the areas of reduction of the pattern.
9. The device of claim 2 wherein certain of the protuberances are aligned longitudinally of the element and present longitudinal grooves at the areas of join of contiguous protuberances.
10, The device of claim 2 wherein the bottom of the element is concave longitudinally.
11. The device of claim 2 wherein the bottom of the element is concave longitudinally, the longitudinal side edge portions of the bottom extending outwardly from the bottom relative to the central portion thereof.
12. The device of claim 2 wherein the bottom of the element is concave longitudinally, the longitudinal side edge portions of the bottom extending outwardly from the bottom relative to the central portion thereof, the patern being less pronounced in the areas adjacent the side edges of the bottom.
13. The device of claim 2 wherein the bottom of the element is concave longitudinally, the longitudinal side edge portions of the bottom extending outwardly from the bottom relative to the central portion thereof, the pattern being less pronounced in the areas adjacent the side edges of the bottom and gradually fading out from areas spaced from the bottom edges in a direction toward the edges.
References Cited FOREIGN PATENTS 870,369 3/ 1953 Germany. 468,104 6/ 1937 Great Britain. 473,231 10/ 1937 Great Britain. 179,481 11/ 1935 Switzerland. 375,645 4/ 1964 Switzerland.
LEO FRIAGLIA, Primary Examiner.
MILTON L. SMITH, Assistant Examiner.