US 3411317 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov 19, 1968 E. s. SWENSON ETAL 3,411,317
HYPOTHERMIA OPERATI NG TABLE Filed May 10, 1966 INVENTORS 47 EM/L 6. SIZE/U60, lV/LL/AM L. (0540 FIE4 4414 PM maria States Patent 3,411,317 HYPOTHERMIA OPERATING TABLE Emil S. Swenson, Coon Rapids, and William L. Koski,
Minneapolis, Minn., assignors to Swenko Research &
Development Incorporated, Minneapolis, Minn., a corporation of Minnesota Filed May 10, 1966, Ser. No. 548,956 4 Claims. (Cl. 62-258) This invention relates to operating equipment and more specifically to an operating table which is especially adapted for use in conjunction with the performance of surgical procedures upon living tissues which is to be transplanted and in which the performance of such surgical procedures is located generally away from the field of operation.
An object of the invention is the provision of a hypothermia surgical table having a readily accessible cooling receptacle thereon with provision for permitting organs or tissues, that are to be transplanted, to be maintained in a cooled viable state so that surgical procedures may be performed on such organs while the latter are located away from the general field of operation. Specifically, the hypothermia surgical table has a centrally located upwardly opening double wall receptacle whose upper periphery is substantially co-extensive with the surgical table surface, and which is adapted to contain a liquid saline solution in which the organ or tissue to be transplanted is immersed, the liquid being maintained at a predetermined temperature, preferably slightly below zero degrees centigrade. The space defined between the walls comprises a cooling chamber through which is circulated a liquid coolant, refrigeration means being provided for cooling the liquid coolant. A suitable control panel with controls thereon is mounted on the hypothermia operating table to permit ready and accurate adjustment of the temperature of the liquid in which the tissue is immersed. With this arrangement, the organ or tissue is maintained in a viable state when immersed in the cool liquid solution and may be removed from the receptacle to permit surgical procedures to be performed thereon without subjecting the living tissue to elevated temperatures for extending periods of time. Since the surgical procedure which are performed on the living tissue are located away from the general field of operation, it is necessary that the organ or tissue be maintained at a temperature at around zero degrees centigrade in order to be maintained in a viable condition. The present hypothermia surgical table is therefore especially adaptable for surgical techniques performed on organs which are to be transplanted.
These and other objects and advantages of this invention will more fully appear from the following descriptions made in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein like reference characters refer to the same or similar parts throughout the several views and in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the hypothermia surgical table;
FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view on an enlarged scale taken approximately along line 2-2 of FIG. 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows with certain parts thereof broken away for clarity;
FIG. 3 is a side elevational view taken approximately along line 33 of FIG. 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows; and
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of the various components of the refrigeration and cooling systems.
Referring now to the drawings and more specifically to FIG. 1 it will be seen that one embodiment of my novel hypothermia surgical table, designated generally by the reference numeral 10 is there shown. The hypothermia surgical table 10 includes a substantially rectangular 3,411,317 Ice Patented Nov. 19, 1968 shaped elongate flat table top 11 having a pair of leg structures 12 and 13 rigidly secured thereto and depending from the respective ends thereof. The leg structures 12 and 13 respectively are of similar generally rectangular shaped panel type construction and each leg is provided with a pair of caster type sockets 14 afiixed to the lower edge surface thereof to which are coupled conventional casters 15. The panel leg structures and table top are preferably formed of stainless steel and the surgical table is of a height corresponding to a height of conventional desks so that two persons may be seated at opposite longitudinal sides thereof and the upper surface 11a of the table top will be conveniently presented as a work surface.
The table top 11 has a centrally located circular opening 16 therein, this circular opening accommodating an upwardly opening cooling receptacle structure 17. The cooling receptacle structure 17 includes an inner receptacle member or liner 18 of generally cylindrical configuration and an outer receptacle member 19 also of generally cylindrical configuration and disposed in concentric relation with respect to the inner receptacle member 18.
The outer receptacle member is provided with an outturned annular flange 20 having suitable apertures therein and through which bolts 21 project. These bolts 21 threadedly engage threaded recesses formed in the other side of the table top 11 adjacent the circular opening 16. An annulus or ring member 22 is interposed between the lower surface of the table top 11 and the upper surface of the outturned annular flange 20 and this annulus or ring member 22 is also provided with a plurality of apertures therein through which the bolts 21 project. It will be noted that the annulus or ring member 22 has its outer exterior edge disposed in co-axial relation with respect to the outer edge of the outturned annular flange 20 but projects radially inwardly beyond the inner surface of the outer receptacle 19. An annular sealing element or gasket 23 is compressed between the outturned annular flange 20 and the annulus 22.
The inner receptacle member 18 is also provided with an outturned annular flange 24 which is positioned upon the upper surface of the annulus 22 and it will be noted that the openings defined by the annulus 22 is of a size to very snugly accommodate the exterior surface of the cylindrically shaped inner receptacle 18 therein. The inner receptacle 18 is provided with an annular shaped rim member 25 which is positioned upon the outturned annular flange 24 as best seen in FIG. 2. It will be noted that this annular rim member 25 has a substantially flat lower surface which engages the upper surface of the annular flange 24 and has an upper surface which tapers radially inwardly and upwardly from its outer marginal edge to a flat inner marginal edge portion. The annular rim member 25 is therefore of generally frusto conical cross sectional configuration. Thus it will be noted that the rim member 25 projects slightly upwardly above the upper surface 16 of the table top 11.
Referring again to FIG. 2 it will be noted that the inner receptacle member 18 is spaced concentrically of the interior surface of the outer receptacle member 19 so that a cooling chamber 26 is defined therebetween which is substantially sealed from the exterior. This cooling chamber has a liquid coolant circulated therethrough so that the saline solution contained within the interior of the inner receptacle member 18 will be maintained at a predetermined temperature. The liquid coolant may be any suitable liquid having a relatively low freezing point such as ethylene glycol or the like. The coolant is supplied to the cooling chamber 26 by a supply conduit 27 which has one end thereof connected in communicating relation to a pump 28, the other end of the conduit extending through an opening in the outer receptacle member 19 as best seen in FIGS. 2 and 4. Conduit 27 is connected in communicating relation to an annular distributing ring or pipe 29 positioned within the cooling chamber 26 and extending around but spaced radially outwardly from the inner receptacle member 18 adjacent the upper end portion of the chamber 26. The distributing ring 29 has a plurality of apertures 30 therein through which the liquid coolant is discharged. It will be seen that the lower wall 31 of the outer receptacle member 19 is of funnel shaped configuration and has a centrally located opening therein which is connected in communicating relation with one end of an elongate return conduit 32, the other of conduit 32 being connected in communicating relation to the pump 28. The pump 28 is of the rotary type and is driven by suitable electric motor 33 as best seen in FIG. 4. The outer receptacle 19 as well as the conduits 27 and 32 are provided with a suitable insulating material 34 to thermally insulate the conduits as well as the cooling chamber 26 from the exterior.
It will be noted that the pump 28 is mounted upon a support plate 35 which is positioned below the table top 11 and which is rigidly secured to the leg structure 12. The support plate 35 is also rigidly connected to a vertical plate 36 which projects downwardly from the table top and which is rigidly interconnected at its lower end to a lower plate 37 which in turn is rigidly affixed to the leg structure 13. The lower plate 37, vertical plate 36, the table top 11, leg structure 12, and side panels form a housing for a refrigeration unit which circulates a refrigerant through the cooling chamber 26 for cooling the liquid colant used to cool the saline solution within the inner receptacle member. The refrigeration unit includes a compressor 39, a condenser 40 which is cooled by a fan mechanism 41 all of which are of conventional construction in refrigeration systems. A fluid refrigerant, preferably Freon 12, is supplied through a conduit 42 which projects through an opening in the outer receptacle member 19 and forms a coil 43 in the cooling chamber 26 surrounding but spaced radially outwardly from the inner receptacle member 18. The upper end of the coil 43 projects outwardly through an opening in the outer receptacle member 19 and thereby defines a return or suction line conduit 44 as best seen in FIG. 4. The compressor 39 is interposed in the conduit 44 and the fluid refrigerant is thereafter returned to the condenser 40. The compressor 39 is adapted to run continuously when the hypothermia surgery table is being used and a bypass line or conduit 45 is provided for bypassing the condenser 40 when the temperature of the refrigerant reaches a predetermined temperature. A normally closed temperature responsive solenoid valve structure 46 is interposed in the bypass conduit 45 and when the temperature of the refrigerant reaches the predetermined value, the conduit 46 will be opened and allow the refrigerant to circulate freely through the compressor without having to pass through the condenser. The refrigeration system also includes a dryer 47 and an expansion valve 48 which are convention in refrigeration systems.
Although a number of electrical components are used in conjunction with the refrigeration and liquid coolant systems, it is felt that it is unnecessary to show the simple circuitry associated therewith. Electrical current is applied to the circuitry by means of suitable electrical conductor cables 49 provided with a conventional bayonet type male socket member 50. A control panel 51 is mounted below the table top 11 adjacent one side thereof and the control panel includes a switch 52 for energizing the electrical components of the refrigeration system including the motor for the fan 41 and the motor for the compressor 39. A switch 53 is also provided which controls operation of the pump motor 33. The control panel 51 is further provided with a rotary temperature control switch 54 which actually comprises a variable potentiometer which may be adjusted to control the temperature of the liquid coolant within the cooling chamber 26.
Although not shown in the drawing, the temperature control switch mechanism will be provided with a probe which extends into the cooling chamber 26 to sense the temperature of the coolant circulating therethrough and when the temperature reaches the preselected setting, the solenoid valve 46 will be opened and the refrigerant will be bypassed with respect to the compressor. When the temperature exceeds the preselected setting the solenoid 46 will be closed and the circulating refrigerant will be passed through the compressor to reduce the temperature of the refrigerant and to ultimately reduce the temperture of the coolant. As pointed out above, the coolant is preferably maintained at a temperature slightly below zero degrees centegrade so that the liquid saline solution 4 within the inner receptacle 18 is maintained at approximately zero degrees centigrade. Referring again to FIG. 1 it will be seen that the leg structure 12 has an opening therein which is provided with a trim ring and through which air is pulled over the cooling fins of the condenser 40 by the fan 41. The air is vented through the vent openings 56 located in the side panels 57 that enclose opposite sides of the refrigeration system.
During use of the hypothermia surgical table, the living tissue or organ to be transplanted will be immersed in the saline solution located in the inner container 18. The temperature of the solution will be maintained at approximately zero degrees centigracle by the circulating coolant which is circulated by the pump 28. To this end it will be seen that the liquid coolant is uniformly discharged from the distributor ring 30 over the refrigerant coils 43 so that the coolant is constantly cooled by a heat exchange action as it passes over these cooling coils. In the event that the organ or tissue is to be transplanted it is necessary in some occasions to perform certain surgical procedures on the organ or tissue and these procedures are normally done away from the general field of operation.
The organ or tissue may be maintained in a cooled condition at a temperature of approximately zero degrees centigracle as soon as the tissue or organ is removed from the animal, and this organ may be removed from the receptacle when it is desirable to perform surgical procedures thereon and may be returned thereto in preparation of transplanting the same. Thus the hypothermia surgical table not only permits users to have a conveniently located work surface, but the cooling receptacle is operable to maintain the temperature of the organ or tissue at that preselected temperature which allows living organs or tissues may be maintained in a viable condition. The slightly elevated configuration of the rim member of the double wall cooling receptacle serves to prevent liquid material from flowing into the receptacle and contaminating the same. The conveniently located control panel permits a user to readily initiate operation of the cooling receptacle and the temperature control switch mechanism permits selected adjustment of the temperature of the saline solution and organ or tissue located therein.
Thus it will be seen that we have provided a novel hypothermia surgical table which is not only of simple and inexpensive construction but one which functions in a more eflicient manner than any heretofore known comparable device.
It will, of course, be understood that various changes may be made in the form, details, arrangement and proportion of the various parts without departing from the scope of my invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A hypothermia operating table device for performing surgical procedures on living tissues and organs which are to be transplanted and in which the surgical procedures are to be performed at-a location distal with respect to the operating field, said device comprising a plurality of vertical supporting leg structures and a table top mounted on said leg structures and having a substantially flat horizontal planar upper surface, said table top having a generally centrally located opening therein, an upwardly opening double wall receptacle including an upwardly opening outer cylindrical member and an upwardly opening inner liner member spaced inwardly from said outer member to define a cooling chamber between said members which is sealed from the exterior, said inner member adapted to contain a saline solution therein, means mounting said receptacle on said table top so that the interior of said inner liner member communicates with said opening in the table top and the upper peripheral edge portion of said inner liner member is substantially co-extensive with the upper surface of said table top, conduit means connected in communicating relation with said cooling chamber and being connected to a source of suitable liquid coolant, pump means interposed in said coolant conduit means for circulating coolant through the cooling chamher, a refrigeration unit mounted on said table and including a refrigeration conduit containing a suitable fluid refrigerant and extending into said cooling chamber to form a helical coil around said inner liner member, said refrigeration unit including means for cooling and circulating the fluid refrigerant through refrigerant conduit whereby the liquid coolant will be cooled as it flows over the helical coil in said cooling chamber.
2. The surgical table device as defined in claim 1 wherein said coolant conduit is connected in communicating relation to an annular distributor ring member positioned within said cooling chamber adjacent the upper end thereof and having a plurality of distributor apertures therein to permit the liquid coolant to be discharged uniformly into the cooling chamber and over the helical coils therein.
3. The surgical table device as defined in claim 1 wherein the inner liner member of the double wall receptacle has an upper peripheral rim which tapers radially upwardly and inwardly from that upper surface portion of the table top which circumscribes the opening therein.
4. The surgical table device as defined in claim 1 and a variously adjustable temperature control mechanism mounted on said table and being adjustable to adjust operation of said refrigeration unit and thereby permit control cooling of the liquid coolant.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,846,190 2/1932 Dyer 62-393 2,504,217 4/1950 Nelson 62-458 X 2,825,338 3/1958 Schnepf, et a1 128402 2,182,032 12/1939 Muller 62-258 X FOREIGN PATENTS 540,209 12/ 1931 Germany.
RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner.
J. YASKO, Assistant Examiner.