US 3415023 A
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1968 J. LEBRETON 3,415,023
PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS AND PANELS UTILIZA'BLE IN CONSTRUCTING SAME Filed June 2, 1966 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTO Q Dec. 10, 1968 J. LEBRETON 3,415,023
PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS AND PANELS UT ILIZABLE IN CONSTRUCTING SAME Filed June 2. 1966 4 Sheets-Sheefi :s
INVENTOR JA/v ZEBRE m/v By W 0, 1968 J. LEBRETON $415,023
PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS AND PANELS UTILIZABLE IN CONSTRUCTING SAME Filed June 2. 1966 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG. 4a
25 FIG. 4b
IN VENTOR JEAN [Ea/PE TON United States Patent 3,415,023 PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS AND PANELS UTILIZABLE IN CONSTRUCTING SAME Jean Lebreton, 3 his Rue Kleber, Le Chesnay, Yvelines, France Filed June 2, 1966, Ser. No. 554,868 6 Claims. (Cl. 52--213) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A building wall made from a plurality of precast concrete panels having rabbetted vertical edges receiving seal ing strips where the panels adjoin each other and two vertical inwardly projecting flanges, reinforcing rods extending the length of the panels and having ends projecting into the substructure and superstructure to form therewith a monolithic unit, inner wall sheets parallelling said panels and spaced from the ends of said flanges, and ventilating channels Venting the space between the panel and sheet to the outside air. Preferably the upper and lower edges of the panels are matingly sloped to provide a passage which slopes downwardly and outwardly between superposed panels.
The present invention relates to a new process of constructing prefabricated buildings and to panels utilizable in the process of construction.
It is well known that various processes have already been proposed for the construction of buildings from elements prefabricated at the factory so as to decrease the costs of building.
In particular, it is already well known how to utilize in industrial installations wall or floor components comprising such prefabricated components as windows, doors, central heating ducts, etc., said parts then being assembled on the job by various methods.
These construction processes have the disadvantage of requiring complex structural panels which are precisely adapted to their specific intended use. In addition, these panels are quite heavy, and necessitate employment of relatively expensive lifting devices. This is the reason that such processes are usually limited to large assemblies comprising a large number of identically interfitting grooves and seats.
The method of prefabricated construction according to the present invention permits, on the other hand, assembly from easily transported standard elements (the weight of which, for example, may be about 700 kg.), of widely varied construction designs which, in each case, can be adapted by the architect to the requirements of the user.
For example, buildings of several levels can be constructed according to the invention as well as dwellings having only one story.
The present invention has for an object the provision of units for a prefabricated structure characterized by the fact that its outer walls are constituted by the combination of reinforced concrete panels having a flat surface on the outside of the building and vertical flanges which project to an extent approximately equal to the thickness of the walls, said panels being placed side by side with the interposition of sealing means; and of inner sheets constituting the interior covering of the walls, these inner sheets being preferably fastened on the panel flanges, the solidity of the building being assured by the presence of reinforced concrete in at least some of the spaces existing between these panels and the interior sheathing sheets, as well as by the existence of a reinforced concrete floor or reinforced concrete angle irons or anchor wall bracings joining the upper parts of the respective panels.
In one particular method of construction which concerns one-story buildings, the rigidity of the structure is 3,415,023 Patented Dec. 10, 1968 assured by the presence of reinforced concrete in the spaces between said panel flanges at the building corners as well as other possible points of the structure, while the different panels are joined at their upper part by continuous reinforced concrete anchor wall bracings.
The present invention also has for an object a prefabricated panel, for example, of reinforced concrete utilizable in the construction of buildings such as defined above, this panel being characterized. essentially by the fact that it comprises a flat surface, which may be covered with a finishing coat, and two parallel flanges arranged vertically, said flanges not extending as far as the extremities of the panels so as to allow for fitting in place of the concrete floors and the angle bracings.
In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the upper part of the panels presents a joint spacing construction the shape of which corresponds to that of the lower part of the panels.
In the case where the panels according to the invention are designed to be assembled into one-level buildings, or the upper story of a building with several levels, or again, the facades of a structural framework the upper parts of the grooves are joined together by a groove of the same height parallel to the upper edge of each panel to form the sheathing base of the angle irons.
The panels designed to form continuous wall sections (i.e. wall sections having no openings therein) are supplied with flanges placed .at about a quarter and three fourths of their breadth so as to maintain practically constant the equidistance of the grooves during contiguous assembly of several of these panels.
-In the case where a wall must comprise an opening, a panel is placed on each side of the opening one of the flanges of each panel is located at the edge or border of the panel, the exterior surface of this flange desirably being also provided with a finishing coat, like the flat part of the panel.
In the case where it is desired to construct a relatively narrow surface of wall between two openings, a panel is used in which the flanges are located on each edge or border of the panel and which may be supplied on their outer surface with a finishing coat.
Panels of the above types comprise on their edges (except where a flange is located) a rabbet so as to constitute two by two a channel at the bottom of which a sealing strip can readily be placed.
The corners of the buildings are formed by means of special panels called corner panels which have an L section and whose edges are made in. such a 'way as to have a shape complementary to the shape of the edges of the ordinary panels.
A sealing strip is positioned between each vertical edge of a corner panel and the vertical edge of the adjacent panel. These corner panels are in every case strengthened by reinforced concrete introduced into the space confined by them and/or the bordering flanges of the adjacent panels.
In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the panels have a height which corresponds to that of one story, for example 2.65 meters high, supposing a height under the ceiling of 2.50 m. and a floor thickness of 15 cm.
In the preferred method of practice of the invention, the portions of the building comprising doors or windows are devoid of these latter along the whole Width of prefabricated panels such as have been described. The connection at the top part between the two panels forming the outlines of opening is assured by a reinforced concrete lintel, prefabricated or otherwise, the shape of which is such that it can join to the panels which are to he placed above it. The window sills of the openings are formed with use of a suitable insulating material and preferably form a part of the frame which supports the window, the assembly being fixed in position on the flanges of the panels surrounding the opening.
In the preferred method of practice of the invention, the partitions assuring the interior covering of the walls are placed at a certain distance from the flanges, so as to assure better thermal, acoustic and anti-humidity insulation, any thermal conduction being thus avoided in accordance with the invention.
To this end, it is, according to the invention, particularly advantageous to utilize as ventilation shafts, certain vertical spaces comprised between the flanges by providing an opening or duct leading from the outside at the lower part of the panel corresponding to an opening at the upper part, the shaft thus formed being related to the space between the panels and the interior surface of the wall.
Other characteristics and particulars of the invention will be seen from the following description by referring to several methods of construction given by Way of nonlimiting examples and represented on the drawings on which:
FIG. 1 is a partial horizontal cross section view of a one story building, or of one story of a building of the curtain wall type having several stories.
FIG. 2 is a horizontal sectional view of a corner of a building having several stories with supporting walls.
FIG. 3 is a vertical cross section view in larger scale taken along line III"III of FIG. 2.
FIGS. 4a and 4b are vertical sections showing respectively the upper part and the lower part of an opening in a structure of several stories with supporting walls.
FIG. 5 is a vertical section view on larger scale taken along line VV of FIG. 1.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view partly in section showing a panel assembly in the instance of a one story structure.
FIG. 7 is a perspective view, according to VII of FIG. 6, partly in section, showing how the inner sheet of the wall can be fixed in position on the panel grooves.
On the drawing is shown a panel 1 of the continuous type which comprises a flat surface 2 and two flanges 3 and 4 located respectively at about a fourth and three fourths of the width of panel 1. The edges of this panel show at 5 a rabbet so as to provide a seat for a sealing strip band 6.
FIGS. 1 and 2 also show a panel 7 which is distinguished from the continuous panel by the fact that its flange 8 is on its edge in order to form one side of the frame of an opening.
Also FIG. 1 shows a panel 9 whereof the flanges 10 and 11 are situated on each of the two edges of the panel to form frames.
There is also shown on the drawing a corner panel 12 the edges whereof have a form complementary to that of edges 5 of panels 1 and 7.
The inner sheet 13 of the wall may be constituted, for example, .by a hollow panel 14 obtained by joining two prefabricated plaster panels by means of cellular elements and by an insulating layer 15 of material such as expanded polystyrene, glass wool or rock wool.
On FIG. 1, only the cavity between the flanges of corner panel 12 is filled with reinforced concrete 16, while in the case of FIG. 2 all the cavities between the flanges of the panels are filled with concrete 16, which may be reinforced.
The method of construction according to FIG. 1 corresponds to a one story building or to one story of a taller building of the curtain wall type, while the method of construction of FIG. 2 corresponds to a building with several stories in which the wall illustrated is a weight bearing wall.
In the two cases, the flow of concrete is introduced after having put in place the different elements which are maintained in position by any suitable means and placing a removable sheathing which rests on the terminal .4 ends of the flanges against the inner surface of sheet 15.
It is therefore seen that the panels according to the invention act partially, at least, as shuttering.
It will be noticed that the interior sheet 13 is separated by a certain distance from the terminal ends of the flanges and consequently from the concrete fill 16.
FIGS. 3 to 5 show how the upper part of the panels is provided with a lapping edge 17 the shape of which conforms to that of the lower lapping edge 18 of the panels for the purpose of sealing out of all entry of moisture, a tight seal 19 being placed between the two elements positioned one under the other.
It also shows how the reinforced concrete 16, poured in between two flanges, is collected at floor 20, the inner partition 13 being maintained at a certain distance from the reinforced concrete 16.
In FIG. 4a is shown how a lintel 21 is formed at the upper part of an opening by joining it to floor 20 and to any concrete 16 poured between the ridges of the adjacent panels.
A frame means 22 supports the window 23 as well as window sill 24 which is located at the lower part of the window and which rests on a supporting member 25 made, for example, of cast iron (FIG. 4b).
FIG. 5 shows how it is possible to construct a ventilation shaft in the space between inner partition 13 and outer panel 1. For this purpose, an opening is left at the lower part of a panel so as to form an air intake duct following arrow F1, this air circulating in the direction of arrow F2 in the space existing between partition 13 and the wall constituted by the panels according to the invention.
In order to facilitate evacuation of water of condensation, a groove 27 is formed at the lower part of the shaft with a slight inclination toward the exterior.
FIG. 5 also shows how linking of the panels on the foundation 28 of reinforced concrete is effected by means of rods 29 fixed in grooves and in concrete 28.
These rods 29 may be made at the factory during manufacturing of the panels with which they may be integral. They are fitted in holes preformed in the concrete 28 and are then sealed there by concrete fortified with a plastic adjuvant.
It is also shown the horizontal flange 30 permits the pouring of the reinforced concrete bracing 31 which assures the rigidity of the upper part of the panels.
FIG. 6 shows the assembly of a corner panel 12 as well as two panels 7 forming frames from their flanges 8. The assembly shown in FIG. 6 illustrates a method of construction in which a reinforced concrete bracing is provided at the upper part of the panels (FIGS. 1 and 5).
FIG. 6 also shows how a prefabricated lintel 32 may be placed, which has an edge lapping 17 complementary to that existing at the upper part of the panels according to the invention. It also shows how reinforcements 33 may be located in advance on the inner surfaces of the parts of the panels which are to receive the reinforced concrete framework.
FIG. 6 finally shows how frame 22 comprising window sill 24 and which can receive the window, may be fixed in place with respect to flanges 8 supported by means of metallic angle braces 34.
FIG. 7 shows in larger scale a method of attachment of framework means 22. It will be noted how frame member 22 which is fitted with angle braces 34 is fixed in position on flange 8 by a bolt 35 engaging in a threaded socket countersunk in flange 8 when the panel is manufactured.
FIG. 7 also shows window sill 24 mounted in its frame 22a which rests on frame 22 and which also serves to support interior partition 13.
Finally, FIG. 7 shows how water tightness is assured between frame 22 and ridge 8 by means of a seating strip 36.
It will be understood that the method of construction which has been described has been given purely by way of illustration and that it is capable of adaption as to detail without departing from the concept and scope of the invention.
The invention is particularly well adapted to the adoption of a dimensional modulation, for example a modulus of .30 cm. (European modulus). In this case, panel 1 of the continuous type measures .59 m. or .89 m. or 1.19
In. (in order to take into account the joint with the adjacent panel), which gives panels of a nominal width of .60 m. or .90 In. or 1.20 m.
Panel 7 which comprises an opening frame on one edge and a rabbet on the other edge measures .295 m. or .595 m. or 895 m. or 1.195 m. in order to take into account a juncture on only one side which gives a nominal width of .3 0 m. or .60 m. or .90 m. or 1.20 m.
Panel 9 which comprises an opening frame on both edges has for dimensions 0.30m, 0.60 m, 0.90 m, 1.20 m.
The corner panel 12 measures 0.295 m./0.295 m. for a nominal side of 0.30m./0.30- m.
1. A building wall made from a plurality of prefabricated panels, the vertical edges of adjacent panels being rabbetted to define grooves receiving sealing strips, each panel being provided with two vertical inwardly projecting flanges, reinforcing rods which project from the lower edges of said panels into the structure there'below, the upper transverse edge of each panel being angled so that its inner side is higher than its outer side and the lower transverse edge of each panel having a complementary slope, and inner sheets of insulating material spaced from the inner edges of said flanges so that an open space is left between said sheets and panels, said wall being formed with a ventilating channel connecting the lower edge of said open space with the exterior of said wall.
2. A building wall as claimed in claim 1 in which the space between adjacent flanges is filled with an insulating material, but space is left between said concrete and inner sheet.
3. A building wall as claimed in claim 1, in which the space between adjacent vertical flanges is filled with reinforced concrete, but space is left between said concrete and inner sheet.
4. A building wall as claimed in claim 3, in which only the spaces between the flanges of those panels at the corners of said wall are filled with concrete, and said flanges contain vertical reinforcing rods having ends which project from the upper and lower ends of said flanges and are seated in the superstructure and substructure respectively of the building.
5. A building wall as claimed in claim 1 having at least one opening, one of the flanges on each adjacent panel being positioned along the edge of said panel adjacent said opening.
6. A building wall as claimed in claim 5 in which at least one opening is encircled by a wooden frame fastened to said outer sheets by means of metallic angle irons, and a sealing strip is positioned between said outer sheets and frames.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 751,346 2/1904 Schall 52-602 1,451,000 4/ 1923 White 52--602 2,047,109 7/ 1936 Nagel 52--405 2,139,907 12/ 1938' Nielsen et al. 52-602 2,592,634 4/1952. Wilson 5291 2,969,617 1/1961 Michelier 52-602 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,162,919 4/1958 France. 1,166,339 6/1958 France. 1,313,954 11/1962. France.
FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.
J. L. RIDGILL, JR., Assistant Examiner.
US. Cl. X.R.