|Publication number||US3411512 A|
|Publication date||Nov 19, 1968|
|Filing date||May 31, 1966|
|Priority date||May 31, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3411512 A, US 3411512A, US-A-3411512, US3411512 A, US3411512A|
|Inventors||Johnson Wayne A|
|Original Assignee||Wayne A. Johnson|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (2), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 19, 1968 w. A. JOHNSON ,5
ELECTROLYTIC TOBACCO SMOKE FILTER Filed May 31, 1966 22 M Wm! 22 76 3. WAYNE ,4. JOHNSON IN VEN TOR.
A TTUPNE) United States Patent 3,411,512 ELECTROLYTIC TOBACCO SMOKE FILTER Wayne A. Johnson, 501 Dana Lane, Houston, Tex. 77024 Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 129,054,
Aug. 3, 1961. This application May 31, 1966, Ser.
8 Claims. (Cl. 131-105) This application is a continuationin-part of application Ser. No. 129,054, filed Aug. 3, 1961, for Electrolytic Filter, now abandoned.
This invention relates to a filter and more particularly to a filter of dissimilar metals so disposed with relation to each other that an electrolytic action takes place between adjacent filter parts of dissimilarity whereby the depositable portion of the matter to be filtered is precipitated or impinged between the metals.
As a primary object this invention sets out to employ dissimilar metals as filter material by any arrangement whereby the dissimilar metals may be disposed with relation to each other in such manner that the depositable portion of material to be filtered is trapped .or held between dissimilar metal parts at least. in par-t due to the electrolytic action occurring between adjacent dissimilar metal parts.
It is also another and most improtant object of the invention to provide a filter of this class in which a metal higher in the elcetro-chemical series, as magnesium, aluminum or zinc comprises one of the dissimilar metals of an electrolytic tobacco smoke filter, while a metal lower in the electro-chemical series, as copper or silver comprises the other of the dissimilar metals.
It is still a further object of the invention to provide an electrolytic tobacco smoke filter of this class in which atmospheric moisture and the combustion of the tobacco result in reactions creating acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid and carbonic acid electrolytes which contribute in precipitating or filtering injurious elements in the smoke.
Other and further objects will be apparent when the specification herein is considered in connection with the drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing generally the components of a cigarrete employing a filter comprising this invention;
FIG. 2 is a front elevational view of a filter element comprised of one form of metal employed in an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a sectional bottom view taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a front elevational view of a filter element comprised of another form of metal cooperative in a filter with the filter element shown in FIGS. 2 and 3;
' FIG. 5 is a sectional bottom view taken along lines 5-5 of FIG. 4; and
, FIG. 6 is a fragmentary side elevational view of the filter elements shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, and in FIGS. 4 and '5, arranged alternatively to demonstrate spacing and disposition in a filter.
Referring-in detail to the drawingsin which like reference numerals are assigned to like elements in the various views, a cigarette 26 is shown in FIG. 1 comprising a mouthpiece or filter 10 which is connected by conventional means as indicated by the dotted line 27 to a sheath 28 which encloses the tobacco 30 of the cigarette. The sheath 13 of the filter 10 is shown as extending beyond the filter 10 to provide an overextending end 29 filled with a conventional substance such as a fiber, as cotton or pith. Y
Also, any material may be used which may act as a closure for the filter parts or elements while also protecting the lips of the smoker from coming into contact with the metal filter parts or elements to be hereinbelow described.
Exemplary of filter constituency and construction, the metals are in such close proximity that a strong electrolytic action may take place across the limited space therebetween while yet such space is ample to permit the matter not intended to be deposited by electrolytic action to pass through.
For example, two dissimilar metals, such as copper and aluminum may be formed into substantially round plates which may be relatively interpositioned or alternately disposed as filter elements or components spaced so that the plates or dissimilar metals are in very close proximity. In order that matter to be filtered may pass through, the plates may have perforations therein which may preferably be disposed in staggered relation to the perforations in the adjacent plates of dissimilar metal.
As shown in FIGS. 2-6, inclusive, plates 14 and 16 of dissimilar metals are provided to be stacked one against the other. Such plates or discs are provided in a manner that knocked out parts or projections 22 extend outwardly on one side beyond the surface of the disc, as indicated in FIGS. 3, 5 and 6. In this manner when the plates of dissimilar metals are stacked alternately in a filter sheath or mouthpiece 10 in the of cigarette usage, the protrusions or extensions 22 space the plates one from the other, so that consequently when the plates are packed to comprise a filter the smoke or materials to be filtered will pass through the projection 22 and into the space between plates, except for that one or two projections having the largest extension.
At the same time, because of the electrolytic action of the dissimilar metals, the materials desired precipitated out of the matter to be filtered will be collected around the extension or projections and between the dissimilar plates of metal.
In the practice of the invention, the dissimilar metals may be of the thinnest gauge or of minimal thickness in cigarette filters. When the invention is used in filtering tobacco, the warm moist tobacco smoke passes through successive layers or parts of dissimilar metals and the dissimilar metallic plates or particles provide a conductive medium for the flow of electric current caused by the electrolyte obviously provided by the products of combustion and this results in a chemical breakdown of the tobacco tars and acids and their resultant precipitation or deposition on the metallic surfaces. Thus, the tobacco tars and acids do not reach the smokers mouth, while, at the same time, the condensation on the metallic parts cools the smoke that is not deposited and which passes on through the lips of the smoker. Thus, as aforesaid, the electrical current flow between dissimilar metals breaks down or changes the chemical and/or physical nature of the products of combustion.
In reiteraive detail, when tobacco, an organic substance in cigarette or cigar form, is lit to be smoked, organic matter, as burned, sets free water to flow through the cigarette toward the mouth of the smoker, as carried along with atmospheric air and the moisture content thereof.
As the moisture laden smoke enters the filter comprised of the two alternately disposed, dissimilar metals, which thus comprise a succession of electro-chemical filter cells, as, for instance, cells with cathode areas of copper and with anode areas of aluminum, the major acid solutions (diluted by the water set free by the combustion of the tobacco plus atmospheric moisture), resulting from combustion of. the tobacco comprise acetic, citric, oxalic and carbonic acid, react with the electrolytic metal higher in the electro-chemical series (aluminum), respectively to form aluminum acetate, aluminum citrate, aluminum oxalate, and aluminum bicarbonate, while setting free in each case six positive hydrogen charges to be counterpoised against copper as the electrolyte standing lower in the electro-chemical series.
The effectiveness of filters as hereinabove described can be compared with the effectiveness of conventional tobacco smoke filters simply by smoking equal weights of the same type of tobacco through conventional tobacco filters and through filters following this invention, and comparing the weight increases resulting from smoking through the two types of filters. In numerous tests the filters following the hereinabove described invention showed substantially greater weight increases after smoking therethrough than did some conventional types of cigare.te filters, the same kind and weight of tobacco being smoked in each case. Further comparisons could be made of the smoke after passing through the comparative filters, with the smoke from the said conventional filters appearing darker and thus heavier in all cases. Also, the precipitated and filtered materials in the comparative filters showed that the filters of this invention had gathered much more nicotine tars and other undesirable tobacco components than had the said conventional filters.
The metals which may serve best as the higher electrochemical series metals are magnesium, aluminum and zinc which replace hydrogen from water and dilute acids and which form stable oxides. Of these three, aluminum, which can best be obtained inexpensively in thin foil form for processing into filter form, serves best in most cases, although magnesium can also serve for certain requirements, and zinc may be used in rare instances in special types of service.
The metals which may serve best as the lower electrochemical series metals are copper, bismuth and silver, but with copper in actuality being predominantly selectable for most usages. All of these metals have the characteristic of being susceptible to attack by oxidizing acids.
The form of filter hereinabove described and disclosed in FIGS. 25 of the drawings, is susceptible to numerous variations. For instance, a form of filter disclosed in the parent application Ser. No. 129,054, filed Aug. 3, 1961, may serve with the alternately disposed metals being provided in respective accordions of successively adjoined, substantially circular, perforate foil plates, the respective accordions being inter-fitted to dispose alternately the plates of dissimilar metals, thus to provide a succession of electrolytic filter cells when in the presence of moisture and water from the smoked tobacco.
Also, a form of filter as disclosed in the parent application Ser. No. 129,054, filed Aug. 3, 1961, may serve with the alternately disposed elements comprising portions, particles, or fragments of two or more dissimilar metals, as for instance, copper and aluminum, theelements being mixed in manner that equivalent opposed plate surfaces of the dissimilar metals are disposed in adjacency, thus to provide a succession of slightly spaced apart electrolytic filter cells to react in the presence of moisture and of the water liberated from the smoked tobacco.
Especially, it is pointed out that the invention may have application to cigars as well as cigarettes, the outer leaf structure around the inner tobacco elements of the cigar being the equivalent of the sheath 28 shown in FIG. 1 in defining the form of the cigar and as to channelizing the smoke rearwardly. In this case of cigar usage, a filter sheath comparable to the filter sheath 13 shown in FIGS. 1 and 6 would have to be provided to contain the two dissimilar metals in filter disposition, and thus such filter would have to be connected to the rear end of the cigar tobacco in co-axial extension therewith.
The invention can be applied to the filtering of burned gasoline smoke by providing alternate dispositions of dissimilar metals across the path of flow of burnt gases, as in the automobile exhaust pipe, intermediate the ends thereof. Also, as another example, a massive usage can be made of the invention by disposing an arrangement of dissimilar metals in the form of a filter housing in smokestacks, lines, and the like, thus to filter out smoke components, as in cities now beset with smog problems.
What is claimed is:
i 1. In combination with an elongated portion of tobacco comprising a combustible tobacco outer end with smoke passage space therethrough, the improvement including an inner, expendable filter end comprising a non-metallic, insulative mouthpiece for connection in rearward extension of the combustible tobacco outer end, said mouthpiece having at least two dissimilar metals adapted in disposition therein across the path of smoke movement rearwardly into the mouth of the smoker, said dissimilar metals comprising metals relatively higher and relatively lower in the electrochemical series, said dissimilar metals having elements thereof substantially alternately disposed to provide equivalent opposed perforate plate surfaces slightly separated by integral extensions to admit smoke passage through a substantial succession of electrolytic filter cells thus provided by said elements, whereby the tars, nicotines, and other injurious components of the smoked tobacco are precipitated upon said elements by the electrolytic and catalytic action thus occurring and substantially purified smoke passes into the mouth of the smoker.
2. The combination as claimed in claim 1 in which said elongated portion of tobacco comprises a cigar.
3. The combination as claimed in claim 1 in which said elongated portion of tobacco comprises a cigarette with said outer end being substantially cylindrical and including a combustible, cylinder forming sheath therearound.
4. The comhination as claimed in claim 1 in which the alternately disposed elements are selected, respectively, from higher electrochemical series metals from the group which replace hydrogen from water and dilute acids, said metals consisting of magnesium, aluminum and zinc, and from lower electro-chemical series metals from the group which are attacked by oxidizing acids, said lower electro-chemical series metals consisting of copper, bismuth and silver.
5. The combination as claimed in claim 1 in which the alternately disposed elements are selected, respectively, from copper and from higher electro-chemical series metals consisting of magnesium and aluminum from the group which replaces hydrogen from water and dilute acids.
6. The combination as claimed in claim 1 in which said mouthpiece includes forwardly the filter sheath for said elements and rearwardly a part which is contacted by the lips of the smoker.
7. The combination as claimed in claim 1 in which the respective higher and lower electro-chemical series metals comprise aluminum and copper.
8. In combination with a cigarette comprising a substantially cylindrical outer end of combustible tobacco with passage space therethrough and a combustible sheath therearound, the improvement including an inner, expendable filter and comprising a non-metallic, insulative mouthpiece for connection in rearward extension of the combustible sheath, and at least two perforate dissimilar metals comprising coppper and aluminum disposed in said mouthpiece across the path of smoke movement with 3,411,512 5 6 said respective dissimilar metals disposed in slightly References Cited axially spaced apart relationship to provide smoke pas- UNITED STATES PATENTS sage space therebetween, said two dissimilar metals being in the form of perforate plates, respectively, alternately 3,028,86 4/1962 Minto 13110.7 disposed within said insulative sheath with respective 5 2, 69,995 /1954 Troy 13110.9 adjacent perforations in staggered relationship, said per- 1,743,525 1/ 1930 Cabrera 204249 forations providing extensions on one side of their re FOREIGN PATENTS spective plates bearing against next adjacent plates, whereby to space said plates slightly apart While permitting 846472 8/1952 Germany smoke passage between perforations. 1O MELVIN D, REIN, Primary Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1743525 *||Jun 1, 1928||Jan 14, 1930||Electro Dialyzer Corp||Filtering medium|
|US2669995 *||Apr 28, 1950||Feb 23, 1954||Troy Arnold I||Disposable filter and holder|
|US3028864 *||Apr 7, 1959||Apr 10, 1962||Ibc Res Lab Inc||Methods and devices for filtering tobacco smoke|
|DE846472C *||Nov 8, 1950||Aug 14, 1952||Ernst Ueck||Kuehl- und Reinigungseinsatz fuer Tabakrauch in Tabakpfeifen|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4291712 *||Nov 9, 1978||Sep 29, 1981||Sigarettenfabriek Ed. Laurens B.V.||Cigarette filter and filter cigarette|
|US20060032376 *||Sep 5, 2003||Feb 16, 2006||Tasuku Osada||Air purifier|
|U.S. Classification||131/333, 96/15, 55/434, 96/98, 131/344|
|International Classification||A24D3/04, A24D3/00|