US 3412022 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 3,412,022 SCROUPING AGENT FOR BULKED MULTI- FILAMENT YARNS James E. Obetz, Chester, and Kimon C. Dardoufas,
Colonial Heights, Va., assignors to Allied Chemical Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York No Drawing. Filed May 18, 1965, Ser. No. 456,820
Claims. (Cl. 2528.7)
ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The invention provides lrnulti-filament bulked yarn of novel frictional characteristics, namely inter-filamentary slip-stick frictional force of 300-800 grams as the low up to 600l200 grams as the high by the method of Schlatter et al., Textile Research Journal, volume XX-lX, pages 200-210 (1959). These forces are imparted by applying to the filaments either a substituted diphenyl ether or a substituted naphthalene, containing at least one alkyl substituent and containing an acidic group in each of the rings of the ether or in the non-alkylated ring of the naphthalene. Preferably a yarn-to-metal lubricant is also applied to the yarn, especially a polyalkylene ether, imparting yarn-to-metal frictional force between and 120 grams as measured by the above Schlatter et a1. method.
This invention relates to new multi-filament textured or bulked yarns having exceptionally high inter-filamentary cohesive frictional properties. This invention, more particularly, relates to textured multi-filament yarns which in addition to having high inter-filamentary frictional properties have low metal-to-yarn frictional properties, the benefit of which will appear hereinafter. This invention further relates to a composition which imparts to multi-filament bulked yarns of any chemical composition high inter-filamentary frictional forces. This invention still further relates to a composition which in addition to imparting to bulked multi-filament yarns high inter-filamentary frictional properties enabling cohesiveness within the yarn also imparts to the yarn low rnetal-to-yarn frictional characteristics. This invention also relates to a process for applying the compositions to the yarn.
Bulked multi-filament yarns in many textile operations must be passed through various guides, needles and reeds in preparation of the end textile. For example, in the manufacture of say nylon carpets from bulked multifilament yarn, it is the practice to pass the yarn through the eye of a metal tufting needle which acts much like the needle of an automatic sewing maching. The yarn is passed through at great speeds so that the maximum amount of carpet manufacture can be provided in a given time and hence the tufting needle Works at a substantial speed. Since the yarn is composed of many individual filaments say about 200 there is a tendency for some of the filaments to stray from the yarn and separate out and loop around the tufting needle, and after several subsequent stitches, the entwined filaments pulls out the tufted stitch. This stitch pulls out and causes one or more of the following undesirable events, a defect in the carpet, tufting machine shutdown, and/0r added cost for repairing the carpet defects. Hence, it is highly desirable to utilize, in many textile operations, a bulked multi-filament yarn which has cohesiveness within the yarn itself, i.e., a bulked multi-filament yarn which does not have individual filaments which tend to be separated from the yarn itself and to catch on or snag on guides, needles, reeds or the like. Such a multi-filament yarn would have high interfilamentary frictional forces.
3,412,022 Patented Nov. 19, 1968 "ice Another problem somewhat analogous to the above which is encountered with bulked multi-filament yarns in textile operations arises out of friction caused by the yarn being pased over or through the guides, needles, reeds, etc. This friction causes heat to be built up on the metal guides, needles, reeds, etc. The heat in turn causes certain individual filaments to stick and causes undesirable loops and filament separation along the yarn length. Alternately, filament sticking and filament separation can occur without heat build up due to frictional effects only. When either heat or frictional sticking of the filaments occurs, the individual filament can readily catch on the guide or the tufting needle and be separated from the yarn itself rendering much the same undesirable results discussed above. Hence, it is most desirable to utilize a bulked multifilament yarn which has low metal-to-yarn frictional characteristics.
Various attempts have been rnade to solve the problems mentioned above particularly the first relating to the attainment of a coherent yarn free of filaments which tend to migrate freely from the confinement of the yarn bundle structure. One procedure aimed towards attainment of textured yarns by increase in inter-filamentary friction is disclosed in US. Patent 2,978,788 of Apr. 11, 1961 of Robert L. Keefe, Jr. entitled Process for Treating Synthetic Yarn. The procedure therein disclosed in'vol ves application of a Water sensitive size to the yarn e.g. an alkali metal salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, drying the size, passing the dried yarn through a high velocity air jet to form a textured yarn, winding the textured yarn into a package and then subjecting the packaged yarn to warm humid air to reset the size and stabilize the filament convolutions. Such a procedure has obvious disadvantages and limitations. Notably, it involves costly multiple steps, requires control of humidity and the entanglements inserted limit the yarn covering power or pattern bloom which is highly desirable.
It is an object of this invention therefore to provide bulked, multi-filament yarns having high inter-filamentary frictional forces.
It is another object of this invention to provide bulked, rnulti-fila-ment yarns having not only high inter-filamentary frictional forces indicative of their inter-filamentary cohesiveness, but also low metal-to-yarn frictional characteristics.
It is still another object of this invention to provide a scrouping agent, i.e. an agent which imparts inter-filamentary binding and cohesive forces, for bulked multi-filament yarns.
It is still another object of this invention to provide a scrouping agent composition which imparts to bulked multifilament yarns low metal-to-yarn frictional properties.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a process for applying our scrouping agent composition to bulked multi-filament yarn.
These and other objects of our invention will become more apparent from the following description and claims.
According to our invention, we provide bulked yarns having high inter-filamentary frictional forces equivalent to a slip-stick frictional force low of 300 to 800 grams and a high of 600 to 1200 grams by applying thereto a solution of pH at room temperature between 2 and 12 of an aryl compound having the structural formula selected from the group consisting of where A is an acid salt forming group, x is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, nitrogen base radicals, and metal alkaline and alkaline earth metal atoms of the periodic chart of the elements having an atomic number not exceeding 56, preferably not exceeding 19, R is an alkyl group having between 1 and 30 carbon atoms inclusive, R and R" (which apply to I only) are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, phenyl and phenoxy, and drying the so-treated yarn. The yarn has preferably applied thereto at least 0.2 to 2% by weight (dry basis) of this scrouping agent as an over-finish based on the weight of the yarns. An amount of scrouping agent of less than 0.2% by weight does not generally increase the inter-filamentary frictional forces while amounts greater than 2% by weight are unnecessary and hence represent merely added cost. Utitlizing a yarn-to-metal lubricity additive as herein disclosed there is obtained, in addition to the high interfilamentary frictional forces above, a low metal-to-yarn frictional force of between 30 and 120 grams.
The above aryl-ether (I) or alkyl naphthyl (II) compound, an ingredient of the scrouping agent is preferably water soluble at room temperature. However, other solvents can be used and in fact the overfinish can be applied using a dispersion consisting of the aryl compound and water or other liquid as vehicle. The scrouping agent (I) and alternately (II) is preferably applied to the yarn in a concentration of between 10% and 50% by weight. Use of a concentration of less than 10% necessitates application of a large amount of overfinish to provide the minimum preferred amount of scrouping agent on the yarn of 0.2%. On the other hand, the use of an aqueous solution of scrouping agent in concentration above 50% requires a higher degree of control in the application of the over'finish to the yarn so that no more than 2% by weight scrouping agent (on a dry basis) is applied to the yarn, which as indicated above, is the maximum desired amount of overfinish applied to the yarn.
The pH of the scrouping agent is important. A scrouping agent having a pH below 2 or above 12 Will generally be too acid or basic as the case may be and will tend to attack the equipment used in applying the scrouping agent to the yarn or the yarn itself. Generally, we prefer to use a scrouping agent containing the above compounds I and II and having a pH at room temperature of between 4.5 and 9.5. A scrouping agent, according to our invention, with a pH below 4.5 tends to create corrosion problems for commercial operations while a scrouping agent of our invention with a pH above 9.5 tends to corrode aluminum type equipment which con be employed.
The aryl ether I or alternately the alkyl naphthyl compound II as depicted by the above formulae encompasses many specific ethers or alkyl naphthyl derivatives some of which are preferred over others, it being remembered that what is essential is that the compound be an aryl ether I or alternately an alkyl naphthyl II compound having at least one acid salt-forming group on each phenyl radical and an alkyl group on one phenyl radical. The specific acid salt-forming group (A) is not critical and can suitably be a sulfite, sulfate, hypophosphite, phosphate, phosphite, sulfonate or similar group or mixture thereof. We prefer the sulfonate radical as the acid-salt-forming group. Furthermore, the -group-Ax can be the acid group itself or a salt thereof as x can be hydrogen, a nitrogen base radical, or a :metal alkaline or alkaline earth atom having an atomic number not exceeding 56 preferably not exceeding 19. The term nitrogen base radicals includes ammonium or amine radicals. Hence,Ax is the reaction product of the group A with compounds such as NH OH or primary amines e.g. ethylamine or secondary amines 6. g. dimethylamine. The term alkaline or alkaline earth metal atoms of the periodic chart of the elements as used herein refers to that periodic chart from Fundamental Chemistry, 2nd edition, by H. G. Deming, John Wiley, and Sons, Inc., as reprinted in. the Handbook or Chemistry by Lange, 10th edition, McGraw-Hill, 1961, pages 56-57. Hence, for compound I and alternately II the term includes lithium, rubidium, cesium, beryllium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, barium and strontium. We prefer for purposes of ease of procurement and water solubility to use a salt instead of the acid especially the soditun salt for obvious economic reasons. The alkyl group represented by R (I and alternately II) can vary in length from 1 to 30 carbon atoms and can be unsubstituted or substituted with halogens, carboxyl groups, by alcoholic OH groups and by pendent alkyl groups varying in length between 1 and 5 carbon atoms. R and R" applying to compound I can be either hydrogen atoms, phenyl group, or phenoxy groups. However, since there is no particular necessity in using the larger molecules they are not preferred. We have found that dodecyldiphenyl ether sodium disulfonate, whose structural formula is:
NaO S NaOsS is an excellent aryl ether for use in the scrouping agent and that it performs excellently in the concentrations above mentioned to give the desired amounts of overfinish and accordingly is the desired aryl ether for our scrouping agent.
Alternately, we have found alkyl naphthalene sodium sulfonate, a preferred alkyl naphthyl derivative for our invention, can be employed in a similar manner to the aryl ether I above. The structural formula of the alkyl naphthalene sulfonate II is as follows:
(CH CHNH A preferred neutralizing or pH adjusting agent is a polyoxyethylene alkyl amine Whose structural formula is /(CHzoH2o),orncH 0H RN\ (CH2CH 2O) C1'I2CH2OH:
wherein R is alkyl and x and y are integers independently varying from 2 to 15 inclusive. An amine of this formula is manufactured under the trademark G3780A, by Atlas Chemical Company.
The aqueous scrouping agent is applied to the bulked, m-ulti-filament yarn by various methods preferably before thermal crimp removal. The mode of application can be by surface contact with either a metal or ceramic application roll; finish application by spraying or fogging of the scrouping agent onto moving yarn; by passage of the yarn through a slot with a thin film of the finish solution; and/or by direct contact by immersion of the yarn in the scrouping agent. It is preferred to apply the scrouping agent prior to thermal crimp removal, since drying of the finish is accomplished simultaneously with crimp removal.
After the yarn is treated with the scrouping agent, it is dried. This operation can be performed by any conventional method as by passing the moist yarn through a heated chamber maintained at sufficient temperature to dry the yarn.
As a result there is provided a textured multi-filament yarn having high inter-filamentary frictional forces, to wit, a slip-stick frictional force low of 300 to 800 grams and high of 600 to 1200 grams. These interfilimentary forces as reported are obtained by the slipstick method of testing which is similar to the ASTM method and described by Schlatter, Olney and Baer in Textile Research Journal, vol. XXIX, pages 2002l0, March (1959). Briefly, the yarn inter-filament frictional forces are determined as follows: using a Brush Tension analyzer Model ED13403-Brush Electronics Company,
Cleveland, Ohio, the yarn to be tested is passed at a speed of 1 cm./minute over pulleys positioned so that the two strands under test which are twisted 1 /2 turn rubbing against each other at an imposed Helix arc of 360 with a positive tension of 400 grams. The frictional forces imposed are measured on the apparatus strain gage and recorded on a typical continuous recording chart. The chart frictional pattern shows a gradual increase in tension until the static friction is overcome. Then there is a rapid drop in tension until a level is reached where the dynamic friction overcomes this imposed tension. Thus the chart reads out in a zig-zag pattern showning a continuous series of low frictional measurement and gradual rise with sudden drops in friction, hence the name slip-stick friction.
The high slip-stick friction is the point at which static friction is overcome or as the cohesive forces in the practice of this invention are overcome and the low level being the point where the dynamic frictional forces are overcome as imposed by the cohesive forces by the scrouping agent employed in this invention.
The high slip-stick" frictional properties imparted to bulked yarns by our scrouping agent are obtainable 'by all bulked yarns regardless of chemical composition, number of filaments, denier or similar factors. With yarn having such high frictional inter-filamentary properties, one can pass the yarn through guides and tufting needles at high speeds without any tendency of individual filaments to migrate freely from the confinement of the yarn bundle structure, thus enabling fast and easy production of bulked multi-filament yarn articles having excellent design patterns with the desired pattern definition and also exhibiting a high degree of covering power or bloom.
The overfinish finish can be removed from the yarn readily in the normal scouring operating proceeding dyeing wherein the crimp or bulked effect returns to the yarn. No specific scouring agents are required to remove the overfinish as the overfinish is water soluble.
As indicated above, it is also desirable to provide a bulked, multi-filarnent yarn which not only has these high inter-filamentary frictional properties but also has low metal-to-yarn frictional characteristics. In order to provide this property, we have discovered that if a metalto-yarn lubricity additive is employed in conjunction with our scrouping agent, that low metal-to-yarn frictional characteristics for multi-filament bulked yarns are obtained. The low metal-to-yarn frictional characteristics are provided to all types of bulked m-ulti-filament yarns regardless of denier, number of filaments or chemical composition of yarn. The principal frictional characteristics of the yarn is a yarn-to-metal frictional force between 30 and 120 grams, believed by us to be novel for bulked mu'lti-filament yarns. Where yarn-to-metal frictional forces are referred to herein they were determined in a manner described by Schlatter in the same journal article as that which described yarn-to-yarn interfilament frictional forces. The same Brush Tension analyzer is employed and the yarn is passed at a speed of 200 feet per minute with one turn over a polished stainless steel pin of surface finish of root mean square of 3.0 micro inches giving a metal-to-yarn angle of 360 against a floating pretension weight of 38 grams. The chart reading shows a constant tension which is a measurement of the yarn-to-metal frictional forces.
Suitable lubricity additives for our scrouping agent include in particular and preferably polyethers having the structural formula:
wherein R and R are independently selected from the group consisting of terminal hydroxyl groups, terminal hydroxyl groups esterified with acids of a chain length of 2 to 20 carbon atoms, and terminal hydroxyl groups etherified with alcohols of chain length of 2 to 20 carbon atoms, R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and methyl and'n has a value of at least 3. These polyethers preferably have a molecular Weight between 400 and 22,000 and suitably up to 30,000 and can be compounds such as polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol having an average molecular Weight of 600, polyethoxylated fatty acids e.g. ethoxylated stearic acid or alcohols polyethoxylated with ethylene oxide e.g. ricinoleic acid glyceride (a chief ingredient of castor oil) polyethoxylated with ethylene oxide. In the latter case, the alcohols ethoxylated with ethylene oxide can have terminal hydroxyl groups and these terminal hydroxyl groups can be esterified with acids of a chain length between 2 and 20 carbon atoms inclusive.
When any of the above lubricity agents are present in the scrouping agent of this invention they should be present in an amount such that the ratio of scrouping agent to lubricity agent in parts by weight ranges from 1 to 8 parts scrouping compound per part lubricity agent, with smaller amounts of the lubricity agent permissive with a higher molecular weight (say above 10,000) of the lubricity agent. Except in the case of high molecular weight lubricity additives, smaller amounts of lubricity agent present in the scrouping agent do not generally impart the desired metal-to-yarn low frictional characteristics. Greater amounts of lubricity agent tend to yield poor package formation when the treated yarn is taken up on a package and/or deposit on guides and surfaces used in the processing. The lubricity agent is also removed from the yarn during the scouring operation and for this reason is desirably readily water soluble. However, it is not necessary that the lubricity agent be water soluble.
In order to more fully illustrate the nature of this invention and the manner of practicing the same, the following examples are presented. These are presented as preferred illustrative embodiments and are not to be construed as limitative of the scope of our invention. All values given, referring to quantities employed, unless otherwise stated, are by weight or parts by weight.
EXAMPLE I A scrouping agent was made up as follows: 310 parts of a mixture of isomers of dodecyldiphenyl ether sodium disulfonate sold under the trademark Benax 2A1 by the Dow Chemical Company, believed to have the dodecyl group para the ether linkage and the SO Na groups on each phenyl group ortho or meta the ether linkage were added to 595 parts distilled water maintained under good agitation at a temperature of 25 C.i-Z C. To this scrouping agent was added parts polyethylene glycol of average molecular weight 600 to be utilized in the scrouping agent as a yarn-to-metal lubricity agent. The aqueous solution was then neutralized with approximately parts of a polyoxyethylene alkyl amine until a pH acteristics were determined at 40% relative humidity, at of 8.5 was obtained. The polyoxyethylene alkyl amine a temperature of 7 6 C. and at a yarn angle of 360.
TABLE I Yarn-to-Yarn Cover of Percent Twist Turns Yarn Denier/ Slip Stick Yarn-to- Crimps Tufting Yarn and overfin sh Per Inch Number Filaments Friction 2 Metal Per Inch Performance Pattern Total Solids i Friction 2 Definition Low High Control 0 3600/210 270 460 42 12-13 Poor Poor. This example. 0.8 3600/210 370 670 80 12-13 Satisfactory Satisfactory.
on 01 0 3600/210 240 480 38 12-13 Fair Poor. This example- 0. 9 3600/210 450 750 85 12-13 Good Excellent.
on 01 0 3150/210 250 450 34 13-14 Fair- Poor. This example... L 3 3150/210 500 810 65 13 14 Excellent Do.
i Percent overfinish per unit, weight of yarn 3 Friction is the frictional forces in grams using the above described method. utilized was one manufactured by the Atlas Chemical 15 The yarn coated with finished as above described was Company under the trademark Atlas G3780A and having employed in making loop pile tufted nylon carpets having roughly the following empirical formula: six tufts per inch and ounces of fiber per square yard carpet, employing woven jute backing of l2 ounces per (CHzCHzOhCHzOHzOH square yard. The tuftmg needle had an oval shaped eye, 2O side and wide operated at a rate of 520 tufts 2 2 2 2 per minute. As a measure of runnability of the yarn wherein x and y in the formula are independently inthrough the tuftihg needle the number of stoppages tegers varying between 2 nd 15 i l i e, quality defects due to the behavior of the yarn was The aqueous scrouping agent solution was then placed Counted P Square Y of tufted 'P Generally in a trough in which rotated 12" length stainless steel Speaking, good Operation of Carpet hitting Operations is application roller, 4 in diameter, over which passed said to exist when there are less than 2.5 occurrences of 20 ends of O twist yarn of 3,600 denier, 210 filament stoppages detects P 25 Square Y P Greater nylon crimped carpet yarn at a rate of 800 ft, r occurrence of stoppages are indicative of fair-to-poor minute. The speed of the stainless steel application roller fiinnahiiity 0f the y indicating either high y was maintained at rpm. to apply approximately 3 metal frictional characteristics or low inter-filamentary 0.80% by weight (on a dry basis) overfinish to the bulked frictional Properties of the Y itselfyarn. A tangential contact angle of between 1 and 2 The samples of the tufted carpet were scoured at 212 for a distance of A1" to A" on the stainless steel roller and p y in a heck- The Standard latex dispersion face at a tension of between 200 and 500 grams per end Was Subsequently pp to the backihgs 0f the p of 3,600 denier yarn was maintained. The scrouping agent The carpet samples were test evaluated for covering power applied immediately after crimping and prior to thermal by visual determination Of Whether the White colored crimp removal taking advantage of the heat applied dur- Carpet hacking Could be Seen through the P Surface ing crimp removal to dry the applied overfini h. when viewed from above. The pattern definition was A control yarn of the same deni r d number f ascertained by visual observation of pattern uniformity filaments was treated in the same manner with the e and precision. For purposes of comparison, control trials ception of treatm nt with th scrouping agent; S l were carried out using carpets of identical construction controls having various twists were also treated in the made from identically treated Y eXeePt treatment manner of the first mentioned control. Accordingly, yarns With the pi g agent to P vide an overfinish on the having the same twist and denier as their respectiv yarn. Experimental results and observations are presented control were treated with the scrouping agent 1n the man- 40 in Table 11 below.
TABLE II S mpl Carpet Quality Twist Percent Tuiting Tuiting Trial Type Trial Turns Overfinish Defects Performance Quality of Quality of Per Added 1 25/yds. Cover Pattern Inch Definition Control 0 196 Poor Non-uniionn.- Poor-Rough.
Yarn treated as above with composition of this example.-- 0- 8 82 Good. Good Good. Dodecyldiphenyl ether sodium disulfonatc (3 parts); 1. 5 37 Fair (deposits Fair- Fair.
polyethylene glycol 1,000 (6 parts); sorbitol (2.5 parts), with commingled yarn 4 Yarn treated as above with composition of this example 1. 8 15 Very good Good Good.
and commingled yarn. I Yarn treated as above with composition oi this example.- 0. 4 114 .do 94 0.8 92 7.- 0 A 1. 5
i Overfinish per unit, weight of yarn. 2 Adjustment of experimental tuiter was made to produce increased defects corresponding to a normal commercial tufter multiplied by a factor of 35.
Therefore to interpret the above tutting control data to a commercial performance the tuiting defect data should be divided by 35.
3 Deposits; otherwise, performance was good. 4 Commingled yarn is yarn having a high degree of inter-filamentary coherency so that it is readily runnable over and through guides, needles and reeds involved in textile operation. It is produced in accordance with U.S. application Ser. No. 535,480 of Fred W. Le Noir, entitled Comminglcd Crimped Yarn, filed Mar. 18, 1966.
nor above described applying varying amounts of over- According to the invention commingled yarn is produced finish to the yarn. The yarn-to-yarn slipstick frictional by continuously advancing successive lengths of a forces of all yarns both treated and untreated was decrimped multi-filament yarn at a tension of between .003 termined as well as the yarn-to-metal frictional forces and .015 gram per denier through a region of confineof each yarn. The results of these determinations are ment, contacting the yarn in the region of confinement set forth in Table I below. By reference to this table, with a gas at a pressure below 40 p.s.i.g., causing at least it can be noted the dramatic and significant effect upon 90% of the gas to flow in contact with the yarn and in the frictional properties of yarn as compared to cona path counter-current to the direction of the yarn travel, ventional crimped yarns in which no overfinish was apand causing the yarn in the course of its entering and plied by use of the scrouping agent. These beneficial fricexiting from the region of confinement to follow essentional properties are imparted by the scrouping agent of tially a straight line path. The commingled yarn has our invention. In Table I below the yarn frictional charspaced zones of comminglenient and non-comminglement. In the zone of comminglement unlike the interlaced yarn structures of the prior art, there are essentially no peripheral filaments which completely wr-ap about the yarn bundle or about major portions of the yarn bundle. The commingling instead involves filament inter-action us to be new in the art. The scrouping agent of our invention is readily seen from the above to be an easy composition to prepare and is easily applied to multi-filament bulked yarns effecting frictional properties to bulk multi-filament yarns which have thus far never been affecting only closely adjacent filaments without extensive imparted. The scrouping agent of our invention can be transmission of isolated effects across the diameter of the easily applied to the yarns and thus does not necessitate yarn bundle or along the length of the yarn. Hence, the many steps or special treatment of the yarn such as enforces which tend to draw the bundle together and theretanglement. The process for applying the scrouping agent by maintain its integrity or cohesiveness are of lesser to the yarn is extremely simple yet provides results inmechanical stability than interlaced configurations herevaluable to the textile industry. Other advantages of our toiore provided wherein peripheral filaments encircle or invention are apparent to those in the art who have hereotherwise interact with the entire bundle of major portofore struggled with the problems of inter-filamentary trons thereof. frictional forces in multi-filament bulk yarns and have EXAMPLES desired yarns having high interfilamentary frictional char- The same procedures, as in Example 1, was employed acteristics with low metal-to-yarn frictional properties. and the frictional properties of various additives, which Use Of our Invention reduces the necessity for a high were evaluated, were compared with the product of this twist level or the like to obtain yarn bundle coherency. invention. All yarns employed were turn twist nylon Th t rms and expressions which have been employed carpet yarns. The results are tabulated in Table III. are used as terms of description and not of limitation,
TABLE III Weight Weight Yarn-to-Yarn Slip Grams Ex. Percent Percent Stick Friction Yarn- Tufting Cover and No. Component A N ame Component B Name A on B on to-Metal Performance Pattern Yarn Yarn Low, High, Friction Definition Grams Grams 2 Dodecyldiphenyl Ether Polyethylene Glycol 600, 0.38 0.22 450 750 85 Good Excellent.
Sodium Disulfonate. M.W. 600:1:30. 3 dodo 0.17 0.10 370 010 80 Good. 4 dodo 0.60 0.35 460 755 90 Excellent. 5 do Polyethylene Glycol 400, 0.64 0.37 560 700 130 Good,
M.W. 40011120. 6 do Polyethylene Glycol 0.49 0.35 460 745 135 do Fair 1,000, MW. 1,000i50. 7 Dimethyl Hydantoin Polyethylene Glycol 1,000. 0.4 0.4 305 580 90 Poor Poor Formaldehyde Resin. 8 Polyvinyl Alcohol Polyethylene Glycol 600, 0.6 0.35 270 545 60 do Do.
M.W. 600;|=30. 9 Dodecyldiphenyl Ether Castor Oil+200 Moles 0.48 0.24 460 650 130 Fair-Good- Fair-Good.
dium Disulionate. Ethylene Oxide. 10 do; Polyethylene Glycol 0.3 0 6/. 540 670 90 Fair-Good Do.
1,000, Sorbitol. 11 do Polyethylene Glycol 20M, 0.79 0.11 612 1,104 105 Good Good.
M.w. 200001100. 12 Alkyl Naphthalene Polyethylene Glycol 20M, 0.88 0.12 400 1,106 85 d0 Excellent.
Sodium Sulionate. M.W. 20,000=t:100.
1 A dispersing agent was added.
3 3 parts.
EXAMPLES 13-19 and there is no intention, in the use of such terms and The same procedure, as in Example 1, was employed 33553 2 5 22 3 5232 g g gzi g g except that the scrouping agent was an alkyl naphthalene ni'zed th t vari mo e 3 1 sodium sulfonate supplied by Petrochemical Company Sco e Ofathe ita i g are P0581 e W1 m under the trade name Petro-AG Special. 2 1 6 31m The weight concentration of the scrouping agent and e c various lubricating agents which were evaluated were A multl'filament bulked yarn havmg a sllp'smik varied and compared with the product of this invention 0531 force low of i0 09 grams and a high of as to frictional properties and tufting quality and per- 600 grams, 531d y belng Coated with an overforrnance. All yarns employed were /1 turn twist nylon fi h n an amount Of from 012% to 2% of the total carpet yarns. weight of the yarn on a dried weight basis, said overfinish The results are tabulated in Table IV. having a pH at room temperature of between about 2 and TABLE IV Weight Weight Yarn-toYarn Slip Grams Ex. Percent Percent Stick Friction Yarn- Tuiting Cover and N 0. Component A Name Component B Name A on B on to-Metal Performance Pattern Yarn Yarn Low, High, Friction Definition Grams Grams 13 Alkyl Naphthalene Polyethylene Glycol 20M, 0.88 0.12 400 1, 106 Good Excellent.
Sodium Sulionate. M.W. 20,00031100. 14 do do 0.14 0. 02 440 594 35 1% dodo- 0.66 0. 09 432 804 16 do Polyethylene Glycol 600, 0.62 0.08 440 740 75 M.W. 600510. 17 do 2-pyrr0lidone 0.84 0.12 588 1,058 190 13-. do C 1 0.7 0.40 400 713 19 do IVP-618 (polyviny 0.80 0.20 396 1, 078
pyrrolidone) 1 CF-32.Arnine polyglycol condensate supplied by Rohm & Haas.
It is readily seen from the foregoing that we have 70 about 12 and consisting essentially of an aryl compound provided new multi-filament bulk yarns having excepof the formula selected from the group consisting of: tionally high inter-filamentary frictional forces together R with, if desired, low metal-to-yarn frictional characteris- X tics particularly useful in carpet manufacture and the and R like. The yarns that we have provided are believed by Ax Ax 11 wherein:
A is an acid salt-forming substituent selected from the group consisting of sulfate, sulfite, phosphate, phosphite, hypophosphite, and sulfonate substituents;
x is a substituent selected from the group consisting of hydrogen substituent, alkali metal and alkaline earth metal of atomic number not exceeding 56, and nitrogen base selected from the group consisting of ammonium, mono-lower-alkylammonium, and dilower-alkylammonium;
R is an alkyl group of between about 1 carbon atom and about carbon atoms inclusive; and
R and R" are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, phenyl, and phenoxy.
2. A multi'filament bulked yarn according to claim 1 wherein said aryl compound has the formula:
R R! RI! g 5 Ax Ax 3. A multi-filament bulked yarn according to claim 1 wherein said aryl compound has the formula:
4. A yarn according to claim 1 wherein the overfinish is present in an amount between 0.2 and 2% by weight of the total weight of the yarn on a dried weight basis.
5'. A multi-filament bulked yarn according to claim 4 wherein A is SO;.;-.
6. A multi-filament bulked yarn according to claim 4 wherein Ax is SO Na.
7. A multi-filament bulked yarn according to claim 4 wherein said aryl compound has the formula:
C ia za SihNa SihNa 8. A process for imparting high inter-filamentary forces to bulked multi-filament yarn which process comprises applying to said yarn, from an aqueous solution having a pH at room temperature of between about 2 and about 12, an aryl compound of the formula selected from the group consisting of:
\ 0- /E and R l Ax wherein:
A is an acid salt-forming substituent selected from the group consisting of sulfate, sulfite, phosphate, phosphite, hypophosphite, and sulfonate substituents;
x is a substituent selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkali metal and alkaline earth metal of atomic number not exceeding 56, and nitrogen base substituents selected from the group consisting of ammonium, monoalkylammonium, and dialkylammonium;
R is an alkyl group of between about 1 carbon atom and about 30 carbon atoms inclusive; and R and R are each substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, phenyl, and phenoxy substituents, said aryl compound being applied to the yarn in an amount of from 0.2% to 2% of the total weight of the yarn on a dried weight basis to impart to said yarn a slipstick frictional force low of 300-800 grams and a high of 6004200 grams.
9. A process according to claim 8 wherein said aryl compound has the formula:
10. A process according to claim 8 wherein said aryl compound has the formula:
11. A process according to claim 8 wherein said atomic number does not exceed 19.
12. A process according to claim 8 wherein A is SO3 13. A process for imparting to bulked multi-filament yarn high inter-filamentary frictional forces according to claim 8 wherein a mixture of l-methyl-naphthalene-4-sodi- =um sulfonate with 1,4-dimethyl-naphthalene 5 sodium sulfonate is employed as the aryl compound.
14. A process according to claim 8 wherein said aqueous solution has a pH of between 4.5 and 9.5.
15. A process according to claim 14 wherein said acid salt-forming group, A, is SO and said aqueous solution contains a polyether lubricity additive of the formula:
wherein R and R are independently selected from the group consisting of terminal hydroxyl groups, terminal hydroxyl groups esterified with acids of a chain length of 2 to 20 carbon atoms, and terminal hydroxyl groups etherified with alcohols of chain length of 2 to 20 carbon atoms, R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and methyl and n has a value of at least 3 and the molecular weight of said polyether additive is between 400 and 22,000; the non-aqueous ingredients of said solution consisting essentially of said aryl compound and said polyether; the concentrations in said solution and the amount of said solution applied to said yarn being adjusted to provide from 0.2% to 2% by weight of said non-aqueous ingredients on a dry basis on the yarn and to provide in said solution between about 1 and about 8 parts by weight of said aryl compound per part by weight of said polyether.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,854,477 9/1958 Steinhauer 260-612 LEON D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner.
S. D. SCHWARTZ, Assistant Examiner.