|Publication number||US3415649 A|
|Publication date||Dec 10, 1968|
|Filing date||Jun 22, 1964|
|Priority date||Jul 1, 1963|
|Also published as||DE1447669A1, DE1447669B2, DE1447669C3|
|Publication number||US 3415649 A, US 3415649A, US-A-3415649, US3415649 A, US3415649A|
|Inventors||Fumihiko Nishio, Hideo Kawano, Yoshihide Hayakawa|
|Original Assignee||Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (17), Classifications (18)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,415,649 PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF, LIGHT- SENSITIVE MATERIAL CONTAINING COAT- ING AIDS Fumihiko Nishio, Odawara-shi, and Yoshihide Hayakawa and Hideo Kawano, Minamiashigara-machi, Japan, assignors to Fuji Shashin Film Kabushiki Kaisha, Kauagawa-ken, Japan, a corporation of Japan No Drawing. Filed June 22, 1964, Ser. No. 377,102 Claims priority, application Japan, July 1, 1963,
8/ 34,645 9 Claims. (CI. 96-94) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE By incorporating in a gelation-containing layer, e.g. a protective coating layer, for photographic light-sensitive elements a compound represented by the formula wherein R is H or an alkyl group, R is an alkyl group, In is 0-20, n is 3 or 4 and M is an alkali metal or an ammonium group, the formation of repellencies or comets can be prevented.
This invention relates to a process for the production of a photographic film and printing paper and photographic materials produced thereby. More particularly, the invention is concerned with a process for the production of a light-sensitive material which comprises incorporating in a gelatin coating solution for such photographic purposes as a wetting agent an adduct of alkyl phenol and sultone, or adduct of sulfone and an addition polymer of alkyl phenol and ethylene oxide and coating out the composition onto a support therefor.
As a support for light-sensitive material, in general, is used a sheeting of cellulose nitrate, cellulose triacetate, polycarbonate, polyester and other synthetic high molecular materials, glass or paper. A photographic silver-halide emulsion layer is coated directly or through an undercoating onto the support. The so-called undercoating may serve for adhering strongly the support and photographic emulsion. In a lot of light-sensitive materials, a thin gelatin layer is overcoated on the photographic emulsion layer for the purpose of preventing adhesion to a surface of same or different materials and preventing injury caused by a pressure. Since the conventional lightsensitive materials, as mentioned above, are ordinarily comprised of many layers, a photographic emulsion layer or protective layer cannot be uniformly applied unless there is present a surfactant to spread uniformly the coating solution and increase the wetting property thereof. In addition, the surfactant plays a role of preventing formation of foams and repellencies.
There are numerous instances in which the application of a gelatin solution to a support in a multi-layer is desirable particularly in the making of a color film by successively applying three photographic emulsion layers. The problem about the wetting in the case of overcoating a gelatin layer with another gelatin or colloid layer is completely different from that in the case of applying directly a gelatin layer to a support. This is remarkable in particular when it is applied on a wet undercoating just after the gelation of the latter by chilling.
That is, it is required that the surface of a support is uniformly wetted by a coating solution and simultaneously even a gel resulted from the coating solution with cool- 3,415,649 Patented Dec. 10, 1968 ing, or a film resulted therefrom with drying is uniformly wetted by another coating solution. That a dried film is readily wetted by an aqueous solution is desirable particularly in the photographic processing such as developing, since a film or printing paper should be readily wetted by a processing solution without formation of unevennesses or bubbles.
The non-uniformity in the application may be caused by not only the bad wetting property, but a hydrophobic substance such as fat contained in the gelatin. In the latter, a point-like non-uniformity is formed. In many cases, the thickness of the coating gets thinner particularly in the circumference of the hydrophobic substance, which presents the phenomenon of the so-called repellency or comet. As many marketed gelatins contain unavoidably a small amount of fat, it is necessary to add a surfactant in order to inhibit such repellency which may be due to the fat.
Of late saponin has been more widely employed in the photographic industry as a coating aid, wetting agent, than many other surfactants. However, saponin has many defects. This material being a naturally occurring material may vary in quality and composition from batch to batch.
Therefore, some attempt has been given to the use of synthetic materials as a surfactant for photography. In many patents, it is said that such synthetic materials are used not only as coating aids, wetting agents, but also as antistatic agents, solubilizers for color-forming compounds, permeation promoting agents in the processing solutions, Water-mark reducing agents, anti-foaming agents in the application of a gelatin sol to an emulsion layer after setting, development accelerators and agents for preventing contamination of a support with an antihalation dye. Most of these synthetic surfactants represent such specific effects that they may give good results to some photographic emulsions or gelatin compositions, but they are of no avail for improving the wetting property of other compositions or for reducing the repellency thereof. This limits their use. From the point of view, several types of surfactants have been hitherto proposed to be used for photography. In many of the synthetic surfactants used in the prior art, the wetting property in the case of coating an undercoating or a previously coated emulsion layer does not always agree with that in the case of being coated with another coating solution or processing solution. Similarly these synthetic surfactants have been found useful in one respect, inhibiting repellency, but have been found to be deficient in another respect, improving wetting.
It has been a difficult problem to coat uniformly a coat ing composition consisting of a colloidal silver suspended in a considerably dilute gelatin solution. Very often there are cases where the colloidal silver suspension is directly applied to a film base to form an anti-halation layer. In such cases, it is almost impossible to prepare a uniform suspension of colloidal silver and to coat it onto the film base in such a way that no bubbles and repellencies are found.
A first object of the present invention is to provide a process for applying a gelatin containing solution which is difficult to be coated.
A second object is to provide a process for applying a photographic emulsion layer or a gelatin composition which is readily wetted with a processing solution without coating defects such as repellencies.
A third object is to apply a photographic emulsion layer or a gelatin composition on which a further photographic emulsion layer or gelatin composition is readily and uniformly applied without coating defects such as repellencies.
Other objects of our invention will appear herein.
We have found that these objects can be accomplished by adding to a coating solution an adduct of alkyl phenol and sultone or adduct of sultone and an addition polymer of alkyl phenol and ethylene oxide.
The structure of the adduct of sultone to be used in the present invention is represented by the following formula:
O(CH2CH20)m(CH2)nSO3M Compound 1 r r orn-p-crn-cQ-ooniomornomsoma CH3 CH3 Compound 2 CH3 CH -C-CH; CH3 CH3+'0CH2CH:CH2SO3N8 Compound 3 (IE3 (IE3 (EH3 4O omonomonomon-o onicmmucunisoma Compound 4 CHmPQ-Q omonimuorrmsoma Compound 5 Cia av 0(CH2CH20)20( 2)s Os 8 The Compound 3 as mentioned above is prepared by forming an addition compound of 1 mol of nonyl phenol and 3 mols of ethylene oxide, adding thereto 1 mol of butane sultone, and reacting the mixture at a temperature of 130-140 C. for 1 hour in the presence of an alkali catalyst, followed by neutralizing.
These surfactants may be added to a photographic 4 EXAMPLE 1 To a photographic emulsion containing 80 g. of gelatin and 45 g. of silver chlorobromide per 1 kg. of the emulsion was added an aqueous solution having the following composition:
The test emulsions were coated by passing a subbed film base under a roller, where the subbed surface of the base was dipped in the emulsion. A protective layer solution containing 20 g. of gelatin and 150 mg. of saponin per 1 kg. thereof was applied similarly over the emulsion layer which had been set by cool air, but not dried. The maximum velocity at which the protective layer solution can be uniformly applied was obtained by changing the passing velocity of the emulsion layer coated base in applying the protective layer solution and it was represented as a limit velocity. The higher velocity is desirable for the production. The number of parts of the coated and dried film where the application of the emulsion was uneven and the thickness thereof got thinner, it is ordinarily designated as comet, was measured. The less the number of the comets, the better.
Limit; velocity (m./mln.) Number of comets/m.
As evident from the above table, in carrying out our invention, the limit velocity was increased and the number of comets were decreased, but in using sodium alkylbenzenesulfonate (Sample No. 5), a typical anion active agent, both the limit velocity and number of comets were decreased. On the other hand, in using polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether (n=l0), a typical nonion active agent (Sample No. 6), the limit velocity was increased, but the number of comets also were rather increased. When these were developed by the marketed developing solution of metol-hydroquinone, any undesired effect was not observed on the photographic properties such as the sensitivity, gama and fog.
EXAMPLE 2 A photographic emulsion containing 75 g. of gelatin, 62 g. of silver iodobromide, 150 mg. of saponin and mg. of polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether (n=15) per 1 kg. of the emulsion was applied to a film base as in Example 1. After drying, a protective layer containing 1.5 g. of gelatin per 1 kg. and mixed with the following surfactant was applied thereto.
coating solution in a proportion of 0.0550 g., preferably 0.35 g. per 1 kg. of a dry gelatin. Two or more of them or other surfactants may be employed.
The following examples will further illustrate the invention but it is to be understood that the invention is not limited thereby.
About the coated and dried samples, the spots where the application of the protective layer was uneven were numbered. A drop of developing solution was put on the sample placed horizontally and the angle of contact was measured by a microscope having a low magnification. The large value of the angle of contact indicates the poor Angle of contact Number of comets/m.
1 45 degrees Above 20. 2 38 degrees 2.
3 27 degrees 0.
4 21 degrees... 0.
5. 48 degrees 0.
6.. 53 degrees 0.
7... 32 degrees. 12.
It is evident from the above table that, in carrying out our invention, both the angle of contact and number of comets were decreased, but in using sulfuric acid ester of lauryl alcohol (Sample No. 5) and sodium alkylbenzenesulfonate (Sample No. 6), the number of comets were decreased and the angle of contact was increased, this bringing such a result that a film tends to repel water. On the other hand, in the use of polyoxyethylene nonylpenyl ether (n=) (Sample No. 7), a typical nonionic acive agent, the complete elimination of comets could not be achieved.
When these were developed by the marketed phenydone hydroquinone developing solution, any undesired effect was not observed on the photographic properties such as the sensitivity, gamma and fog.
EXAMPLE 3 1 liter of an aqueous solution containing 60 g. of gelatin and 25 g. of colloidal silver was prepared. 1 g. of 40% formalin as a hardening agent and 1 g. of the compound 1 were added thereto. The resulting dispersion was heated to 40 C. and applied to a support of cellulose triacetate in -25 micron thickness based upon the dried base. The coating solution was freed from bubbles, the coated anti-halation layer was protected from repellencies and the image quality could be remarkably improved. When the similar procedure was done except that 1 g. of saponin was used in place of the compound 1, the elimination of bubbles could not be achieved.
What is claimed is:
1. In a photographic element containing light sensitive silver halide and at least of gelatin, wherein the im- .provement comprises said layer containing a compound represented by the following formula wherein R represents a member selected from the class consisting of hydrogen atom and alkyl group having 1-18 carbon atoms, R represents an alkyl group having 1-18 carbon atoms, m is an integer of 0-20, n is 3 or 4 and M represents a member selected from the class consisting of an alkali metal and an ammonium group.
2. The photographic element according to claim 1 wherein said compound is one shown by the formula CH3 CH3 CHs--GHrQ-O CHuCHgCHzCHgSOaNB 3. The photographic element according to claim 1 wherein said com-pound is one shown by the formula 4. The photographic element according to claim 7 wherein said compound is one shown by the formula CH3 C CH3 I H3 omisnomonombnQ-o(ongommuonosoma 5. The photographic element according to claim 1 wherein said compound is one shown by the formula 6. The photographic element according to claim 1 wherein said compound is one shown by the formula 7. A photographic element according to claim 1, wherein n is 4.
8. In a process for the production of a light sensitive photographic element containing a silver halide and at least one gelatin coating, the improvement which comprises incorporating into a gelatin coating solution a compound represented by the following formula References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 7/1957 Saertner 252-161 3/1962 Knox et al. 96-94 OTHER REFERENCES Schwartz et al. Surface Active Agents, p. 107-8, Interscience Publishers, New York (1949).
J. TRAVIS BROWN, Primary Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R. 106-125
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|U.S. Classification||430/636, 430/637, 106/154.11, 106/154.3|
|International Classification||G03C1/38, C03B15/08, C03B15/00, G03C1/043, G03C1/04, G03C1/825|
|Cooperative Classification||G03C1/825, G03C1/043, C03B15/08, G03C1/38|
|European Classification||G03C1/825, G03C1/043, G03C1/38, C03B15/08|