Transmitting and recording sounds by radiant energy
US 341213 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 1. A. G. & G. A. BELL & S. TAINTER.
TRANSMITTING AND RECORDING SOUNDS BY RADIANT ENERGY.
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(No Model.) 3 Sheets-$heet 2. A. G. 81; G. A. BELL 85 S. TAINTER.
TRANSMITTING AND RECORDING SOUNDS BY RADIANT ENERGY. No. 341,213. Patented May 4, 18 89:
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 3. A. G. & G. A. BELL- & S. TAINTER.
TRANSMITTING AND RECORDING SOUNDS BY RADIANT ENERGY. No. 341,213. Patented May 4, 1886.
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, OHICHESTER A. BELL, AND SUMNER TATNTER,
OF TVASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
TRANSMITTING AND RECORDlNG SOUNDS BY RADlANT ENERGY.
.JPEICIPICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 341,213, dated May 4, 1886.
Application filed November id, 1985. Serial No. E3138. (No model.)
u tographic record of such vibrations.
According to the first part of the invention the vibrations to be impressed upon the la diant beam are produced in a fluid (liquid or gas, but specially liquid) in motion, and this fluid impresses the vibrations upon the radiant beam. ,For this purpose special application is made of what we term sensitivejets.
It has been found thatjets ofwater, air,and other fluids issuing from a proper jetorifice under suitable pressure respond very readily to sonorous vibrations within certain limits, and that they also can be made to amplify the vibrations impressed upon them. The production of these sensitive jets and their use for various telephonic and rad'iophonic purposes is described in the applications of Chichester A. Bell, (above named,) filed May 1, 1884-, and officially numbered 129,946, 129,943, and 129,948. As described in said applications, so far as their use in the photophone-transmittcr is concerned, they mechanically throw into vibrations the mirror or device which is the true beam changer.
In the present invention the sensitivejet is utilized for intercepting, reflecting, retracting, diffusing, or otherwise altering the intensity, size, or direction oftheradiant beam orapart thereof. Preferably the radiant energy is transmitted through a film ofliquid; but
" there are various other ways of impressing the vibbations of thejct or jet fluid directly upon ti le radiant beam, some of which will be hereinafterdescribed. The vibration of the beam by sensitive jets is considered a special improvement, and is particularly claimed, but
This part of the invention also fore it waseither reflected or intercepted more 6c or less by an opaque body.
According to the second part of the invention a variable beam oflight is caused to pass through a fine slit or other opening, and an image of the slit enlarged, diminished, or of 6 the same size is then projected, by means of one or more lenses or other suitable devices, upon a sensitized tablet which is moved progressivel y in front of the slit. The tablet may be any suitable sheet or strip'of sensitized 7o material. Glass plates coated with-a dry photographic film have been used successfully. The light is condensed by lenses, reflectors,
or other suitable means, so that a very powerful beam can be thrown on the sensitized tablet. In view of the short time during which any part of the tablet is exposed, it is very advantageous to be able to employ a powerful light. Sometimes it is desirable to use asecond slit close to the recording-tablet as, for example, when the image formed by aslit of varying length or width is magnified and it is desired to restrict the enlargementto the variable dimension, and also when a highly-magnified image of a slit through which variable depth corresponding to the vibra- 5 tions which produced the variation in intensity in the beam. The best mode of producing the beam of variable intensity is by transmission through a jet film, as before indicated;
'but there are other modes of producing such IOO a beamas, for example, by using a variable source ofllj it The iuve tion special devices and combinations of devices and of steps, as hereinafter set forth.
In the accompanying drawings, Figures 1. and 2 are a horizontal section and side elevation, respectively, of an apparatus for photographing souiul-vibrations in accordance with the invention, and Fig. 3 is a detail view in front elevation. Figs. 4 and 5 are front and side elevations, respectively, of a modified transmitting or beam-changing apparatus, also constructed in acordauce with the invention. Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9 illustrate transmitting apparatus which may be used in carrying the invention or parts thereof into effect, but which is not claimed, except when used in combination, ashereinafter specified. Figs. 10, 11,12,18,11, and 15 are views of modified forms of transmitting or beam-ehanging apparatus constructed in accordance with the invention and adapted for use as radiophonic transmitters; and Fig. 16 is a sectional view, on an enlarged scale, of still another form of transmitting or beam changing apparatus, also constructed in accordance with the invention.
The same characters indicate like parts in all the figures.
Referring to Figs. 1, 2, and 8, the close box 250, placed at one end of the base 251, contains the tablet F and the means for moving the same. These means, as shown, are substan stantially as described in the application of A. G. Bell and S. Tainter, filed June 25, 1885, and officially numbered 170,014. The tablet is or may be a glass disk coated with a sensitive film, such as used in instantaneous photography. It is mounted on the arbor D, turning in bearings on the slide 0, which moves in ways of the frame B. A. metal disk, 1!), on the arbor forms a backing to the tablet. The opposite end of the arbor carries abevetgear, 1, which engages a similar gear, 4, on the end of screw 5. This screw is journaled in a hearing in the slide 0, and is tapped through a stationary lug, 6, on the frame B. As the arbor D is revolved the screw 5 is turned also, and in consequence of its engagement with the lug 6 it moves the slide 0 lengthwise of the frame B. The rotation is communicated to the arborD from the shaft 7, journaled in bearings of the frame B, the outer end projecting through the end wall of the box 250.
On the outer end of shaft 7 is fixed the flywheel S, which has a crank-handle, 9, and at the other the friction-pinion G, which bears against the back of the disk E and com mu nicates motion to it, and consequently also to tablet F and arbor D.
On the other side of tablet F from the friclion-pinion G is a hole, 252, in the wall of the box, which hole can be closed oropened at will by shifting the slide 253.
At a suitable distance from the box 250 the standard is firmly fixed on the base 251.
further comprises certain On the front of this standard is fastened a plate, 255, of opaque material, (brass, for example,) which is perforated by a narrow slit, (see Fig. 8,) of, say, five one-hundreths of an inch in length by one oue-hundreth of an inch in width, and on the outer face of this plate is fastened a transparent sheet, 25(. of glass or other suitable material. Behind tlieplate the standard is perforated and the end of the tube 257 fits the perforation. The opposite end of the tube makes a close joint with the front of the box 250 and surrounds the hole 252 therein. Thus no light is admitted to the box except what passes through the slit.
In the tube 257 is a lens, 258. it is so shaped and the length of the tube so adjusted that it projects an image of the slit upon the tablet F. Radiant energy from any suitable source (the suns rays, for example, reflected by a common heliostat) is concentrated on the slit by the condensing-lens 259. The amount of light which is allowed to pass through the slit is varied by means of a varying film of liquidsueh as a solution of bichromate of potashou the the outside of the glass 256. This film is formed by the jet from the jet tube 260. This tube is set in the soundboard 261, which is fastened to the top of the standard 254, and is so adjusted that the jet strikes the glass, say, two-tenths of an inch above the slit in the plate 255, as shown in Fig. 3. Thejet-tube is supplied through the flexible (soft rubber) pipe 262, from the elevated reservoir 263, supported by and :uljustableupon the rod 264-, which is fixed at the bottom to the base 251. The jet-orifice may be three one-hundreths of an inch in diameter and the reservoir be about four feet above the orifice. Below the glass is a receptacle, 265, for the jet liquid.
In operation the wheel 8 is turned at an even rate of speed, which gives an even speed also to those parts ofthe surface of the tablet which successively come opposite the hole 252. This is very desirable, because it gives an even exposure to every part of the surface. If the light were constant, a spiral line would be formed on the sensitized tablet of constant width and practically uniform shade, depth, or intensity. 011 talking to or in the vicinity of the sound-board, or of the jet itself, (a soundboard not being essentiah) the jet is thrown into vibration. The jet may also be otherwise thrown into vibration, as described in the before-mentioned applicationsliled May 1, 1884. The film over the slit varies in conformity with the vibrations impressed upon the jet and allows more or less light to fall upon the tablet. The size of the image pro jected upon the tablet remains constant. It is the intensity of the light which is cliali'it-f lliy this apparatus. After the whole su t of the tablet has been exposed, or so 111 desired, it is removed from the b0); and developed by any ordinary or suitable ph0tographic means. In this way a very perfect record can be obtained of souud-vibrations.
ceiver, and operates mechanically.
The vibrations impressed upon the jet are also by it amplified as they are propagated lengthwise of the jet, so that the effective variations in the jet film are increased. This amplification further tends to improve the record.
In the apparatus shown in Figs. 4 and 5 the jet passes in front of the slit which is formed in the end of the block 266, and strikes against the inclined plate, off which it runs into the receptacle 265. As the jet is vibrated the cross-section of the part opposite the slit expands and contracts, and the vibrations are recorded as a line of varying width. The recording apparatus is or may be as shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
In Figs. 6, 7, and 8 a fiat style, 267, ofsomewhat greater width than thelength of the slit in the block 266, (see Fig. 8,) is attached to the diaphragm 268, and is so arranged that its upper end overlies the slit. The light therefore passes between the top of the style and the upper edge of the slit. The diaphragm is vibrated by speaking into the communicating sound-tube.
The recording apparatus may be as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The edge of the vibrating style being parallel with the length of the slit, and consequently parallel with the radius of the tablet through the image thereon, the record will be of practically uniform width, but variable in shade, depth, or intensity. The effect, it will be observed, is here produced not by varying the intensity of the image, as in the apparatus of Figs. 1 and 2, but by the less perfect mode of varying its size.
The apparatus of Fig. 9 is the same as that of Figs. 6, 7, and 8, except that the style vibrates lengthwise of the slit, increasing and diminishingitslength. Consequentlytherecord will be of varying width. This form of record has certain advantages. It can, for example, easily be magnified, so that the smallest vibrations become very evident. The same is true also of the record made by the jet arranged as in Figs. 4 and 5. In order to produce the desired enlargement, the lens in the tube 257 should be adapted and adjusted to throw an enlarged image of the slit on the tablet, and the hole 252 in the side of the box should be a narrow slit, so that the variable dimension-that is, the lengthof the image only is enlarged. Any considerable increase in the width of the image would cause the successive images to overlap one another to such an extent as to impair the value of the record.
In Figs. 10 and 1.1 the light passes through an annular opening and is received upon a' radiophonic receiver, 269. The jet plays upon the upper side of a sheet of glass, 270, on whose lower surface silver has been deposited, leaving uncovered the annular space 271. (See Fig. 12.) p
The receiver of Fig. 10 is a lamp-black re- That of Fig. 11 has a cell of selenium or lampblack, which varies the resistance of an electric circuitincluding a magnetotelephone.
The instruments are described in Letters Patent granted to A. G. Bell and Sumner Tainter, (above named,) jointly or separately, andnumbered and dated,respectively,235,199, December 7, 1880, 235,497, December 14, 1880, 235,590, December 14, 1880, and 241,909, May 24, 1881.
In Figs. 10 and 11 thelight passes obliquely through the jet film.
In Fig. 13 a mirror, 272, is so placed as to reflect the rays and make them normal, or nearly'so, to the curved film, which spreads over the upper surface of the lens 273. The jet passes through the hole in the mirror.
In Fig. 14 the silver coating on the bottom of the lens is shown, an annular clear space, 2-71, being left for the passage of the light.
In Fig. 15 the sheet of glass 270 is used in place of the lens, and the light is supposed to issue from the point 274. It will be reflected from the mirror 272 after passing through the jet film, and the rays being rendered parallel by the lens 275 will pass to a distant station, to be there received 011 any suitable radiophonic receiver, or a recordi ng apparatus, su ch as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, thejet andjet film being omit-ted.
In Fig. 16 the tube 276 is fixed in an upright sound-board, 277. One end of the tube is closed by the glass plate 278, and one side thereof is provided with an outlet, 279. In the open end of the tube 276 is inserted the metal cup 280, a packing of leather or other suitable material being interposed to make a water-t ightjoint. The cup, being held by frietion, can be adjusted in and out. A chamber is formed in the cup by a partition whose center 281 is of glass. A liquid-inlet pipe, 282, communicates with the chamber at the bottom, and an air-escape pipe, 283, at the top. A screw-plug, 284, closes the pipe 283 whenthe apparatus isin use. The jet tube or nipple 285 is fixed in the wall of the chamber opposite the partition.
\Vhen theapparatus is to be used for record ing, the tube 276 is slipped into the tube 257 of Figs. 1 and 2, and the lens 258 is so adj usted as to throw an image of the jet-orifice on therecording-tablet.
In operation the jet liquid is admitted from the elevated reservoir 26.3 into the chamber in cup 280 by the pipe 282, and when the chamher is full the airescape is closed by the plug The jet from the nipple 285 plays against the glass 278, and the waste liquid escapes by the pipe 279. The light from the condensinglens 259 passes through the glass 281 and the liquid in the chamber; thence through thejetorifice, and, traversing the jet lengthwise, is focused upon the tablet. On impressing vibrations upon the jet,bytalking to the sounding-board or otherwise, the intensity of the light transmitted is varied correspondingly. Of course the light could be received upon a radiophonic receiver, as shown in Figs. 10 and 11.
It will be understood that where materials,
proportions, and dimensions have been given, it is only by way of example for enabling others more readily to use the several improvements,and not as limiting the invention thereto. It will also be understood that the details :an be otherwise varied without departing from the spirit of the invention, and that parts of the invention can be used separately.
\Vhcre a jet is hereinafter referred to, a j et film is to be included in the term. The term fluid is used in its proper sense,and not as synonymous with liquid, although liquids are considered best suited for the purposes of the invention.
It is best to use clear water with Fig. 16, but with the photographic arrangements a saturated solution of bichromate of potash has generally been used on account of absorbent action on actinic rays.
In Figs. 10 and 11 a saturated solution of alum would probably work best, as the heatrays are the active ones in those cases.
Having now fully described our said invention and the manner in which the same is or may be carried into effect,what we claim is- 1. The method of varying or vibrating radiant energy by producing vibrations corre sponding to sound-waves in a moving fluid in the path 01' said energy and impressing the vibrations upon the radiant energy by the direct action of said fluid, substantially as de scribed.
2. The method of varying or vibrating radiant energy by producing the vibrations in a sensitive jet and impressing the vibrations upon the radiant energy by the direct action of said jet or jet lluid, substantially as described.
3. The method of varying or vibrating radiant energy by impressing the vibrations corresponding to sound-waves upon a body or film of more or less transparent material and transmitting the radiant energy through said body or film, substantially as described.
i. The method of varying or vibrating radiant energy by transmitting the same through a sensitive jet of more or less transparent fluid in vibration, substantially as described.
The method of varying or vibrating radiant energy by directing or concentrating the same upon a jet film of a liquid and impressing the vibrations upon the jet and through the jet film upon the radiant energy, subsiantially as described.
6. The method of utilizing radiant energy for transmitting and recording sound-vibrations, consisting in impressing the vibrations thereon bythe direct action of fluid in motion and causing the vibrated rays to fall upon an apparatus, such as a radiophonie receiver or a recording-tablet sensitive to radiant energy, substantially as described.
7. The method of utilizing radiant energy for transmitting and recording sound-vibrations by impressing the vibrations upon a sensitive jet in thepath of the rays, and thereby causing similar vibrations to be impressed upon the radiant beam, and receiving the vibrated beam upon a sensitive apparatus, such as a. radiophonic receiver or moving sensitized tablet, substantially as described.
8. The method of utilizing radiant energy for transmitting and recording SOLll1(1-Vlblittions by transmitting the rays through a more or less transparent medium, impressing vibrations upon said medium, so as to vary the intensity of the energy transmitted, and re ceiving the transmitted energy upon an appa ratus sensitive thereto, substantially as described.
9. The method of utilizing radiant energy by transmitting the same through the film from a jet of liquid striking a solid substance, impressing vibrations upon the jet, and receiving the transmitted energy upon an apparatus sensitive thereto, substantially as described.
10. The method of recording soundvibrations by varying or vibrating in accordance with the sounds to be recorded a narrow beam of radiant energy, and receiving the same upon a sensitive tablet to which a uniform surfaeespeed is imparted, substantially as described.
11. The method of recording sound-vibrations by impressing corresponding vibrations or variations upon radiant energy emanating from a point or line, such as light transmitted through a small hole or slit, and projecting an image of said point or line upon a moving sensitized tablet, substantially as described.
12. The methodof recording soundyibrations by impressing corresponding vibrations or variations upon radiant energy emanating from a point or line, and projecting an image of said point or line upon a sensitized tablet, and giving a uniform surface-speed to said tablet, substantially as described.
13. The method of recording sound-vibrations by impressing corresponding vibrations or variations upon a jet in thcpath ofaradiant beam, and thereby vibrating or varying the beam and allowing a section of the beam to pass through a slit and fall upon a sensitive moving tablet, substantially as described.
1.4-. The method of recording sound-vibrations by impressing corresponding vibrations or variations upon a more or less transparent iilm or medium, transmitting radiant energy through the same, and causing the transmitted energy, or a portion thereof, to fall as a narrow strip or line upon a moving sensitized tablet, snbstantially as described.
1."). The combination, with means for providing or directing a beam of radiant energy, of a beam-changer consisting of a vibratory body of moving i'l uid in the path of said energy, for impressing vibrations or variations thereon, substantially as described.
16. The combination, with means for pro ducing or directing abeam of radiant energy, of a sensitive jetin the path of said beam, substantially as described.
17. The combination, with a transparent fluid sensitive to sound-vibrations and adapted to vary radiant energy transmitted through it, of means for directing a beam of radiant energy upon said fluid, so that the beam, or a part thereof, will be transmitted, substantially as described.
' 18. The combination, with jet tube, supply'tube, and reservoir, of the glass sheet in the path of the jet, and the means for directing the radiant energy upon the film, which spreads out over said sheet, substantially as described.
19. The combination, with a sensitized tablet and means for moving the same, of means for directing a beam of radiant energy through a slit or small opening, and for impressing vibrations upon the said energy, and means for directing the said energy upon the moving tablet to form thereon an image of said slit or opening, substantially as described.
20. The combination ,with the sensitized tablet, and the means for directing a beam of radiant energy upon the tablet, so that it forms a spot or line thereon, of mechanism for giving to the tablet a uniform surface-speed where the radiant energy falls, substantially as described.
21. The combination of the sensitized tablet iuclosed in a close box, the means for moving said tablet, the tube opening into the box, the lens in the tube, the plate or block provided with a slit, and the means for directing radiant energy upon the slit and for varying or vibrating the same, substantially as described.
22. The combination, with the means for producing or directing a beam of radiant energy, of the means for producing a sensitive jet or Vibratory body of fluid in the path of said beam,
and a sensitive apparatus or receiver arranged to be acted upon by the energy, which is varied or vibrated by said jet or fluid, substantially as described.
23. The combination,with the means for producing or directing a beam of radiant energy, of the means for producing a more or less transparent jet film or Vibratory fluid in the path of said beam, and a sensitive apparatus or receiver arranged to receive the energy transmitted through said film or fluid, substantially as described.
24c. The apparatus for recording sound-vibrations photographically, consisting of the following elements in combination, namely: the condensing-lens, the plate or block provided with a slit, the means for varying the quantity or intensity of the energy transmit ted through said slit, the recording-tablet, the lens for projecting an image of the slit on the tablet, and the mechanism for giving a uniform surface-speed to the tablet under said image, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof we have signed this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
ALEXANDER GRAHAllI BELL. CHIOHESTER A. BELL. SUMNER TAINTER.
Vitncsses to signature of A. Bell:
PHILIP llIA'URO, Lnwrs J. llIAURO. Vitnesses to signatures of A. G. Bell and S. Tainter:
PHILIP llIA'URO, (J. J. HEDRIOK.