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Publication numberUS3413985 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 3, 1968
Filing dateNov 28, 1962
Priority dateNov 28, 1962
Publication numberUS 3413985 A, US 3413985A, US-A-3413985, US3413985 A, US3413985A
InventorsDlouhy John A, John Balla, Reynolds William E
Original AssigneeIit Res Inst
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hair cutting apparatus having means for cutting hair in accordance with predetermined hair styles as a function of head shape
US 3413985 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 3, 1968 J. A. DLOUHY ETAL 3,413,985 HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING HAIR IN ACCORDANCE WITH PREDETERMINED HAIR STYLES AS A FUNCTION OF HEAD SHAPE Filed Nov. 28, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 Y ao/m/ 5 4144 4 7 gr 7ORNEYS Dec. 3, 1968 J. A. DLOUHY ETAL 3,413,985

HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING HAIR IN ACCORDANCE WITH PREDETERMINED HAIR STYLES AS A FUNCTION OF HEAD SHAPE Filed Nov. 28, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet z EJIE 3 I NVENTORS BY da /V 641.64 454% Z 9L ZTTORNEYS 1968 J A. DLOUHY ETAL 3,

HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING HAIR IN ACCORDANCE WITH PREDETERMINED HAIR STYLES AS A FUNCTION OF HEAD SHAPE Filed Nov. 28, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 a {a U INVENTORY J. A. DLOUHY ETAL Dec. 3, 1968 HAIR IN AS 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING ACCORDANCE WITH PREDEITERMINED HAIR STYLES A FUNCTION OF HEAD SHAPE Filed Nov. 28, 1962 \S m mm M IQ :LMHI

' INVENTORS z/O/V/V A. play/44v wag/4 M w @na V TTORNEYS Dec. 3, 1968 J A. DLOUHY ETAL 3,413,985

I HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING HAIR IN ACCORDANCE WITH PREDETERMINED HAIR STYLES AS I I A FUNCTION OF HEAD SHAPE Filed NOV. 28, 1962 I 8 Sheets-Sheets INVENTORS 3 uo/m/A pzoa/o 3, 8 J. A. DLOUHY ETAL 3,413,935

, HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING HAIR IN ACCORDANCE WITH PREDETERMINED HAIR STYLES AS A FUNCTION OF HEAD SHAPE I Filed Nov. 28, 1962 ELI 5 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 JAY/Z1700! Ana/70p;

INVENTCRS dO/V/V 4- JZOWA) W, I I ATT RNEYS HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING HAIR IN ACCORDANCE WITH PREDETERMINED-HAIR STYLES AS A FUNCTION OF HEAD SHAPE Filed Nov. 28, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 Exam/0 I 52E 2 .Z

Dec .3, 1968 J A. DLOUHY ETAL 3,

1968 J. A. DLOUHY ETAL 3,413,985

HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING HAIR IN ACCORDANCE WITH PREDETERMINED HAIR STYLES AS A FUNCTION OF HEAD SHAPE Filed Nov. 28, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 4 r Era- [Z r r v I 6 u l a q, I M ;TTORNE,YS

United States Patent 3,413,985 HAIR CUTTING APPARATUS HAVING MEANS FOR CUTTING HAIR IN ACCORDANCE WITH .PREDETERMINED HAIR STYLES AS A FUNC- TION OF HEAD SHAPE John A. Dlouhy, 707 Clinton St., Oak Park 60304, William E. Reynolds, Riverside, and John Balla, Argo, 111.; said Reynolds and said Balla assignors to IITResearch Institute, a corporation of Illinois Filed Nov. 28, 1962, Ser. No. 240,537 9 Claims. (Cl. 13245) The present invention relates to a machine for mechanically cutting hair on the head of a person whereby a complete haircut of a desired style is obtained in a single operation.

More particularly the invention relates to a machine for automatically cutting hair wherein a person positions his head for engagement with a haircutting mechanism and his head is measured as to size and shape. Mechanically driven automatic cutters are then positioned relative to his head in accordance with the size and shape thereof, and in accordance with a style of haircut desired, and the hair is then automatically cut to the proper length. In accordance with one system of the invention the measurements of the head size and shape are taken by the cutting machine which is then controlled to yield the proper haircut. In accordance with another system the measurements of the head size and shape are taken and stored by a recording device such as on a punched card and the information on the card is later used for controlling a mechanical haircutter. In accordance with another system of the invention a record is made of the shape of a haircut during a cutting operation and this record is used to later control a mechanical cutter.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a mechanism which can be used to mechanically complete a haircut in a relatively short time without requiring manual cutting of the hair.

A further object of the invention is to provide a mechanism which will mechanically give a person a haircut of a desired style and length which is uniform and can be successively repeated with the same uniformity.

A further object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for mechanically cutting hair which is capable of giving haircuts of a substantial number of different styles within hair length limitations and is capable of changing styles by simple selection of the style desired.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide an improved mechanism wherein an individual can place a helmet means over his head with mechanical cutters mounted therein and wherein the cutters will be operated by a control system and will automatically perform a satisfactory haircut of a desired style in a very short time without hazard to the person.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an improved mechanical haircutting machine with appurtenances thereto which enable successive and reliable performance and which perform various functions such as cutting the hair uniformly by accurately positioning cutters, erecting the strands of hair for access to the cutters and removing the cut ends of hair.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide an improved mechanism for measuring the size and shape of the head.

A still further object of the invention is to provide improved mechanism for measuring the size and shape of the head and automatically analyzing the size and shape data and to classifying it, applying a factor determining the style of haircut to be obtained and providing an output signal for mechanically positioning cutters to obtain "ice a custom haircut for the individual whose head has been measured.

Other objects, advantages and features will become more apparent with the teaching of the principles of the present invention in connection with the disclosure of the preferred embodiments thereof in the specification, claims and drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a front elevational view shown in somewhat schematic form of a chair structure for the automatic mechanical haircutting machine embodying the principles of the present invention;

FIGURE 2 is a side elevational view of the mechanism of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 3 is a vertical sectional view shown in somewhat schematic form and taken through the helmet of the haircutting machine taken substantially along line III- III of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 4 is a vertical sectional view taken substantially along line IVIV of FIGURE 2 showing the relationship of the helmet to a persons head;

FIGURE 5 is a schematic illustration of a recording and control circuit for the haircutting machine;

FIGURE 6 is a circuit diagram of a portion of the control mechanism;

FIGURE 7 is an illustration of the control voltage form;

FIGURE 8 illustrates a portion of the size and shape classifying circuit;

FIGURE 9 shows a portion of the pattern generating circuit;

FIGURES 10 and 11 respectively illustrate the upper and lower end of one of the haircuttersg;

FIGURE 12 is a schematic showing of another embodiment of the invention for recording a haircut pattern, and duplicating the recorded pattern to mechanically complete a haircut, the figure generally being a front elevational view; and

FIGURE 13 is a schematic side elevational view of the mechanism of FIGURE 12 with portions omitted.

On the drawings:

Referring to FIGURES 1 and 2, reference numeral 20 generally designates an automatic haircutting system constructed according to theprinciples of htis invention. The person whose hair is to be cut sits in a chair 21 having a back rest which may be adjusted to position the head of the person directly under a helmet 22 which is then lowered down over the persons head. A pair of separate retractable positioners 23 and 24, FIGURE 4, are then moved inwardly to engage the openings of the persons ears While another positioner 25, FIGURE 3, engages the forehead of the person, to positively fix the position of the helmet 22 relative to the head, and to permit locating of the helmet in exactly the same position for successive haircuts.

A plurality of individual cutter units 26, FIGURES 3 and 4, are mounted in the helmet 22 and are arranged to operate simultaneously to rapidly cut the hair over the entire surface of the persons head to the proper length and to obtain a haircut of the desired style.

The construction of the cutter units 26 is described in detail hereinbelow. In general, each of the units 26 comprises a cutter blade 27, FIGURES 10 and 11, rotatable in a head 28, a motor 29 for rotating the blade 27, a reversible motor 30 for moving the head 28 in wardly or outwardly, toward or away from the adjacent portion of the persons head, and a sensing device 31 or for developing a signal corresponding to the position of the head relative to the helmet, preferably in the form of a potentiometer 31. A sonar sensing device 151, FIGURE 11 may be employed instead of the potentiometer as will be described later herein.

In the general operation of the system, the size and shape of the persons head is first measured and signals are developed according to the desired type of haircut to be obtained. In particular, the cutter heads are moved inwardly without rotating the cutter blades until all of the heads firmly engage the persons head. Reference signals are then developed which are supplied to a size and shape classifying circuit 33, FIGURE 5, to develop an output signal on one of a plurality of output terminals 34, twenty output terminals being provided in the illustrated system, but it will be understood that more or less terminals might be employed.

The output terminals 34 are connected to input terminals 35 of a pattern generating circuit 36 which is connected to a selector switch 37 in a control unit 38. Switch 37 is set according to the desired type of haircut.

The circuit 36 has a plurality of outputs 39 corresponding in number to the number of cutter units, there being forty in the illustrated system. Analog voltages are developed on such output terminals 39 corresponding to the proper hair length at the various points of the persons head corresponding to the cutter units. Such voltages may be fed directly through a switch unit 40 to a plurality of inputs 41 of a cutter unit control circuit to directly control the positions of the cutter heads, the control circuit 42 being connected through a cable 43 to the positioning and drive motors and position sensors of the cutting head units. In addition, or in the alternative, such analog voltages are fed through a stepping switch 44 to an analogto-digital convertor 45 having its output connected to a card punch unit 46, to punch holes in a card in accordance with the respective values of the analog voltages on the output terminals 39 of the pattern generating circuit 36. Stepping switch 44 is controlled from the card punch unit 46 through a line 47 to sequentially connect the forty output terminals 39 of the pattern generator circuit to the analog-to-digital convertor 45.

The cards may thereafter be inserted in a card reader unit 48 which is connected to a digital-to-analog convertor 49 connected through a stepping switch 50 to input terminals 51 of the cutter control circuit 42, stepping switch 50 being controlled from the card reader 48 through a line 52.

During the initial portion of the operation when the size and shape of the persons head are measured, the cutter unit control circuit 42 develops signals on terminals 53 which are applied through a cable 54 to inputs 55 of the size sorting and classifying circuit 33. Signals are then applied directly from the pattern generating circuit 36 through the switch unit 40 to the cutter unit control circuit 42 and are also applied through the stepping switch 44 and convertor 45 to the card punch 46. In the alternative, a card may be inserted in the card reader and the signals may be applied to the input terminals 51.

In either case, after proper signals are applied to the cutter unit control circuit 42, FIGURE 5, the cutters are fully retracted outwardly away from the pers-ons head. The cutter drive motors 29, FIGURE 11, are then energized for operating the cutter blade and the cutter units are then moved inwardly relatively slowly until they reach the positions determined by the pattern signals previously applied by motor 30. The cutter units ar then moved outwardly to the fully retracted position, the cutter motor 29 is deenergized and the operation is completed.

This sequence of operation is controlled from a program unit 56, FIGURE 5, which is controlled by a start button 57 in the control unit 38 and also from a selector switch 58 which controls whether the pattern control signals are applied through the switch unit 40 or whether they are developed from the card reader 48.

FIGURE 6 illustrates the circuit of the program unit 56, one channel of the cutter unit control circuit 42, and the connections therefrom to the associated one of the cutter units 26. Referring thereto, the reversible positioning motor 30 is connected to the output of an amplifier 60 having a first input terminal 61 to which a control signal is applied and having a second input terminal 62 connected through a resistor 63 to ground and through a resistor 64 to the contact of a potentiometer 65 which is connected between ground and a suitable reference voltage source, the potentiometer 65 being a part of the position sensor 31. When a certain voltage is applied to the input terminal 61 of the amplifier 60, the positioning motor 30 is energized in one direction or the other to move the cutter head and operate the position sensing potentiometer 65 until the voltages applied to input terminals 61 and 62 are equal. By way of example, the cutter head may be in a fully retracted outward position when the control voltage on the line on the terminal 61 is zero and may be moved inwardly to a maximum inward position when a control voltage of 0.1 volt is applied to the input terminal 61.

Two signals are combined to develop a control signal which is applied to the input terminal 61, one signal being a reference signal corresponding to the desired final position of the cutter head and the other being a control signal from the program circuit 56 which causes the cutter head to be initially moved inwardly, with the cutter blade not operating, into engagement with the persons head for measuring purposes, to be then moved outwardly to its retracted position, to thereafter move gradually inwardly with the cutter blade operating until the desired cutting position is reached, and finally to be moved outwardly to the retracted position.

In particular, the input terminal 61 is connected through a resistor 66 to ground and through a resistor 67 to the contact 68 of a reference signal potentiometer 69, which is connected at one end to ground and at the other end to a terminal 70 to which a fixed reference voltage is applied. The contact 68 is mechanically operated by a servo unit 72 having input terminals 73 and 74. Input terminal 73 is connected to the contact 68 while input terminal 74 is connected to one output terminal 75 of an amplifier 76 having a second output terminal 77 connected to the contact of the position sensing potentiometer 65. The amplifier 76 has a grounded input terminal 78 and a second input terminal 79 connected to terminals 41 and 51 to receive a signal either directly from the pattern generating circuit 36 or from the card reader 48 through thhe convertor 49 and stepping switch 50.

The servo unit 72 operates to set the contact 68 of potentiometer 69 at a position such that the voltage thereof is equal to the voltage developed by the position sensing potentiometer 65 with the cutting head pressed against the persons head, plus a voltage developed between the output terminals 75 and 77 of the amplifier 76, corresponding to the desired length of hair at the position of the cutting head.

After the contact 68 is set, the servo unit 72 is deactivated. Assuming the resistance ratios of the resistors 66, 67 and 63, 64 to be the same, and assuming also that no other input signal is applied to the terminal 61, the amplifier 60 can then operate to energize the motor 30 to move the head to the proper position.

An override control voltage is applied to the terminal 61 of the amplifier 60 from the program circuit 56. In particular, terminal 61 is connected through a resistor 80 to the contact of a potentiometer 81 connected between a terminal 82 and a terminal 83 of a program switch unit 84 having another terminal 85 connected to a terminal 86. A fixed negative voltage is applied to the terminal 82 while a fixed positive voltage is applied to the terminal 86.

The potentiometer 81 and also the program switch 84 are operated by a motor 87 which has one terminal connected to a power supply input terminal 89 and a second terminal connected through the start button 57 in the control unit 38 to a second power supply input terminal 90. A holding switch in the switch unit 84 is connected between terminals 91 and 92 in parallel with the start button 57.

The switch unit 84 has another switch contact connected between terminals 93 and 94 for control of energization of the cutter blade drive motors 29 and also has a contact connected between terminals 95 and 96 for applying an activating signal on a line 97 connected to the servo unit 72 and also to the selector switch 58 of the control unit 38.

In operation, the start button 57 is manually depressed to energize the motor 87 which then drives the program switch unit 84, the holding contact between terminals 91 and 192 being then closed. A voltage is applied from terminal 86 through the contact between terminals 83 and 85 to the potentiometer 81 and the potentiometer 81 is rotated to generate a control voltage having a form as illustrated by the curve 98 in FIGURE 7.

Initially, at a time t the control voltage has a negative value suflicient to insure that the cutter heads are in their fully retracted positions. As the contact of the potentiometer 81 is rotated by the motor 87, the control voltage moves in a positive direction to move the cutter heads inwardly until they are stopped by engagement with the persons head, the voltage at time t being sufficiently positive to produce maximum inward movement of the cutter heads. The drive torque of the positioning motors may be limited electrically or otherwise to insure against undue pressure on the persons head and to insure against overheating of the positioning motors.

From time t to time t a switch contact between terminals 95 and 96 is closed to activate the servo unit 72 and rat the same time signals are applied to terminals 41 or terminals 51, depending upon the position of the selector switch 58. In one position of the selector switch 58, the switch unit 40 and the card punch 46 are activated while in the other position thereof, the card reader 48 is .activated. In either case, the contact 68 of the reference potentiometer 69 is set at a position corresponding to the desired final cutting posit-ion of the cutting head. At time t the servo unit 72 is deactivated and from time t to time t the control voltage is shifted to a negative value to again fully retract the cutting heads. At time t the upper end of the potentiometer 81 is connected to ground through a contact between terminals 99 and 100 of the switch unit 84. At the same time, the cutter blade rotating motors 29 are energized. From time t to time t the control voltage is gnadually reduced from a negative value to a zero value, thereby moving the cutter head inwardly to a position as determined by the setting of the movable contact 68 of the potentiometer 69. The cutter blade rotating motors 29 may then continue rotating until a time i From time t to time t the control voltage is moved in a negative direction until the cutter heads are fully retracted, thereby completing a cycle of operation.

FIGURE 8 illustrates a portion of the size and shape classifying circuit 33. As shown, six of the input terminals 55 are connected to amplitude discriminator circuits 101-106, each having a plurality of output terminals on which output signals are selectively developed according to the amplitude of the signal on the corresponding one on the input terminals 55. An output terminal from each of the amplitude discriminators 101-106 is connected to an input of an AND circuit 107 having an output connected to one of the output terminals 34.

For purposes of explanation, it may be assumed that it is desired to produce an output signal on the illustrated output terminal 34 when the persons head is large and rounded. The amplitude discriminator 101 may respond to a signal from the cutter unit at the top of the persons head in the vertical plane of the ear openings. The amplitude discriminator 102 responds to the signal from the cutter head at the front top of the head, the amplitude discriminator 103 responds to the signal from a cutter head at the side of the persons head, above one ear, the amplitude discriminator 104 responds to the signal from a cutter head at a position intermediate the ear and the top of the persons head, the amplitude discriminator 105 responds to a signal from the cutter head at the back of the persons head, and the amplitude discriminator 106 responds to a signal from the cutter head at a position intermediate the back and top of the persons head.

The other outputs of the amplitude discriminators 101- 106 are connected through other AND circuits to other output terminals 34 in a similar fashion. It may be noted that this circuit design is based upon the assumption that the shape of the persons head is symmetrical and responds to only a limited number of measurement points. If it is desired to take into account non-symmetrical heads and/ or to obtain more accurate indications, .more of the input terminals '55 may be connected to additional amplitude discriminators. In general, however, it is necessary to only use a limited number of the input terminals 55, even though all of such input terminals are shown connected in Figure 5.

FIGURE 9 illustrates a portion of the pattern generating circuit 36. In this circuit, one of the output terminals 39 is connected to the outputs of five AND circuits 111-115 having inputs respectively connected to lines 116-120 connected to input terminals which are connected to the terminals of the selector switch 37, the movable contract of the selector switch 37 being connected to a terminal to which a suitable enabling voltage is applied.

A first input terminal 35 is connected to inputs of three AND gates 121, 122 'and 123 having second inputs connected to potentiometers 124, 125 and 126 which are connected to .a suitable reference voltage source and which may be adjusted to obtain desired voltages. As illustrated, the output of the AND gate 121 is connected to inputs of both AND gates 111 and 113, the output of AND gate 122 is connected to inputs of both AND gates 112 and 114, and the output of the AND gate 123 is connected to an input of the gate 115.

Assume, for example, that the persons head is large and rounded to apply a signal to the illustrated input terminal 35 and to enable the AND gates 121-123. In one position of the selector switch 116, an enabling voltage is applied to the AND gate 111,. so that .an output voltage is developed on the illustrated output terminal 39 equal to the voltage developed by the potentiometer 124. Similarly, when the selector switch is in a second position to apply an enabling voltage on the line 11.7, the gate 112 is enabled .and an output voltage is developed equal to the voltage from the potentiometer 125. The same principle is of course followed in developing output signals -on all of the output terminals 39 of the pattern generating circuit. The circuit is simplified to a considerable extent by assuming the persons head to be symmetrical, in which case a number of the output terminals can be directly connected, and the number of output voltages required to be generated can be cut approximately in half.

Referring to the mechanical apparatus in greater detail, FIGURES l and 2 which show the chair 21 embody an overhead frame 127 for supporting the helmet 22. On the frame 127 are cylinders 128 with pistons having piston rods 129 which support the helmet 22'. A hydraulic pump 130 has a controlled output to raise the helmet upon completion of a haircut and to lower the helmet onto the persons head for measuring the head and/or cutting the hair.

FIGURES 3 and 4 show the helmet in greater detail with the individual cutters 26 mounted therein. The helmet includes an inner shell 132 and an outer shell 133 and the cutters are rigidly supported on the outer shell and pass through openings in the inner shell. The openings are suiiiciently large to permit the lower portion of the cutter to move in acircular path. The circular paths of the adjacent cutters overlap and the cutters are operated in unison so as to completely out the hair.

The forehead engaging positioner :25 may embody an operating switch 134 so that the mechanism will be started automatically when it is lowered onto the persons '7 head or may be started by the person tilting his head forward against the positioner 25.

A flexible shield 136 extends around the back and sides of the helmet so that hair does not fall downwardly and so that a flow of air which is induced into the space between the shells 132 and 133 of the helmet will pass upwardly to carry away the hair and to cause the hair to stand on end. Air enters the space within the shell 132 around the edges of the shield 136 and flows upwardly through the openings beside each of the cutters in the shell 132. An additional flow of air carrying away hair from the cutter will be induced by a fan 149 within the cutter, as shown in FIGURE 11, which will be described in greater detail. Flow into the helmet is caused through a conduit 135 which is connected to a vacuum blower for carrying away the hair.

It is contemplated to use the flow of air through the individual cutters and through the helmet to cause the hair to stand on end for uniform cutting as the cutters move inwardly. It is also contemplated that in some instances other means for erecting the hairs may be employed such as by treating the hair ahead of time with a brush to cause the hair to stand on end. In some instances the helmet may be provided with conductors for creating a static electric field to cause the hair to rise upwardly as attracted by the field. If desired the cutters may be provided with lifters which will project forwardly ahead of the cutters to raise the hair. In this arrangement it will be necessary to have the cutter travelling in a uniform progressing direction so that the lifters will continually point forwardly. These lifters may be of the type having a thin forwardly extending projection with an inclined leading edge so that the hair will ride upwardly on the edge and be raised ahead of the cutter.

While a preferred cutter arrangement is shown, other cutters may be employed such as of the type using a powered clipper. A row of cutters may be employed which extends across the head and progresses from back to front along the head. Or if desired, the row may extend along the head from front to back and progress laterally back and forth. With the cutters illustrated a safety measure is introduced since they will not cut the skin should they, for example, engage the ear. If desired however, an ear cup may be employed within the helmet which bends the ear forwardly and downwardly for improved access to the hair above the ears.

The helmet 22 must be accurately positioned relative to the head and for this purpose the forehead positioner 25 and the ear plungers 23 and 24 are provided. The ear plungers are illustrated as being slidably mounted on the shells 132 and 133 with springs 137 to urge the plungers inwardly. Each plunger incorporates an elongated rod 138 with a gripping knob 140 at the outer end so that it may be drawn outwardly out of the ears. On the inner end is a rounded end 139 which seats in the ears and plugs the ears to keep out hair and also to provide a noise barrier. This will block the noise of the cutters and the sound of the rushing air as hair is withdrawn from the cutters and helmet. A switch interlock may be provided if desired so that the helmet cannot be raised with the equipment of FIGURES 1 and 2 until the plugs are out of the ears or the plugs may be somewhat yieldable to prevent damage to the ears should the helmet be raised while the plugs are engaged.

When the helmet is raised, the cutters will be suitably sterilized such as by an ultra-violet light 131 which recesses the back of the chair 21 when the helmet is lowered, and which swings into the solid line position shown in FIGURE 2 for sterilizing the inside of the helmet 22 and the cutters.

The cutters 26, as shown in FIGURES l and II. are rigidly mounted on the outer shells 133 of the helmet, which also supports the motor 30 for moving the cutters in and out.

The motor 30 drives a nut 141 within the barrel 142 of the cutter and the barrel is internally threaded. The barrel is provided with a slot 143 so that the helmet can extend across through the slot for mounting the motor 30 and supporting the cutter.

The cutter is driven in its oscillating movement to cover an area larger than the cutter head by a cutter oscillating motor 146. The motor 146 is provided with a shaft to drive an eccentric shaft 147 which connects between the upper and lower part of the cutter housing with the lower portion of the shaft 147 eccentrically mounted in the lower portion of the cutter. Flexible springs 153 connect the upper portion 142 and the lower portion 154 of the cutter housing preventing the lower portion from rotatmg.

The blade driving motor 29 drives a shaft 148 which also carries a fan 149 for drawing air upwardly to discharge it through openings 150 in the cutter housing. The blade shaft 148 drives through a universal coupling 150 to drive a lower shaft 152 carrying a coil compression spring 151 which urges the inner blade 27 against the stationary blade 28.

While the size and shape of the head may be detected as above described by moving the cutter down against the head surface, it is also contemplated that the head surface may be detected electrically. A detector 155 may be mounted in the stationary blade 28. The detector 155 sends out and receives sonic waves to measure the distance to the head. The wave signal may be fed back to the classifying circuit 33 as above described. The detector 155 may also be used to control the cutting position of the cutting head since it will send back a signal indicating its distance from the head surface. Suitable wires will be run up along the outer surface of the cutter from the detector 155.

For use with the potentiometer to transmit a signal of cutter position, the nut 141 has a toothed shaft 145 extending upwardly therefrom driving the potentiometer 31 through a gear train 144. The potentiometer is mounted on the outer shell 133 of the helmet.

Referring to FIGURE 12, reference numeral generally designates a modified system wherein a conventional type of hair clipper 171 may be first operated by a master barber to cut a persons hair and to simultaneously develop a recording which may thereafter be played back to automatically operate the clipper without the assistance of the barber.

The clipper 171 is so supported as to permit the required movements thereof while generating signals indicating the position of the clipper relative to the persons head, and to permit the subsequent automatic control of the clipper movement. In particular, the clipper 171 is supported for horizontal sliding movement on a bar 172 of square cross-section which is supported at its ends on offset portions 173 and 174 rotatably journalled from sleeves 175 and 176. The axis of rotative movement of the bar 172 relative to the sleeves 175 and 176 is preferably aligned with the cutter blade assembly 177 of the clipper 171. A suitable comb device 178 may be attached to the clipper 171 to properly lift the hair during cutting, the comb 178 or its connection to the clipper being preferably flexible so as to allow operation with the cutter blade assembly 177 at any desired distance from the surface of the persons head.

The sleeves 175 and 176 are slidable on arms 179 and 180 which are journalled from the lower ends of arms 181 and 182, for movement about a common horizontal axis which may preferably extend through approximately the center of the persons head.

The arms 181 and 182 are fixedly secured to a hub member 183 which is supported at the lower end of the vertical rod 184 for rotation about a generally vertical axis. The rod 184 may be suspended from the ceiling or any other fixed support.

Means are provided for fixing the position of the rod 184 relative to the persons head and, in particular, a rod 185 is provided which extends downwardly from an enlarged head portion 186 at the lower end of the rod 184. The lower end of the rod 185 is bifurcated to provide two portions 187 and 188 and retractable rods 189 and 190 are supported at the lower ends of the portions 187 and 188, for insertion in the openings of the persons ears. A positioner 191 is adapted to engage the persons forehead, to thus positively fix the position of the support rod 184 relative to the persons head.

A plurality of servo units are provided for measuring the movements and for effecting the movements as required. Each unit may, for example, comprise a selsyn or resolver device for developing a signal having a phase determined by linear or angular position, and an electric motor coupled through suitable gears for effecting the required movement. In particular, a servo unit 192 is provided for measuring and producing movement of the clipper 171 along the bar 172, a servo unit 193 is pro vided for measuring and effecting rotation of the clipper 171 about the axis of support of the portions 173 and 174 from the sleeves 175 and 176, a servo unit 194 is provided for measuring and effecting mvoement of the sleeves 175 and 176 along the arms 179 and 180, a servo unit 195 is provided for measuring and effecting movement of the arms 179 and 180 about the axis of support thereof from the arms 181 and 182, and a servo unit 196 is provided for measuring and effecting rotation of the hub 183 and arms 181 and 182 about the axis of the rod 184. If desired, a unit like the unit 184 and in parallel therewith may be provided between the sleeve 186 and the rod 180 to obtain more positive support and actuation. Similarly, a unit like the unit 195 may be provided between the arm 180 and the arm 182.

The position sensing portions of the servo units 192- 196 are connected to inputs of a recorder, which may preferably be a multi-channel tape recorder and which may preferably have an additional channel for recording of a reference signal. Suitable recorders are known in the art.

After recording of the position signals while the clipper 171 is operated by a master barber, the tape or other recording medium may be played back in a re producer 198 having five channel outputs and an additional reference signal output connected to a controller 199. The controller 199 has five additional inputs connected to the position signal outputs of the servo units 192-196, and has outputs connected to the motor portions of the servo units 192-196, the motor units being reversible and being driven in accordance with the magnitude and polarity of any difference between the signals applied from the reproducer 198 and the signals applied from the position sensing portions of the servo units 192-196.

The system 170 may be operated in a manner similar to the system 20 as described above. In particular, a specially prepared tape may be played in the reproducer 198 and, with the clipper 171 being deenergized, the clipper 171 may be caused to traverse the surface of a persons head, while maintained in firm engagement therewith, to thus develop a recording of the size and shape of the persons head in the recorder 197. The recording so obtained may be then analyzed electronically by a size and shape classifying circuit to develop an output which may fed to a pattern generating circuit, along with a signal from reproducing of the tape, to develop another tape which will perform the required movements of the clipper 171 in the predetermined pattern.

The drawings and specification present a detailed disclosure of the preferred embodiments of the invention, and it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific forms disclosed, but covers all modifications, changes and alternative constructions and methods falling within the spirit and scope of the principles taught by the invention.

We claim as our invention:

1. A device for measuring and recording the shape of an individuals head for use in cutting hair mechanically comprising,

a signal means selectively providing signals corresponding to different haircut styles,

detecting means for detecting the shape of an individuals head,

and recording means connected to said detecting means and to said signal means for making a record corresponding to the shape of the head modulated by a signal of a predetermined haircut style for use in controlling a mechanical cutter for cutting hair.

2. A device for measuring and recording the shape of an individuals head for use in cutting hair mechanically comprising,

detecting means for detecting the shape of an individuals head,

a classifying device connected to the detecting means for classifying the shape of the head from information received from said detecting means,

a haircut pattern control connected to said classifying device for providing a signal to the classifying device,

and a recorder connected to the classifying device and to said control for recording a combined signal from said classifying device and said pattern control for providing a record for use in controlling a mechanical cutter for cutting hair.

3. A device for use in cutting hair mechanically comprising,

a manually operated haircutter,

a signal output device connected to said haircutter generating a signal corresponding to cutting positions of said cutter,

and a recorder connected to said output device for recording signals from said output device and making a control record for controlling a mechanical cutter for cutting hair.

4. A device for use in cutting hair mechanically comprising,

detecting means for detecting the shape of an individuals head and providing an output signal,

a cutting means adapted for cutting hair at independent controlled lengths at different locations on an individuals head,

style selection means for selectively providing a signal corresponding with a predetermined haircut style,

and a control connected to said cutting means operated by said detecting means and said style selection means for positioning said cutting means.

5. A mechanism for mechanically cutting hair on an individuals head comprising,

a helmet means for positioning over an individuals head,

a plurality of cutters mounted in said helmet means,

positioning means for each of said cutters moving them individually inwardly toward an individuals head for cutting hair,

a potentiometer connected to each of said positioning means for providing an output signal corresponding to cutter position relative to said helmet means,

and means for operating said positioning means in accordance with said output signal for locating each of said cutters in a predetermined position.

6. A mechanism for mechanically cutting hair on an individuals head comprising,

a plurality of cutters,

positioning means for each of said cutters for moving them toward an individuals head for cutting hair,

means for driving said cutters,

a potentiometer connected to each of said positioning means for providing an output signal corresponding to cutter position,

recording means for recording said output signal for forming a record of head shape and size with the cutters moved against the head surface,

and control means for operating said positioning means as a function of said record for positioning the cutters in a predetermined location relative to the head surface to obtain a haircut of a predetermined length.

7. A haircut reproducing mechanism comprising,

a haircutting means,

a movable mount supporting said cutting means,

a data collecting and storing means,

means for detecting head shape and connected to feed a head shape signal to said collecting and storing means,

and a mechanism for mechanically reproducing the stored data connected to the mount and to the cutting means for positioning said cutting means relative to an individuals head.

8. A mechanism for automatically cutting a head of hair comprising,

support means,

adjustable cutting means carried on said support means,

means for sensing the distance between said cutting means and the head to produce a first electrical control signal,

means for selecting a predetermined distance between said cutting means and the head to produce a second electrical control signal,

means for comparing said first and second control means to produce an electrical drive signal, and

motor means responsive to said drive signal to move said cutting means to a position corresponding to said predetermined distance. 9. A mechanism for automatically cutting a head of hair comprising,

support means, a plurality of adjustable cutting means carried on said support means,

means for producing and selecting a plurality of signalpatterns corresponding to different hair styles for the particular head of hair being cut, and

drive means connected to said cutting means and to said last-named means for individually positioning each of said cutting means relative to that portion of the head being cut adjacent each of said respective cutting means to produce a hair cut corresponding to the selected hair style.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,023,542 4/1912 Winter 33-174 1,846,528 2/1932 Santin.

2,089,727 8/1937 Borden 132-36 2,581,704 1/1952 Reno 132-7 2,577,839 12/1951 Boax 132-9 2,765,796 10/1956 Guenther 132-45 2,765,797 10/ 1956 Potente 132-45 2,915,070 12/1959 Benson 132-45 2,919,702 1/1960 Olivo 132-7 2,972,351 2/1961 Morgan 132-45 3,044,473 7/ 1962 Cover 132-9 3,134,3 82 5/1964 Broman 132-45 3,172,598 3/1965 Carson et al. 234-89 XR 3,241,562 3/1966 Gronier 132-45 3,260,268 7/ 1966 Reynolds et al. 132-45 FOREIGN PATENTS 909,065 10/1962 Great Britain. 1,257,104 2/1961 France.

RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner.

R. L. FRINKS, Assistant Examiner.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification132/213, 297/217.3, 83/76.2, 33/512, 297/188.4, 312/209, 30/207, 30/206, 30/133, 83/72
International ClassificationB26B19/00, A45D44/06, A45D44/00
Cooperative ClassificationB26B19/00, A45D44/06
European ClassificationB26B19/00, A45D44/06