US 3408837 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 5, 1968 R. FELSON 3, 0 7
MAGNETIC LOCK DEVICES Filed March 1, 1967 2o 20 l9 I4 22 22 I l8 s N 2| N l s l I N s 33 I 2-9 3." lZ-l" i s u FIG.2 37 l6 [AWE/VIOR, Ronald Felson,
nit States ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A spring-less magnetic lock in which each tumbler is a permanent magnet and the key has permanently magnetized inserts, one for each tumbler, and so arranged that upon insertion of the key in proper position into the lock, the tumblers are repelled by said inserts respectively, to unlocking position. For each tumbler there is a fixed foil disc of magnetizable material between each tumbler and the hole for the key, to which disc the tumbler is attracted and thus moved to locking position. The force of repulsion exerted by each of said inserts is sufficient to move the tumblers over the attraction of the tumblers for their related discs. This lock operates regardless of its POSI- tion or the line and direction of movement of the tumblers. Gravity in no manner effects the operation of this lock regardless of the line and direction of movement of any tumbler.
The present invention relates to novel and improved magnetic lock constructions and the keys therefor, and more particularly to the type which relies neither upon gravity or springs to effect return of the tumblers to locking position. This new lock operates properly wholly by magnetic action and hence the line of tumbler movement may even be upwards or horizontally. This permits the lock to be used for cabinets, chests, trunks and other movable box structures which when inverted would automatically cause their locks to open if of the gravity-return type magnetic lock, and avoids opening of the lock when used on a door, by giving the lock a half turn, which 1s a technique used by burglars.
It is therefore the principal object of this invention to provide a novel and improved spring-less magnetic lock which will avoid the aforementioned objectionable incidents, for my new lock operates properly without the aid of gravity and regardless of its position.
Heretofore in locks of this class, when a magnetic insert in the shank of a key is properly positioned in the lock, it will shift a magnetic tumbler from locking position to open position. Then upon withdrawal of the key, each tumbler had a companion magnet to shift it back to locking position.
It is therefore a further object of this invention to provide elements of negligible cost, in place of said companion magnets, and thus materially cheapen the cost of manufacture not only as to the cost of the parts, but also by a saving in labor for the assembling, because now no attention is necessary as formerly, that the companion magnets be properly positioned in respect to the polarity of their associated tumblers respectively.
A further object thereof is to provide a magnetic lock of the character described, of novel and improved construction, which involves a new mode of operation.
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel and improved magnetic lock structure having the stated attributes, which is simple in construction, reasonable in cost and efficient in carrying out the purposes for which it is designed.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent as this disclosure proceeds.
This invention is applicable in lock constructions of the type which operate on the principle that when a magatent O ice netic insert in the shank of a key is properly positioned, 1t Wlll react with a magnetized tumbler so that the latter Will move, whereupon that element of the lock which is adapted to shift a bolt or the like, is released for movement. 1
For the practice of this invention in a cylinder lock, which is the preferred embodiment herein illustrated to explain this invention, each tumbler is permanently magnetized. The key has permanently magnetized inserts, one for each tumbler respectively, and so arranged that upon insertion of the key into the lock, the tumblers are repelled into unlocking position. In each tumblers socket in the barrel of the lock, there is fixed a steel film disc, to which its related tumbler is drawn by attraction thereto when the key is withdrawn from the barrel. At all times, the tumbler is exerting attraction action to its related film disc. Of importance to note is that in each such set of two related permanent magnets and film disc, the strength of the attraction of the tumbler to the disc is suflicient to maintain the tumbler in locking position regardless of the line of movement of the tumbler, and that the strength of the magnetic key insert is sufiicient to shift the tumbler into unlocking position against the action of attraction of said tumbler for said disc regardless of the line of movement of the tumbler, and that upon withdrawal of the key, the strength of such attraction will restore the tumbler into locking position regardless of the line of movement of the tumbler. These strength relationships must also prevail regardless of the direction of the tumbler need move at any time.
In the accompanying drawing forming part of this specification, similar characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all the views.
FIG. 1 is an enlarged longitudinal view showing a cylinder lock embodying the teachings of this invention, and also its key. This view is shown in section taken at llne 11 in FIG. 3. The key is shown entering the barrel. The tumblers are in locking position.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary view of the device as shown in FIG. 1, but here in FIG. 2, the key is shown fully inserted and hence the tumblers are in their moved position and the barrel is free to turn in the casing.
FIG. 3 is a section taken at line 33 in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 shows a front view of the lock, that is looking onto the left end in FIG. 1. In this FIG. 4, the key is shown partly turned from the initial position at full insertion. Of course, the barrel has turned with the key FIG. 5 is a fragmentary perspective view which shows the front end of the barrel.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary section only of the casing, taken at line 66 in FIG. 4.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view of the lock and key in the manner of FIG. 2, showing a modified construction.
FIG. 8 is a view like FIG. 7, of another modified construction.
In the drawing, the numeral 15 indicates generally a locks cylinder or casing in which a barrel is rotatably fitted, and as. is well known, said barrel carries a suitable member 17 to shift the locks bolt not shown, upon rotation of said barrel within the casing. Said barrel and easing are of non-magnetic material and so is the body of the key 18 which is slidably in and out of the barrel. There are a series of holes through the wall of the casing 15, one such hole being shown at 19, which series, at one position of the barrel 16, register respectively with radial sockets in said barrel, as for instance the socket 19' with the hole 19. Each hole and its related socket are of like diameter, adapted to house a slidable permanently magnetized tumbler which is of a. length greater than the distance it can enter into the socket, so such tumbler can be part in the socket and part in the related hole of the cavity. A sleeve 14 of nonmagnetic material on the cylinder 15, closes all the holes in the cylinder, so each tumbler is in its own chamber. There is sufficient chamber space to allow the tumbler to reside wholly within the hole in the cylinder 15, as do the tumblers 20 and 21 in FIG. 2, in their respective holes 22 and 23. It is evident that when the tumblers extend into the sockets, as in FIG. 1, they are in locking position, holding the barrel 16 fast to the cylinder 15, and that when the tumblers are out of the sockets in the barrel, they unlock the barrel and let it free for turning, as is the condition shown in FIG. 2. The key 18 has permanently magnetized inserts in the same spaced relation as the tumblers so that upon full insertion of the key into the barrel 16, one of such inserts is in axial alignment with one of the tumblers respectively.
The holes containing the tumblers 20, 21 and 24, are in one row along the cylinder 15, with the holes 19 and 25. If desired, tumblers may be provided in the holes 19 and 25, and such, together with the tumblers 20, 21 and 24, may constitute the entire locking means. However, in the illustrated embodiment, I have provided a second series of holes in another row along the cylinder 15, with companion sockets in the barrel 16, such sockets being indicated by the respective numerals 26-30, and have provided tumblers 31 and 32 to be in staggered relation with the tumblers 20, 21 and 24, thereby leaving half the holes empty. It is evident that different choices of which 'holes in the cylinder are to contain tumblers, affords many combinations for the lock, each of which needs its special key respectively. The spaced magnetic inserts positioned transversely through the body of the smooth key shank, are in such relative positions that when the key 18 is fully insterted into the barrel 16, one of said inserts is in alignment with one of the tumblers respectively.
At lea-st in each socket of the barrel into which a tumbler enters, there is a plain film disc of steel fixed at the socket bottom as indicated by the numerals 20', 21' and 24. In the manufacture of these locks, all sockets are provided with such steel film disc, to ready the lock for any combination. Those discs as 19, 25 which have no associated tumbler, remain inactive. An important teaching of this invention is that the components which cooperate by magnetic action shall comprise sets of three pieces, namely a tumbler, one of said foil discs and a magnetic insert in the key. 'In each set, the tumbler is under repelling action of the insert in the key, when the key is fully inserted into the barrel 16. The tumbler 21 is related with the foil disc 21' and with the magnetic key insert 21". The tumbler 24 is related with the foil disc 24' and with the key insert 24". The tumbler 21 is related with the foil disc 21 and with the key insert 21". The tumbler 31 is related with the foil disc 31' and with the key insert 31". The tumbler 32 is related with a foil disc not shown, and with the key insert 32".
.It is important to note that each tumbler is being constantly drawn to its related foil disc, regardless of the line of direction of movement of the tumbler, and the strength of such attraction is sufficient to maintain the tumbler in locking position regardless of the line of movement of the tumbler, but the srtength of the magnetic key insert is sufficient to shift the tumbler by repelling it into unlocking position against the attraction of the tumbler for its related film disc, regardless of the line of direction of movement of the tumbler. It is evident that the effects of gravity are counteracted in this set up.
At the finger-piece end, there is a pin 33 transversely through the shank of the key 18. This pin extends out of the shank, more at 33' than at 33" to determine the position the key is to be in, so that when inserted into the barrel 16, the inserts 20", 31", 21", 32" and 24" shall respectively be in alignment with the tumblers 20, 31, 21, 32 and 24. Upon such insertion of the key 18, all the tumblers will be shifted clear of the barrel l6, and into the holes in the body of the casing or cylinder 15, that is, the tumblers will move from their normal locking position shown in FIG. 1 when the key 18 is out, to unlocking position shown in FIG. 2, effected by mere insertion of the key in proper position to register with the tumblers.
The cylinder 15 at front end, has the counterbore 38 into which the outward flange 39 at the front end of the barrel 16 rotatably fits, and a bit behind such counterbore, the casing is provided with an internal annular channel 35 along which the tip end position of the pin part 33 rides fitted therein, upon turning the key 18, after such key is fully inserted into the barrel. The radial distance from the floor of the channel 35 to the axis of the key, is a bit greater than the radius of the barrels front flange 39. So there is a notch 36' to afford entrance of the distal end of the pin part 33' into said channel; such notch being in the face plate 34, and enterable at the front of such plate. The barrel 16 has a short keyway 37 enterable at the front end by the pin part 33", and of a depth, just to admit it. For entrance of the pin part 33, the barrel has a notch 36 enterable at the front end. The length of said keyway 37 and'the depth of said notch 36 are such that when the key is fully entered into the barrel, the distal end of the pin part 33' will enter the channel 35 when the key is then turned. Said notch 36 and keyway 37 are of course so positioned that they receive the pin 33 when the key is fully inserted in the barrel. The notch 36' in the casing, is so positioned that it registers with the notch 36 when the pin tumblers are in locking position. In normal manufacture, the keyhole offered by the notches 36, 36' and the keyway 37, shall admit the pin 33 when the latter is vertical, in order to conform with ordinary lock practice to have the key in the vertical plane for insertion. It is evident that the key can be inserted only in one way, since the keyway 37 will not admit the pin part 33, but can only admit the pin part 33" which is much shorter than 33.
Upon full insertion of the key 18 into the barrel 16, meaning that the pin part 33" is at the end of the keyway 37, the pin part 33 is at the closed end of the notch 36 and the distal end of said pin part 33' is in the annular channel entrance 36', the keys magnetic inserts are in their proper location to effect tumbler shift to unlocked position as in FIG. 2. So mere insertion of the key as mentioned, will release the barrel for turning. Now upon turning the key, the barrel will turn and the incident movement of the member 17, will operate the bolt mechanism not shown. The distal end of the pin part 33' will be cached in the annular channel 35. It is evident that in this structure as illustrated, the key cannot be withdrawn except when the tumblers would be in locking position as in FIG. 1, upon the withdrawal of such key, and to Withdraw the key, it must be in position to have the pin part 33' leave through the notch 36'.
As has been mentioned, the action of gravity will never cause any tumbler to shift from locking position to unlocking position. So even if the device is inverted, the tumblers will remain in locking position, and it is also evident that the tumblers may be arranged for movement along the horizontal, since at no time is gravity relied on to operate the device in any particular. Hence locks embodying this invention, may be used on cabinets, chests and the like, because turning the cabinet upside down, will not release the barrel 16. I have indicated the arrangement for the magnetic components, by marking polarities thereof N and S. Of course, many other dispositions may be made to get different lock combinations, but always, the magnetic forces acting on a tumbler are repulsions from its associated actuating magnet insert in the key, and the attraction the tumbler has for its related foil disc. Of importance to note is that regardless 'how the lock is installed, said foil discs maintain the tumblers in locking position when the key is out, whether tumbler movement is along the horizontal, or require to be acted on by an upward force to stay in locking position or require a force in any direction to stay in locking position, and that said foil discs always do their job regardless of any shift in lock position. These incidents of structure and mode of operation, make this lock pick-proof. To ease their separation upon insertion of the key 18, there is provided that no contact shall occur between the tumbler and its associated film disc, meaning that constantly between them, only non-magnetizable material shall be present. One way to accomplish this is to have an air gap between them, which is maintained by providing a shoulder 46 to stop the tumbler 47 a bit from the disc foil 48 as in FIG. 7. Another way to have non-magnetic material bet-ween them is to have a thin piece of copper 44 fixed on the face of the film disc 49 which faces the tumbler 50, as shown in FIG. 8.
The term disc in the appended claims shall not be deemed limited to round shape but shall include other perimetrical forms.
This invention is capable of numerous forms and various applications without departing from the essential features herein disclosed. It is therefore intended and desired that the embodiments shown herein shall be deemed merely illustrative and not restrictive and that the patent shall cover all patentable novelty herein set forth; reference being had to the following claims rather than to the specific showings and description herein to indicate the scope of this invention.
1. In a magnetic lock device, a first member, a second member movably mounted on the first member; said members being of non-magnetic material; the first member having a hole therelhrough and the second member having a socket therein in alignment with said hole, a permanently magnetized tumbler longitudinally slidable and fitted in said hole and socket, and positioned part in said hole and part in said socket, a film disc of magnetic material positioned fixed in said socket and facing the end of the tumbler which is in said socket; said tumbler being capable of being entirely with'n said hole; said tumber in all of its positions, being attracted to said film disc, in combination with a key of non-magnetic material having a permanently magnetized insert; said disc being between said tumbler and said key, said key, when placed in a position so that its magnetic insert is in alignment with said tumbler and acting to repel the tumbler so the tumbler is moved entirely within said hole in the first member, the second member will thereby be released for movement in relation to the first member; the strength of the attraction of the tumbler to the film disc being such that, regardless of the line of direction of movement of the tumbler to leave the socket, it will be attracted by said disc film to maintain it entered into the socket when said socket and hole are in alignment and said key is away from said position; the strength of said magnetic insert being such that regardless of the line of movement and direction of movement of the tumbler to leave the socket, said insert will act on the tumbler to maintain it wholly in said hole when said key is in said position, regardless of the attraction of the tumbler for said film disc, and means for each hole for limiting the distance the tumbler can travel thereinto.
2. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, wherein the first member is a casing and the second member is a barrel rotatably fitted in said casing; the mentioned hole being through the wall of said casing; said barrel having a bore therein therealong and said bore being accessible for the admission of the key therein.
3. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, including means on said key and second member which come into alignment upon placing said key so that its magnetic insert is in alignment with said tumbler, and upon such positioning of the key and when said tumbler is entirely within said hole in the first member, the key can be manipulated to move the second member, in relation to the first member.
4. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 3, wherein the first member is a casing and the second mem ber is a barrel rotatably fitted in said casing; the mentioned hole being through the wall of the casing; said barrel having a bore therein therealong and said bore being accessible for the admission of the key therein; the mentioned means being provided by having an internal annular channel in the casing near that end thereof into which the key is inserted in the bore of the barrel; there being a notch in the casing, providing an entrance for movement in the direction along the barrel, into said annular channel and by having a notch in that end of the barrel into which the key is inserted and also by having a pin extending laterally from the key; said notches being aligned when the tumbler is in locking position and the key is wlthdrawn; said pin being of a size to be entered and fitted in said notches when the key is fully inserted into the barrel; the direction of the magnetic insert in the key being such that upon full insertion of the key so that said pin shall be entered in both said notches, said magnetic insert shall be in alignment with the tumbler, whereupon inserting the key into the bore in the barrel, so that the pin is entered in both said notches, said tumbler will be shifted into unlocked position thus freeing the barrel for rotation in the casing and then upon turning the key, the distal end of said pin will enter said annular channel as it moves along said channel, whereby the key once fully inserted into the barrel, can be withdrawn therefrom only when said hole and socket are in alignment to allow the tumbler passage into said socket.
5. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, including means constantly providing only non-magnetizable material between said tumbler and foil disc.
6. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 5, wherein the material constantly between the tumbler and foil disc is a non-magnetic element carried on one of them.
7. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 5, wherein the material constantly between the tumbler and foil disc is air.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,172,203 2/1916 Fuller 276 2,648,729 8/1953 Noregaard 20045 3,111,834 11/1963 Felson 70-276 MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner. R. L. WOLFE, Assistant Examiner.