US 341287 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 3 Sheets- Sheet 1.
RECORDING AND REPRODUGING SOND'S. No. 841,287. Patented May 4', 1888.
N. Patins. Plmnmuwmpm. wmm c.
(No Model.) l i 3 Sheets-Sheet 2.
RECORDING AND REPRODUCING SOUNDS.
N0. 341,287. Patented May 4, 1886.
N. PETERS. Pham-Luhmnplm, wnmingnm n c (No Model.) I S TAINTBR 3 Sheets-Sheet 3.
v RBGORDING AND BBPRQDUGING SOUNDS. No. 341,287. Patented May 4, 1886.
UNTTED STATES PATENT OEirieEO SUMNER TAINIER, OF VASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA..
RECORDING AND REPRODUCING SOUNDS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 341,287, dated May 4, 1886.
Application filed August 29, 1885.
Serial No. 175,610. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, SUMNER TAINTER, of Washington, in the District ofColumbia, have invented a new and useful Improvement in purpose it is necessary, first, to prepare the record in a suitable material, (magnetic or diathe purpose is of course iron, (using-the word broadly as including steel and various grades ofii'on.) Owing to the hardness ofiron, it is not practical to cuttlie record directly therein by means of a cutting-style vibrated by the action of, the voice, as described in application for Letters Iatent of the United States of Chichester A. Bell and Sumner Tainter, filed .Tune 25, 1885,and ofiicially numbered 170,011.4. The same property would interfere with the preparation oi' records by the Edison method of indenting, which method is, moreover, inferior to the cutting method iu sharpness and in compactness of the record.
According to the present invention the reco1 d is first eut in a comparatively soft material, (preferably wax or a waxy compositiom) and from an electrotype of this or from other suitable record a copy is-iiiade in iron or other suitable material by means of a graver or cuttingstyle which is actuated by the record to be copied. rllhe wax record would not ordinarily have sufficient strength to withstand the pressure to which it would he subjected iii cutting the metal, and for this reason the electrotype is made.v
Another method of preparing a magnetic record would be to plate a thin ilm of iron upon an electrotype taken from the wax or other suitable record.
Having prepared a suitable magnetic record, it is necessary to provide means suiiiciently sensitive to respond to the record. Heretofore it has been proposed to attach a magnetized needle to a diaphragm and to support the latter so that the point of the needle is in close proximity to the record, (which it was pro` posed to form by indentiiig an iron foil.) In
the present invention, in addition to the means A before stated for improving the quality of the record, means are provided for increasing the sciisitivcness of the receivinginstrument.
Instead of depending wholly npoii the permanent magnetism of the needle, one oi more inducing-magnets are employed, and the record itseif is or may be rendered magnetic by induction or permanently. lt is also found that excellent results can be obtained by inducing currents in an electric circuit'which includes a receivingvtelephone. For this purpose a coil shonldsurrouiid the reproducing needle. Good results have also been secured by means ofmechaiiical receiving devices witliout the introduction of electric currents.
Instead of inducing magneto-currents in the receiving-circuit, an electric current can be undulated by variationsin resistance produced by the vibrations of the needle.
In the accompanying drawings, Figures l. and 2 are a plan and a front elevation, respectively, of the apparatus for engraving the iron record; Fig. l, a partial view in vertical section, and Fig. 3 a diagram illustrating in plan and horizontal section the forms of the copyingtools and of the electrotype and the iron tablet on which the record is to be made. Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, and Sare partial views in ele vation of different forms of magneto-electric reprodncers constructed in accordance with thc invention. Fig. 9 isa pla-n of a magnetomechanical rcpi'odueer, also constructed in accordance with the invention, or with parts thereof; Figs. l() and 11,(letail views showing in section and front elevation, respectively, the principal parts of the reproducei.- Fig. 12 is a view showing an arrangement in which the magnetic reproducing-needle is connected with the electrodes of a contact-telephone; and Fig. 13 is an illustration of an iron record in perspective and section, the point of the reproducing-needle being shown in position.
In preparing the iron record according to the best mode to me known, the record is first cut in wax or a waxy composition, as described in the before-mentioned application; but the cutting-style, which is attached to a Vibratory diaphragm, has preferably a flat or chisel like point, so that the recording tablet is engraved with a spiral groove of trape-- zoidal cross-section,the elevations and depressions at the bottom of the groove representing the forms of the sound-waves which act successively upon the diaphragm of the recording-instrument. Asthe recording-instrument, tablet, and accessories are fully set out in the before-mentioned application, it is considered unnecessary to repeat them here. From this original wax record an electrotype is taken in copper by known methods-that is to say, the surface of the wax is coated with blacklead, or is otherwise rendered conductive, and is then placed in an electroplating-cell. The electrotype, when of sufficient thickness, say twenty iive one thousandths of an inch, (0f/025,) is removed from the wax and mounted on a backing, with a thin layer of plaster in terposed. As shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, the elect-rctype 200 is mounted on a metal disk, 201, provided with a gear-wheel, 202, at the back. Ground plaster-ofparis is mixed toa thick emulsion with water and applied between the electrotype and the supportingdisk, which are then pressed together until the plas ter hardens. The layer of plaster 1s indicated at 203. The electrotype is of course the counterpart of the original wax phonogram, with the elevations and depressions at the top of a spiral ridge, instead of at the bottom of a groove.
In order to prepare the iron disk 204 for engraving the record thereon a spiral groove is turned in the face of saiddisk, forming a spiral ridge of the crosssection shown in Fig. 3. The iron disk 204 and the electrotype 200, with its backing 201, are mounted at opposite endsrof the shaft 205, being, as shown, bolted to a iiange thereon. The shaft 205 is journaled in bea rings of the frame 206. It and the disks attached thereto are revolved by means of a crank-wheel, 207, on an inde pendent short shaft, which carries a pinion, 208, engaging the gear-wheel 202 on the disk 201. The slide 210, mounted in ways of the frame 206, carries the graver or cutting-tool 211, it being mounted in guides 212, so that it can be moved toward and away from the iron disk or tablet 204. It is moved toward the iron disk by the electrotype 200, which rubs against the end of the follower 213, the latter being in the form of a square rod sliding in guides 209 on the slide 210. The screw 214 is tapped into the enlarged end ofthe follower, and the inner or righthand end of the cuttingtool rests against the end of the screw. A spiral colnpressionspring, 215, interposed between a collar, 216, on the cuttingtool and left-hand guide 212, tends to press the cutting-tool against the screw 214, and consequently to hold the follower 213 in contact with the electrotype. By turning the screw 214 the cutting-tool can be adjusted to cut to the desired depth. It is a flat-nose tool, and has its point opposite and in contact with the ridge on the iron disk, as shown in Fig. 3. The outer (right-hand) end of the follower is beveled on the four sides, leaving a rounded edge, as shown in Fig. 3, which makes contact with the ridge on the electrotype. The elevations on .the electrotype 200 move the follower 213 and cutting-tool 211, so as to take a chip of corresponding depth from t-he ridge on the iron disk 204. The depressions onthe electrotype allow the spring 215 to move the follower and cutting-tool to the right, so that a smaller chip or none at all is taken from theiron ridge. Thus the counterpart of the elevations and depressions on the electrotype is formed on the iron disk. The record engraved on the latter,therefore,is like the original Wax record from which the electrotype was taken:
The slide 210 is engaged by a screw 217, which revolves in a bearing in the frame 206, so constructed as to prevent endwise motion of the screw. The screw is tapped through an ear,218,on the slide. It is connected with the shaft 205 by the bevelgears 219 and spur-gears 220. Thus at each revolution of the disks the slide is drawn forward a distance equal to the pitch of the spiral ridges on the electrotype and iron disk.
If the iron`be too hard, or if for other reason it is not desired for it to be cut to the full depth at one operation, the cutting-tool can be adjusted by the screw 214 trst to cut shallow, and then, when the parts have been returned, adjusting it and causing it to out deeper, ann so on until the desired depth is reached.
Having obtained the engraved magnetic tablet, it is mounted on the shaft 221 ot' a reproducing-instrunient. As shown in Fig. 4, the reproducing-needle 222 is mounted on one pole of a horseshoe-magnet, 223, the other pole of which is placed directly opposite, the magnetic record intervening. A pole-piece, 233, brings the pole close to the back of the tablet or disk 204. Thus the needle and the record or tablet are both magnetized by the induction of the magnet. From theproximity of t-he poles the intensity of the iield is very considerable. The needle (which may be of any suitable size and shape, but should terminate in a point or edge, and be either of soft iron or steel) is surrounded by a bobbin, 224, of fine insulated wire. The telephone 225 (shown as the hand-telephone in common use) is included in circuit. The reproducing-needle has its point opposite the ridge on the tablet and in as close proximity thereto as possible without touching. Fig. 13 shows the position, the record being formed by elevations and depressions on the top of the ridges, which are rounded instead of square, as in Fig. 3. As the tablet or iron disk 204 is revolved, the elevations and depressions on the ridge successively come opposite the needle point and produce changes in the magnetic eld, which in turn induce currents in the bobbin 224 and telephone 225. Sounds corresponding to these changes, and consequently also to the record on the iron disk or tablet, are emitted by the telephone.
Any ordinary or suitable mechanism may be employed for causing the needle to follow the spiral ridge or record on the tablet or disk rio 341,287 A l :i
204-as, for example, that shown in Fig. 9, wherein the shaft 221 is mounted on a slide, 226, which is connected by the screw 227 with an ear, 228, on the frame 229, (the screw revolving in a bearing on the slide, and being tapped through the ear 228,) so that as the shaft 221 is turned by the crank 230 the screw 227 is revolved by the bevel-gears 231, and the disk 204 is given a translatory as well as a rotary motion.
In Fig. 5, instead of having the tablet or disk interposed between the poles of the magnet, both Athe poles are opposite the face of the tablet. In Fig. 6 the arrangement is similar, except that'the side instead of the ends of the magnet is turned toward the tablet.
In Figs. 7 and S the tablet is shown as acylinder, 23:1. rlhe magnet in Fig. 7 has both poles'on the same side of the cylinder, while in Fig. 8 it spans the same. The surface of the cylinder should be engraved the same as described 'for the disk 204, and the cylinder can be operated by the well-known means employed in the ordinary Edison phonograph, or by other suitable mechanism.
In the arrangement shown in Figs. 9, 10, and 11 the needle 222 is set in a holder, 237, of :non-magnetic material, (preferably hard rubber,) which is attached to the centerof a thin diaphragm, 288, (see Fig. 10,) which is confined at the edges by and between the block 239 and screw-plate 240. Aseries of four barmagnets, 241, arc secured on the face of block 239, with their like poles in proximity to the needle 222, so as to magnetize the same, or to increase its magnetism by induction. The ends of the magnets are pointed, as shown in Fig. 11. The block 239 is mounted upon a bracket, 242, which is adjustably secured in 'place by means of a screw passing through a slot in the base of the bracket and engaged by a set-nut. The screw-plate 240 is perforated, and the round conveyingtube 245, provided with an ear-piece, 246, is in communication with the space behind the diaphragm through the perforation. The bracket 242 having been adjusted to bring the needle-point in the desired proximity to the tablet ordisk 204, the latter is revolved. The variations in the surface of the tablet cause variations in the magnetic field, and produce a varying attraction of the magnetized needle, and consequently throw the diaphragm 238 into vibrations, which in turn are communicated to the air in the tube 245, and by it conveyed to the ear of the listener.
In Fig. 12 the varying attraction between the needle and the tablet produces variations in pressure between the electrodes 248 of a microphone or contact-telephone, and thereby produce undulations in the current passing from one electrode to the other. These electrical undulations are converted into soundwaves by an ordinary receiving-telephone.
It is evident that modifications may be made in details without departing from th'e spirit of the invention, and parts of the invention may be used separately.
vcombination with the engraved record.
The preparation of an engraved iron record and the magnetic reproduction of sounds from such engraved record constitutes an important feature of the invention; yet as certain features in the reproducing means described are new in and of themselves it is not designed to limit the invention to the use of such means in In like manner the engraved iron record is believed to be new in and of itself; also, the means for transferring from one tablet to another by means of a cuttingtool, although designed expressly for the production of engraved iron records, are believed to possess novelty, irrespective of the nature of the material used.
Having now fully described the said invention and the manner of carrying the same into effect, what I claim is l. The improvement in the reproduction of sounds by records in solid substances, consisting in engraving or cutting the record in inagnetie material, causing by means of such record corresponding variations in the field of a magnctized needle, and converting the magnetic variations into sound -waves, substantially as described. f
2. The method of producing a magnetic record by first cutting the record in a soft materialdsuch as waX-and then producing from such original a copy in the magnetic material, substantially as described.
3. The method of producing an engraved record in magnetic material by preparing a record in a softer material, and then causing said record or a copy of the same to impress movements corresponding to sound-vibrations upon a cutting-tool in contact with the said magnetic material, substantially as described.
4. The method of copying sound-records by causing the record which is to be copied to impress movements corresponding to the recorded sound-waves upon a cutting-tool, and therei by engraving or cutting out a similar record in the surface of a suitable tablet, substantially as described.
5. The method of reproducing sounds from magnetic records by causing said records to produce changes in the field of a magnetized needle, and thereby inducing electric currents in a coil in said field, and converting said currents into sound-waves, substantially as described. q
6. An engraved soundrecord in magnetic material, substantially as described.
7. A sonnd-recordin magnetic material having a spiral ridge, the irregularities constituting the record being formed in the top of the ridge, substantially as described.
8. A tablet of magnetic material having a spiral groove rturned in the surface thereof, and a sound-record formed in the top of the ridge between the convolutions of the groove, substantially as described.
9. The combination, with a sound-record in magnetic material, of a magnet or magnets and ICO a magnetic reproducing-needle in the field of l lets and causing the follower to follow the recsaid magnet or magnets, substantially as described.
10. The combination, with a .magnetized sound-record, of a magnetic reproducing-needle,said record being magnetized independently of any magnetism induced therein by the needle, substantially as described.
11. The combination of the magnetic record, the magnetic reproducing-needlc, and the inducing magnet or magnets, substantially as described.
12. The combination, with a magnetic record, of a magnetized reprodueing-needle, a bobbin of insulated wire in the field of said needle, and a telephone-circuit including the bobbin, substantially as described.
13. The combination, with an engraved record in magnetic material, of the niagnetized reproduci n gneedle,substantiall y as described.
14. The combination,with a tablet havinga record formed therein and a tablet for receiving a record, of a follower having a line though blunt edge for rubbing over the record, a nonrotating cutter movable with said follower for engraving the record in the second tablet, and mechanism for revolving said tabord, and the cutter to trace aspiralline upon the second tablet, substantially as described.
15. The combination, with the two tablets and the operating mechanism, of the follower having a line though blunt edge for rubbing over the record, the spring for holding it against the record, the non-rotatory cutter, and the adjustable connection between the follower and the cutter to enable the depth of cut to be regulated, substantially as described.
16. The method of preparing sound-records, consisting in first cutting the record in a soft materia1such as wax-by the action of soundwaves upon a vibratory cutting-style,and then causing said wax record or a copy of the same to impress corresponding vibrational movements upon a graver or cutting-tool in contact with a record-tablet,substantially as described In testimony whereof I have signed this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
PHILIP MAURO, C. J. HEDRICK.