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Publication numberUS3411331 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 19, 1968
Filing dateJan 10, 1967
Priority dateJan 10, 1967
Publication numberUS 3411331 A, US 3411331A, US-A-3411331, US3411331 A, US3411331A
InventorsSchlage Ernest L
Original AssigneeSchlage Lock Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Axial pin cylinder device
US 3411331 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

E. L. SCHLAGE AXIAL PIN CYLINDER DEVICE Nov, 19, 1968 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 10, 1967 INVENTOR. Eels 57 4, Joana:

M z W firrozviyi Nov. 19, 1968 Q L, SCHLAGE 3,411,331

AXIAL PIN CYLINDER DEVICE Filed Jan. 10, 1967 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. [PA 5.57 450 4445 BY M;

Nov. 19, 1968 E. L. SCHLAGE 3,411,331

AXIAL PIN CYLINDER DEVICE Filed Jan. 10, 1967 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 1 4 {5 4 '4 2 f 9 9 i6 W QM I 4k X152? 7 VENTOR. Ei/VES 50 2405 irrakwiyi Nov. 19, 1968 E. L. SCHLAGE 3,411,331

AXIAL PIN CYLINDER DEVICE Filed Jan. 10, 1967 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. ie/visr Lit/#06! Arne/Vin;

United States Patent 3,411,331 AXIAL PIN CYLINDER DEVICE Ernest L. Schlage, Burlingame, Calif., assignor to Schlage Lock Company, a corporation Filed Jan. 10, 1967, Ser. No. 608,379 Claims. (Cl. 70-363) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A pin tumbler locking unit having a cylindrical housing enclosing three axially aligned barrels having axially extending pin tumbler bores arranged around and, in the front two barrels, communicating through radial channels with a central axially extending bore. Spring-pressed pin tumblers are movable in the pin tumbler bores into positions shearing between the first two barrels and the second and third barrels by a key having a central rod and radial vanes of different axial lengths. The proper key passes a rotatable slotted annulus and rotates a lock driver clutched to the front barrel or the second barrel.

My invention relates to means, operable by a key, for rendering eifective a lock unit held against operation in the absence of the key.

Many lock units employ pin tumbler mechanisms 0perated by keys or placing the lock unit in locked or unlocked condition. There are certain disadavntages in connection with the type of pin tumbler mechanism presently most widely utilized. The tumbler pins are usually lined up in a single radial plane and are housed in a vane extending radially from the cylindrical body of the pin and tumbler unit. This produces an asymmetrical device not easy to incorporate in the accompanying lock unit mechanism. Also, there is a demand for an easy way for an authorized person, not necessarily a locksmith, to change the pin tumbler arrangement in a lock unit so that a certain key or keys, at one time effective, are subsequently ineffective, whereas other, additional keys then become effective.

Another drawback in many present arrangements is that the interrelationship between ordinary keys and master keys produces difficulty in the pin tumbler arrangement and disposition. A further restriction is that the number of different keying arrangements is usually limited by physical, construction requirements to a relatively small number.

It is therefore an object of my invention to provide an axial pin cylinder device in which the pin tumbler mechanism is incorporated in a generally symmetrical envelope.

Another object of the invention is to provide an axial pin cylinder device in which the arrangement of the tumbler pins can be altered from time to time merely by the use of a special key and without requiring the professional disassembly and reassembly of the pin tumbler unit.

Another object of the invention is to provide an axial pin cylinder device in which the ordinary keys and the master keys have their functions well separated so that the pin tumbler arrangement is a satisfactory one.

Another object of the invention is to provide a mechanism which can easily be fabricated for a large number of different keying arrangements.

Another object of the invention is in general to provide an improved lock unit.

Other objects of the invention together with the foregoing are attained in the embodiment of the invention described in the accompanying description and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of a portion of a lock unit incorporating my axial pin cylinder device, portions ice being broken away to disclose some of the interior construction;

FIGURE 2 is a side elevation of a key adapted to enter the mechanism of FIGURE 1, portions of the key bow being removed to reduce the size of the figure;

FIGURE 3 is an exploded view in isometric perspective of a portion of the axial pin cylinder device of the invention;

FIGURE 4 is a cross section to an enlarged scale, the plane of section being indicated by the line 4-4 of FIG- URE 2 and a key being shown in position within the lock unit;

FIGURE 5 is an exploded view in isometric perspective similar to FIGURE 3 but showing the interrelation ship of additional parts;

FIGURE 6 is a cross section, to an enlarged scale, of an axial pin cylinder device pursuant to the invention, the view being taken on an axial plane;

FIGURE 7 is a cross section on the plane 7--7 of FIGURE 6;

FIGURE 8 is a cross section on the plane 8-8 of FIGURE 6;

FIGURE 9 is a cross section on the plane 9-9 of FIGURE 6, a portion thereof being broken away to reduce the figure size;

FIGURE 10 is a view, similar to FIGURE 6, showing the axial pin cylinder device in a normal, unactuated position;

FIGURE 11 is a similar view showing the position of the interior parts when an ordinary key is engaged therewith;

FIGURE 12 is a similar view showing the position of the parts when a master key is engaged therewith;

FIGURE 13 is a similar view showing the interior parts when a change or setting key is engaged therewith;

FIGURE 14 is a front elevation of a knob with the locking unit therein; and

FIGURE 15 is a cross section, the plane of which is indicated by the line 15-15 of FIGURE 2.

One form of the invention is preferably incorporated in a lock unit 6 of any standard kind, including the customary mechanism and mounted on a door 7. The lock unit has a knob 8 rotatable with respect to an escutcheon 9 around a transverse axis 11. The knob 8 has a central exterior depression 12 for the accommodation of an appropriate lock mechanism, and the structure also includes an actuated device 13 which can be operated to move the latch or lock bolt (not shown) with which the lock unit 6 is provided, thus to lock or unlock the door.

The knob 8 is customarily mounted on a hollow, cylindrical spindle 14 extending coaxially with the axis 11 and serving as a support for the accompanying structure. The spindle 14 customarily has a groove 16 extending axially inwardly from one end thereof.

Designed to fit within the interior of the spindle 14 is a circular cylindrical housing 21 having an inturned flange 22 at its outer end and having a pair of notches 23 and 24 at its inward end as Well as a groove 26 around the interior of the housing intersecting the notches 23 and 24.

Designed to be disposed within the housing coaxially with the axis 11 is a driver 31. This includes an integral driver bar 32 outside of the housing designed to interengage with the lock part 13. Rotation of the driver and driver bar causes corresponding rotation of the lock part. Within the housing, the driver 31 has a circular cylindrical portion 33 spaced from an exterior disk 34 by an intervening groove 36. A pair of semicircular keepers 37 and 38 extend into the groove 36. The keeper 37 has a radial tab 41 designed to be seated within the notch 23 to prevent rotation of the keeper with respect to the housing and also, because of the presence of a removable snap ring 42 in the groove 26, to preclude axial displacement of the keeper. In a somewhat similar fashion, the tab 41 is not only long enough to occupy the notch 23, but also long enough to extend outwardly into the passage 16 in the spindle 14. Thus the housing 21 is made to take the position of the spindle 14. The keepers also are effective to maintain the axial relationship of the driver 31 with respect to the housing 21 while permitting relative rotation therebetween.

The driver 31 has an axially extending cylindrical bore 44 which is spanned near one open end of the bore by a diametrical pin 46. Designed to move axially within the bore 44 is a clutch member 47 itself generally circular cylindrical and movable along the axis 11 since the clutch member in its cylindrical portion has a cross notch 48 of substantially greater axial length than the diameter of the pin 46. The pin 46 thus serves as a stop for extreme motion of the clutch member with respect to the driver, but since the wall 49 of the notch is substantially in contact with the pin 46, the driver and clutch member are held against rotation relative to each other.

At its forward end the clutch member is contoured to provide a clutch dog 51, very much like a gear Wheel,

which serves as an abutment for a helical spring 52 surrounding the cylindrical body of the clutch member and resting against the forward face of the driver 31, so that normally the clutch member and the driver are urged axially apart, as shown in FIGURE 6.

Occupying the forward portion of the housing 21 in engagement with the dog clutch 51 is a first barrel 53 in the shape of a circular cylinder coaxial with the axis 11 and designed to rotate within the housing 21. The first barrel 53 has an axially extending boss 54 at one end thereof long enough to project beyond the flange 22 of the housing. In the first barrel 53 are axially extending first pin bores 56 extending entirely through the barrel with their axes parallel to the axis 11 and arranged uniformly or equidistantly around the interior of the first barrel. The first pin bores are of a diameter sufiicient to receive the customary tumbler pins and vary in number in individual instances. In the present instance there are eight first pin bores in the first barrel 53.

In addition to the pin bores, the first barrel also has a generally circular cylindrical central bore 58 extending axially therethrough. Intercommunication between the various first pin bores 56 and the central bore 58 is established by a number of individual, first radial channels 59 which extend entirely through the first barrel and afford free openings between a portion of each of the various first pin bores and the central bore 58, for example. The provision of the various first radial channels in the boss 54 results in a number of stub fingers 61 projecting beyond the flange 22. The various radially extending channels 59 are of a size and position readily to receive the teeth 62 provided around the periphery of the dog clutch 51. When the dog clutch is in engagement with the walls of the various radial channels 59 in the first barrel 53, that barrel is locked, through the clutch member 47 and the pin 46, with the driver 31.

In a somewhat similar fashion, there is disposed within the housing 21 and next to the first barrel 53 a second barrel 71 of a similar construction having the same plurality of axially extending second pin bores 72 therein designed in one position of the second barrel 71 with respect to the first barrel 53 to be in axial alignment with the respective ones of the various first pin bores 56. Also, the center bore 58 is continued by a similar second bore 73 extending axially through the second barrel. The second central bore 73 is connected With the various ones of the second pin bores 72 by a series of second radial channels 74 extending axially through the second barrel and in one position thereof being adapted to align axially with the first barrel channels 59. The teeth 62 of the clutch dog 51 when shifted axially from the position shown in FIGURE 6 to the right can interengage with the walls of the various second radial channels 74 so that under these circumstances the spring 52 is slightly compressed, the first barrel 53 is released from its connection to the clutch member 47 and the second barrel 71 is then connected through the clutch member 47 and the pin 46 to the driver 31.

Disposed Within the housing 21 adjacent the second barrel 71 is a third barrel 81 at one end abutting the second barrel 71 and at the other end abutting the two keepers 37 and 38. The third barrel is provided with a number of axially extending third pin bores 82 extending therethrough and in one position of the third barrel with respect to the second barrel designed to be in alignment with the second bores 72 therein. The third barrel 81 also has a central bore 83 concentric with the axis 11 and opening onto the second bore 73 but of a larger diameter to accommodate rotatably the driver 31.

In order that the third barrel 81 will be held against rotation within the housing 21, each of the keepers 37 and 38 is provided with axially extending bosses 86 and 87 designed to lie within two diametrically opposite bores 82.

Freely slidable in an axial direction within the first bores 56, the second bores 72 and the third bores 82 are first tumbler pins 91, second tumbler pins 92 and third tumbler pins 93. These pins are slightly bevelled at their opposite ends and are made in various lengths to occupy some or all of the available space within the aligned bores. The third tumbler pins 93 have projections 94 thereon. These seat within one end of helical springs 96 which at their other end rest against the bosses 86 and 87 or against the surface of the keepers 37 and 38. The series of springs 96, one in each of the third bores 82, is effective to urge the associated tumbler pins 91, 92 and 93 in each one of the eight bores toward the left in FIGURE 6 or toward the front of the housing.

Since the flange 22 does not offer any obstruction, the first pins 91 are kept from ejection from the mechanism by an annulus 101 rotatable with considerable friction within the interior of the housing 21 and against the flange 22. The annulus has a diameter so that substantially half of each of the ends of the first bores 56 is obstructed. The annulus 101 thus serves as a forward stop for the first pins 91 but leaves substantially half of each pin exposed. The annulus 101 is not a complete circle, but preferably has an axially extending, radial notch 102 therein, the notch having a Width approximately equal to the width of any one of the first radial channels 59.

To cooperate with and form part of the mechanism already described, one or more key mechanisms are provided. One form of key, as shown in FIGURES 2 and 11, is an ordinary key 111 having a bow 112 of the customary kind and having an axially extending, generally circular stern 113 carrying a circular stop collar 114 next to the bow 112. The stem 113 is approximately of the diameter of the central bore 58 and is freely slidable therein until the stop 114 abuts the end of the boss 54. Projecting radially from and extending axially along the stem 113 are ridges 116 positioned to correspond with the various first radial channels in a circumferential direction and having various different lengths in an axial direction. The radial extent of the various ridges 116 is sufficient so that the ridges can pass readily within the annulus 101 and extend against the exposed portions of the first pins 91 and can displace those pins in variable amounts, depending upon the axial length of the individual ridges. However, one of the ridges, 118, has a greater radial extent and cannot pass the annulus 101 unless the key is turned so that the radially long ridge 118 can pass through the slot 102 and then engage an appropriate one of the first end pins 91.

When the key is introduced axially, the various length ridges engage the various pins 91 and translate them more or less to the right in FIGURE 6, compressing the various springs 96 through the intermediary of the second pins 92 and third pins 93 until all or most of the pins take up new axial positions. The length of the pins 92 and 93 and the length of the pins 91 are so chosen that when the appropriate one of the ordinary keys 111 18 so introduced the meeting or shear surfaces between all of the second pins 92 and all of the third pins 93 coincide with the shear surface between the second barrel 71 and the third barrel 81 as shown in FIGURE 11. Under those circumstances, when the key is so positioned and rotated, the first barrel 53 and the second barrel 71 are simultaneously rotated therewith and through the connecting mechanism, including the dog clutch 51, turn the driver bar 32. This actuates the lock. When the key is to be with drawn, it is first rotated back to its initial position so that the long ridge 118 can be withdrawn through the slot 102. Thereupon the parts all return to their initial position substantially as shown in FIGURE 10. In that position some, at least, of the various pins straddle or lie across the meeting surfaces or shear surfaces between the successive barrels. Since the third barrel 81 is locked to the stationary housing the lock unit cannot be turned by means of the driver 31.

In some instances it is desired to operate the lock mechanism by means of a master key. In that instance, as shown in FIGURE 12, there is provided a master key 121 constructed very much like the key 111 except that it is arranged with its various radial ridges 122 of such lengths that they displace all of the first pins 91 to a new position. In that position the meeting or shear surfaces between the ends of the first pins and the adjacent second pins 92 coincide with the shear plane between the first barrel 53 and the second barrel 71. Since the dog clutch 51 is still in engagement with the first barrel 53, rotation of the driver 31 occurs despite the fact that some of the third pins 93, for example, may still straddle the shear surfaces between the second barrel 71 and the third barrel 81. Thus, ordinary keys operate in conjunction with a shear surface between the second and third barrels. whereas master keys operate in conjunction with a shear surface between the first and second barrels. In this manner, the master keying is not in any way affected by or complicated by the provision of the ordinary keys and vice versa.

Under some circumstances, it is desired to change the internal relationship of the parts of the mechanism so that different keying may be made effective. As particularly shown in FIGURE 13, a setting or shift key 131 may be employed. This is like the keys 111 and 121 except that it has a relatively long shank 133 otherwise like the shank 113. When this shift key is inserted into the central passage or bore, it displaces the clutch member 47 to the right so that the spring 52 is somewhat compressed and the clutch dog 51 is moved from engagement with the first barrel 53 into engagement with the second barrel 71. This movement simultaneously frees the first barrel 53 but leaves the second barrel locked to the third barrel by the third tumbler pins and makes them nonrotatable.

Upon rotation of the change or setting key 131 and because of the interengagement of relatively long ridge 134 thereon with the slot 102, the first barrel 53 and the annulus 101 are both rotated. The lengths of the various ridges on the change key 131 are substantially equivalent to those on a master key, so that there are shear surfaces provided between all of the first pins 91 and all of the second pins 92. Thus the change key can rotate the first barrel into a new position. In fact, the barrel can be rotated into any one of seven new positions and back to its original location, making eight in all, if desired. When rotation has been accomplished, the setting key 131 is withdrawn in whatever selected one of the eight positions it is desired to do so. This leaves the clutch dog 51 free to spring back under the urgency of the spring 52 into engagement with the first barrel. Since the annulus 101 has been rotated to the new position, the slot 102 is now in a new location. Consequently, even the introduction of the original ordinary key 111 is not effective to produce rotation. The various columns of pins in the new location do not respond with properly positioned shear surfaces because the combined length of the three pins in each of the columns is made up of different components. However, the introduction of a master key 121, albeit in the new rotated location, is still effective since there always remains a shear plane between the first pins 91 and the second pins 92.

As a further variation, there can be provided a special setting key, shown by the dotted lines 141 in FIGURE 13. This is generally the same as the key 131 except that it has an unusually "short ridge 134. When this key is utilized, it does not materially depress the first pin 91 from its ordinary position, but affords only sufficient depression of the first pin 91 and of the second pin 92 so that shear surfaces are provided between the right end of the second pin 92 and the left end of the third pin 93 in this position. Then when the first barrel is turned, the pin 92, which was at one time in one column, is bodily rotated within the first barrel into a new position in alignment with another column. Then if the key 141 is withdrawn the lock can then be operated either with the master key 121 or with a new ordinary key like the key 111 but in this position cut so that both the pins 91 and 92 can move with the first barrel 53 with shear surfaces between the pins 92 and 93. In this fashion, by appropriate rotation of the second kind of setting key 141, the pin 92 can be moved from column to column and into eight different positions around the axis of the device.

So that any one of the keys 111, 121, 131 or 141 can be properly oriented in a rotational sense after the spindle 113 has been partially introduced into the rest of the mechanism, there is provided on the spindle and in advance of the ridges 116 a stop 144 of some axial extent and of sufficient circumferential extent so as to overlie at least one of the channels 59 and to overlie an adjacent pair of fingers 61. Two of the fingers, at least, are cut back so that when the key is properly oriented with respect to the first barrel 53 the stop 44 can slide inwardly, but in only one position relative to the barrel. In this fashion when the user inserts the key he can insert it at random so far as the stop 144 is concerned and then by rotating the key farther with some inward pressure until the stop 144 slides into its channel, he will then have the correct orientation in a polar direction between the ridges 116 and the appropriate ones of the various first channels 59.

What is claimed is:

1. An axial pin cylinder device comprising a circular cylindrical housing having a central axis, a first barrel disposed within one end of said housing and rotatable therein about said axis, means forming a plurality of axially extending first pin bores through said first barrel and arranged around said axis, means forming an axially extending first central bore through said first barrel and axially extending first radial channels interconnecting said first central bore and each of said first pin bores, a second barrel disposed within said housing adjacent said first barrel and rotatable therein about said axis, means forming a plurality of axially extending second pin bores through said second barrel adapted in one position of said second barrel to align with said first pin bores, means forming an axially extending second central bore through said second barrel and axially extending second radial channels interconnecting said second central bore and each of said second pin bores, a third barrel disposed within the other end of said housing and rotatable therein about said axis, means forming a plurality of axially extending third pin bores through said third barrel adapted in one position of said third barrel to align with said second pin bores, means forming an axially extending third central bore through said third barrel, a driver rotatably mounted Within said third central bore, means for constraining said driver against axial translation within said third central bore, a clutch member movable axiall-y within said first central bore and said second central bore,

means on said clutch member adapted to interengage said first radial channels and said second radial channels, means for interconnecting said clutch member and said driver for relative axial translation and against relative rotation, a column including at least two tumbler pins in at least one passage including said first, second and third pin bores, and means for urging said tumbler pins toward one end of said housing.

2. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 1 including an annulus disposed Within said housing between said first barrel and said one end of said housing and rotatable about said axis, said annulus overlying a portion only of each of said first pin bores.

3. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 2 in which said annulus has means forming a radial gap extending axially therethrough.

4. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 2 including means on said first barrel between at least some of said first radial channels projecting axially through the open center of said annulus.

5. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 4 in which said projecting means are on said first barrel between only some of said first radial channels.

6. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 2 in which said annulus engages said housing With sufiicient friction to hold said annulus against accidental rotation about said axis.

7. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 1 in which means are provided for urging said clutch member toward said one end of said housing.

8. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 1 in which means are provided for urging said pin tumblers toward said one end of said housing.

9. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 7 including means for axially displacing said clutch member against said urging means from a position within said first barrel into a position within said second barrel.

10. An axial pin cylinder device as in claim 9 in which said displacing means also axially displaces said pin tumblers.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,170,205 8/1939 Lombardo 70363 3,258,944 7/1966 Kerr 70372 3,339,384 9/1967 Greewald 70-3 63 MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner.

R. L. WOLFE, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2170205 *Jun 29, 1938Aug 22, 1939Sydney RothLock construction
US3258944 *Jun 26, 1964Jul 5, 1966Chicago Lock CoAssembly jig for facilitating lock tumbler change-over operations
US3339384 *Jul 6, 1965Sep 5, 1967Harry SilberglaitTumbler lock
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3738136 *Jun 6, 1972Jun 12, 1973Fort Lock CorpSystem for master keying axial pin tumbler locks
US3756049 *Aug 19, 1971Sep 4, 1973Chicago Lock CoAxial pin tumbler lock assembly and combination reset key therefor
US3961507 *Jan 17, 1975Jun 8, 1976Fork Lock CorporationResettable axial pin tumbler lock
US4653297 *Jul 21, 1986Mar 31, 1987Moorhouse John HInterior barrier lock structure
US5163310 *Nov 21, 1991Nov 17, 1992Cheeng Iu Industrial Co., Ltd.Cylindrical lock structure
US6499660Jan 24, 2002Dec 31, 2002John H. MoorhouseOptical security system
US6550299 *Apr 15, 2002Apr 22, 2003Sheng-Ting LinCylinder lock adaptable for different keys
US6764007Oct 9, 2002Jul 20, 2004John H. MoorhouseOptical security system
US6957556 *Jun 30, 2004Oct 25, 2005Don Dongcho HaDisk tumbler lock and key, improved means and methods of manufacturing for
US7073708Mar 1, 2005Jul 11, 2006John H. MoorhouseOptical security system
US7108182Feb 6, 2004Sep 19, 2006John H. MoorhouseOptical security system
USRE28319 *Jul 10, 1974Jan 28, 1975 Combination reset key therefor
EP0066534A2 *May 14, 1982Dec 8, 1982Roger ParlierCylinder lock
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/491, 70/382
International ClassificationE05B27/08, E05B27/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B27/083
European ClassificationE05B27/08B