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Publication numberUS3412517 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 26, 1968
Filing dateSep 29, 1967
Priority dateSep 29, 1967
Publication numberUS 3412517 A, US 3412517A, US-A-3412517, US3412517 A, US3412517A
InventorsEllis John T, Glesner Charles W
Original AssigneeDow Chemical Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shingle
US 3412517 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 26, 1968 J. T. ELLIS ETAL 3,412,517

SHINGLE Filed se t. 29. 19s? 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INYENTORS. John 2' 6/05 BY Char/es It! G/esner 147 T ORNE Y8 Nov. 26, 1968 J. T. ELLIS ETAL 3,412,517

SHINGLE Filed Sept. 29, 1967 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Z9 25 JJ74/('{ R John 7: .5 FA BY Char/es G/esner WJMM QTTORNE'YS tates ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A shingle which comprises: a substantially rectangular sheet; a first trough tapered in depth along one side of the sheet; a second trough along the other side of the sheet, tapered in depth and having at least two distinct channels along the bottom of the trough, said second trough mates with a first trough in an adjacent sheet; a third trough running along the top of said sheet and communicating with said first and second trough; a flange along the top edge of the sheet and an inturned elongated flange along the bottom length of the sheet. Also, a plurality of said shingles can be assembled in an overlapping and staggered position to provide a watertight covering on the surface area, e.g., roof.

Background of the invention Customary practice in shingling a roof is to use sub stantially flat slabs of material like wood or compositions of tarred paper or asbestos felt with enough stiffness and overlapping so that any spot on the roof is covered by at least three layers. Free falling water is quite easily and completely shed by this construction. Furthermore, there is so much overlapping that most, if not all, wind-driven water is also prevented from finding its way past all three layers. The surface roughness of customary materials assists materially in preventing seepage through the overlapped joints.

To improve permanence and fire protection of roofs, e.g., family dwellings, it is desirable to use metal shingles. Cost of the metal makes it prohibitive to cover the entire roof with three overlapped layers and the neutral smoothness of the normal metal surface makes it very difficult to prevent seepage or flow of water between overlapped surfaces.

There have been heretofore many unsuccessful attempts to design metal shingles with watertight seals along their edges. This seal upon seal techniques has been expensive and ineffective. Sealed joints as heretofore employed require careful individual fitting and crimping and usually require some sort of flexible sealing compound like putty or plastics. The latter materials show generally poor sta bility to Weather and they tend to crack or loosen within a few years, whereas a good roof should require no attention for at least years or more. Furthermore, it has been found that with the best of care there were always some joints improperly sealed and harmful leakage would appear. Heavy wind is especially conducive to leakage.

The present invention alleviates these hereto encountered disadvantages associated with metal shingles by incorporating a novel jointing design. Instead of employing the seal upon seal design, the present shingles employ a trough upon trough design.

The present structure eliminates the need for providing sealed joints which are hard to fabricate and maintain in order to prevent all leakage of water around the edges of a metal shingle. In the shingles of the present invention, flanges and edge joints are reasonably tight and designed to prevent substantially all surface water from finding its way under the shingles under ordinary circumstances. However, under extreme conditions, some atent ice wind-driven water may get under the edges of the top shingle. In the present structure, a carefully designed pattern of channels (or troughs) and ribs provides for carrying this small amount of water away from under the top shingle to the exposed surface of adjacent shingles where it flows harmlessly away with the bulk of surface water. Where previous designs have tried to make overlapping surfaces of metal shingles lie closer together, i.e. sealed joints and edges, to prevent passage of water, the present invention provides channels. These not only serve to provide run-off means for directing the flow and removal of water from a shingled surface, but also stop the seepage of water which might otherwise be carried (usually by an air stream) to the roof itself. Appreciable quantities of water may be carried through ordinary metal shingle roofs as a spray of tiny droplets in a high velocity jets of air through a restricted passage. By opening up such restricted passages by providing relatively open drainage channels in the present structure, such high speed jets are interrupted and slowed down so the entrained droplets settle into the channels provided for carrying away such water.

The present structure therefore permits a roof to be covered with a single layer of metal except for a relatively narrow overlapping at the edges of each shingle unit. The total area of roof thus covered with more than a single layer of metal is reduced considerably over that needed in shingles heretofore employed.

Summary of the invention The present invention concerns a novel shingle which comprises a substantially rectangular sheet; a first trough tapered in depth along one side of the sheet; a second trough tapered in depth along the second side of said sheet and having two channels along the bottom of said sheet; the second trough mates with a first trough in an adjacent shingle in the same row of a shingle assembly; a third trough runs longitudinally along the top of the sheet and an inturned elongated flange runs along the bottom of the sheet. The first and second side troughs in adjacent sheet are mated so as to form a joint, and the sheets in adjacent rows are jointed by means of fasteners which are secured to the lower sheet, e.g., by nails, when the lower sheet is attached to the roof, and which engage the inturned flange on the bottom of the shingle in a next higher row to securely restrain its position.

Drawings FIGURE 1 represents a fragmentary isometric view of three shingles, as assembled in normal usage, in adjacent rows in an overlapping and mated position.

FIGURE 2 represents a fragmentary vertical section along lines 22 in FIGURE 1 of the trough in one side of a shingle.

FIGURE 3 represents a fragmentary front view of the trough in the other side of the shingle depicted in FIG- URE 1.

FIGURE 4 represents a fragmentary elevation, partly in section, through line 4-4 in FIGURE 1 of the trough in the side of the shingle as depicted in FIGURE 1 and FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 5 represents a fragmentary transverse section through line 55 of the longitudinal trough in the top of the shingle.

FIGURE 6 represents an enlarged fragmentary elevation, partly in section, of a first and second trough in adjacent shingles in the same row in a mated and joined position.

FIGURE 7 represents a fragmentary transverse section along line 77 in FIGURE 1 of a first and second shingle in adjacent rows in a mated and jointed position.

Preferred embodiments One embodiment of the shingle of the present invention is depicted in FIGURES 1 through 7. It comprises a rectangular sheet 1% wherein the first side of the sheet defines a first U-shaped trough 11 extending substantially the entire width of the sheet and which continuously and gradually tapers in depth from a deep depression at the bottom of the sheet to a shallow depression at the top of the sheet. The first side is further defined in that the outer wall 12 of the first trough forms the outer edge 13 of the first side of the sheet. The outer wall 12 also usually is provided with a crimped lip 14 as shown in FIGURE 6.

The second side of the sheet defines a second U-shaped trough 15 extending substantially the entire width of the sheet and which continuously and gradually tapers in depth from a deep depression at the bottom of the sheet to a shallow de ression at the top of the sheet. The bottom of the second trough forms at least two distinct channels 16, 16 along its length, each being parallel to the walls of the second trough. The outer wall 17 of the second trough forms the outer edge 18 of the second side of the sheet.

The two trough are also characterized in that the second trough 15 can receive and mate with a first trough 11 in the first side of an adjoining sheet in the same row of shingles thereby to form a joint as shown in FIG- URE 6. When mated in the jointed position the outer wall 12, usually having a crirnped lip 14, in the first trough 11 mates with the inner wall 19 in the second trough 15 in an adjoined sheet as shown in FIGURE 6.

The top of the sheet defines a flange 20 and a third trough 21 extending along the entire length of the sheet. This longitudinal trough 21 is positioned intermediate the flange 20 and the body of the sheet and communicates with the first and second U-shaped troughs, 11 and 15, on the two sides of the sheet 10. The flange 20 is further characterized in that it forms the top portion 22 of the trough 11 and extends angularly upward and away from the main body of the sheet. It is constructed such that the top edge 23 of the flange 20 is positioned slightly above the plane of the sheet so as to mate with the bottom of a next higher sheet in an adjacent and overlapping row of shingles as shown in FIGURE 7. The flange 20 also has a series of spaced apart notches 24 along the top edge 23 which loosely mate with the vertical troughs in a next higher sheet in an adjacent row of overlapping and staggered shingles.

The bottom of the sheet defines an inturned elongated base L-shaped flange 25 which extends below the surface of the sheet and between the side troughs 11 and 15 in the sheet.

It is preferred that the first U-shaped trough 11 has a downward facing tab 26 extending from the bottom edge of the sheet, said tab 26 partially closes the entrance of the channels 16, 16 formed in the bottom of a lower second U-shaped trough 15 in an adjoining sheet in the same row of shingles when the two U-shaped troughs are in a mated and jointed position as shown in FIGURE 6. The tab does not completely close the entrance to the lower trough and entrapped water may flow freely from the lower trough 15 and onto the surface of the lower sheet. The function of the tab is to block the free flow of wind into the lower trough and reduce the velocity of the wind sufiiciently to cause spray droplets of water to settle out of suspension thus preventing water from being forced under the shingle and onto the roof.

To further assure that no water is forced under the shingles the outer wall 17 of the second trough 15 is usually provided with a lip 27 which extends angularly up and away from the main body of the shingle. When two side troughs are in a mated position as shown in FIGURE 6, the lip 27 is depressed against the bottom of the sheet containing the mated first trough 11, thus assuring a watertight joint.

As indicated, the second trough 15 of the sheet 10 is provided with at least two channels 16, 16 in the bottom thereof. The channels can be defined by forming a ridge or flange 28 in the bottom of the trough as depicted in FIGURE 2. The ridge 28 is usually sufficiently raised so that it contacts the bottom of the first trough 11 when the troughs are in a mated and jointed position, FIGURE 6. The joint thus provided when the two troughs are in a mated position prevents substantially all water from being forced below the shingles. Any rain water making its way into the second trough 15 of the lower shingle will flow down the trough due to the slope of the roof. The interference caused by the ridge 28 mating with the bottom of the first trough 11 prevents water from entering the other channel 16' in the trough. However, any water which may get forced into the second channel 16 is slowed down sufiiciently so that it will flow down the second channel and onto the surface of the lower shingle.

A lateral joint is provided between a lower and upper shingle in adjacent rows by securely fastening the lower shingle to the roof and providing securing means 29, e.g., clips, as depicted in FIGURE 7. The elongated L-shaped flange 25 in the upper shingle is securely fitted below the securing means 29 so as to fit flush with the surface of the lower sheet as shown in FIGURE 7. The joint formed between flange 25 and surface of the lower sheet will prevent, even under conditions of high wind, the bulk of any wind-driven water from entering below the upper shingle. By the unique design of the present shingle, any water which may be forced under the joint will nevertheless be slowed down sufficiently so that it is trapped by the longitudinal trough 21 and will flow into one of the side troughs 11 or 15 and onto the surface of a lower shingle. The flange 20 along the top edge of the lower sheet further assures that no water is forced under the shingle and onto the supporting roof. The flange 20 is positioned so that it angles up and away from the main body of the sheet. When two shingles from adjoining rows are in a mated position, the top edge 23 of the flange contacts the bottom surface of the upper shingle as depicted in FIGURE 7 thus preventing spray water from entering under a next higher shingle. As indicated previously, spaced apart notches 24 are provided at locations along the top flange 20 where the side troughs in next higher shingles cross flange 20, so that the shingles will securely mate together. If desired, the top edge 23 of the flange 20 may be provided with a sealing material or adhesive which will firmly adhere with the bottom of a next higher shingle when in a mated position thus providing additional assurance against penetrating water. Additionally vertical troughs 30 may be positioned intermediate the first and second troughs, 11 and 15, and substantially parallel thereto so as to provide strength to the sheet and to provide additional troughs for carrying water from the longitudinal trough 21.

The novel shingle as described herein may be constructed of any material which can be provided with the necessary troughs and flanges as described hereinbefore. Especially useful are metallic materials such as, for example, aluminum. However, various plastics and other metals may also be employed.

Various modifications may be made in the present invention without departing from the scope or spirit thereof for it is understood that we are limited only as defined in the appended claims.

We claim:

1. A planar shingle comprising a substantially rectangular sheet and further characterized in that:

( a) one side of the sheet defines a first U-shaped trough extending substantially the entire width of the sheet, said trough continuously and gradually tapering in depth from a deep depression at the bottom of the sheet to a shallow depression at the top of the sheet and further defined in that the outer wall of the trough forms the outer edge of the first side of the sheet;

(b) the other side of the sheet defines a second U- shaped trough extending substantially the entire width of the sheet, said trough continuously and gradually tapering in depth from a deep depression at the bottom of the sheet to a shallow depression at the top of the sheet, the bottom of said second trough forming at least two distinct channels along its length each being parallel to the walls of the trough, the outer wall of the trough forming the outer edge of the sec- 0nd side of the sheet, and further characterized in that the second trough can receive and mate with a first trough in the first side of an adjoining sheet in the same row of shingles thereby to form a joint;

(c) the top of the sheet defines a flange and a third trough extending along the entire length of the sheet, the trough positioned intermediate the flange and the body of the sheet and communicating with the first U-shaped and second U-shaped troughs on the two sides of said sheet, the flange being further characterized in that it forms the top wall of the trough and extends angularly upward and away from the main body of the sheet, the top edge of said flange being positioned slightly above the plane of the sheet so as to mate with the bottom of a sheet in a next higher adjacent and overlapping row of shingles, said flange also having a series of spaced apart notches along the top edge which loosely mate with the troughs in a next higher sheet in an adjacent row of overlapping and staggered shingles; and

(d) the bottom of the sheet defines an elongated L- shaped flange extending below the surface of the sheet and between the side troughs in the sheet.

2. The shingle, as defined in claim 1 wherein the first U-shaped trough has a downward facing tab extending from the bottom edge of the sheet, said tab partially closing the entrance of the two channels formed in the second U-shaped trough in a second trough of an adjoining sheet in the same row of shingles when the two U-shaped troughs are in a mated and jointed position.

3. The shingle, as defined in claim 1 wherein at least one additional trough, tapered in depth, is positioned intermediate the first and second troughs, runs substantially parallel to the first and second troughs and joins the trough running along the top edge of the sheet.

4. The shingle, as defined in claim 1 wherein the outer wall of the second U-shaped trough is provided with a lip which extends angularly up and away from the main body of the sheet, the edge of which is positioned slightly above the plane of the sheet so as to mate with the bottom of an adjoining sheet in the same row of shingles when the first and second troughs are in a mated and jointed position.

5. The shingle as defined in claim 1 wherein the outer edge of the first side of the sheet forms a crimped lip which mates with the inner wall of a second trough in an adjacent shingle in the same row of shingles when the first and second troughs are in a mated and jointed position.

6. A series of shingles, as defined in claim 1, wherein adjacent shingles in the same row are placed in an overlapping position by mating the first and second troughs and Where the shingles in adjoining rows are placed in a staggered and overlapping position with the shingles in an adjacent lower row and jointed to the shingles in the adjacent rows by fasteners secured to the shingles in the lower row which engage the L-shaped flange on the bottom edge of the sheets in the next higher adjacent row of shingles.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,609,127 11/ 1926 Rachlin 52-531 2,209,704 7/ 1940 Olden 52-531 2,258,509 10/1941 Key 52-527 3,058,265 10/1962 Lapsensohn 52-529 3,363,380 1/1968 Merrill 52-530 HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, Primary Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1609127 *Jun 2, 1922Nov 30, 1926Rachlin MaxRoof covering
US2209704 *Jun 14, 1939Jul 30, 1940Cincinnati Sheet Metal & RoofiShingle
US2258509 *Aug 19, 1940Oct 7, 1941Key Gabriel JSheet metal roofing
US3058265 *Mar 9, 1962Oct 16, 1962Jacob LapsensohnRoofing shingle and shingle assembly
US3363380 *Aug 15, 1966Jan 16, 1968Strombeck Carl EMetal shingle construction with reentrant joint
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3593479 *Jan 31, 1969Jul 20, 1971Bird & SonMolded plastic siding units
US4130974 *Feb 16, 1977Dec 26, 1978Alcan Aluminum CorporationSiding panels and the method of production
US4189889 *Mar 16, 1978Feb 26, 1980Tomoo YanohShaped metallic roofing plate
US4343126 *Nov 14, 1980Aug 10, 1982Hoofe Iii William JInterlocking panels
US4914885 *Aug 29, 1988Apr 10, 1990Gory Associated Industries, Inc.Roofing tile
US5174092 *Apr 10, 1991Dec 29, 1992Naden Robert WSteel tile roof
US5581968 *Jun 28, 1995Dec 10, 1996Composite Products, Inc.Seam connector for siding panels
US5592799 *Feb 8, 1995Jan 14, 1997Reinke; Richard F.Roof shingle tab cover system
US5784848 *Nov 5, 1996Jul 28, 1998Toscano; PhilipRoofing system and shingle
US6244007 *May 1, 2000Jun 12, 2001Unto A. HeikkilaRoof with exposed openings
US6619006 *Mar 28, 2002Sep 16, 2003Muneyasu ShirotaRoofing shingle
US9097019Jan 26, 2015Aug 4, 2015Quality Edge, Inc.Modular roof panel with integrated drainage system
US9181702Apr 15, 2015Nov 10, 2015Quality Edge, Inc.Modular roof panel with integrated drainage system
US9181703Apr 15, 2015Nov 10, 2015Quality Edge, Inc.Modular roof panel with integrated drainage system
US9181704Jun 3, 2015Nov 10, 2015Quality Edge, Inc.Modular roof panel with integrated drainage system
US9593488Jan 8, 2016Mar 14, 2017Certainteed CorporationModular roof panel with integrated drainage system
US20110041446 *Apr 29, 2009Feb 24, 2011James StephensShingle and Method of Using the Shingle
USD747500Nov 13, 2013Jan 12, 2016Quality Edge, Inc.Slate metal roof panel
USD754885Oct 14, 2013Apr 26, 2016Quality Edge, Inc.Shake metal roof panel
USD776833Jun 27, 2014Jan 17, 2017Certainteed CorporationMetal roofing
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/520, 52/536, 52/529, 52/533, 52/545
International ClassificationE04D3/24
Cooperative ClassificationE04D3/24
European ClassificationE04D3/24