|Publication number||US3416336 A|
|Publication date||Dec 17, 1968|
|Filing date||Dec 22, 1965|
|Priority date||Dec 22, 1965|
|Also published as||DE1553400B1|
|Publication number||US 3416336 A, US 3416336A, US-A-3416336, US3416336 A, US3416336A|
|Original Assignee||Liquidonics Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (22), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 17, 1968 R. FELSON MAGNETIC LOCK DEVICES Filed Dec. 22, 1965 3 all INVENTOR,
United States Patent 3,416,336 MAGNETIC LOCK DEVICES Ronald Felson, Laurelton, N.Y., assignor to Liquidomcs Industries, Inc., Westbury, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Dec. 22, 1965, Ser. No. 515,588 Claims. (Cl. 70-476) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A springless magnetic lock in which each tumbler is a permanent magnet and the key has permanently magnetized inserts, one for each tumbler, and so arranged that upon insertion of the key in proper position into the lock, the tumblers are attracted thereby respectively, to unlocking position. For each tumbler, there is an auxiliary magnet fixed on the lock casing, and so arranged that each constantly attracts its related tumbler to bring and hold it in locking position when the key is withdrawn. At all times, each tumbler is under the attraction of its related auxiliary magnet, regardless of the direction and line of movement of the tumbler. Contact of the tumbler with its associated fixed companion magnet, is avoided by a nonmagnetizable media between them. Except for the magnets, the lock structure is of nonmagnetizable material. In each such set of three related magnets, the strength of the auxiliary magnet is sufficient to maintain the tumbler in locking position regardless of the direction of movement of the tumbler, and the strength of the magnetic key insert is sufficient to shift the tumbler into unlocking position against the action of the auxiliary magnet regardless of the line of movement of the tumbler. The magnets are so positioned that all action on the tumbler is in attraction.
The present invention relates to novel and improved magnetic lock constructions and the keys therefor, and more particularly to the type in which all magnetic action is by attraction.
Locks of this class, have heretofore replied on gravity action to return the tumblers to locking position, upon the withdrawal of the key. If a burglar could shift the lock a half turn, and such is known to have been done with cylinder locks, should the lock be of this magnetic type, it would automatically open. Further, magnetic locks of the past, of this general class, could not be used for cabinets, chests, trunks and other movable box structures, because all you need do to have the lock open by itself, is to invert the lock by setting the object it is mounted on, upside down.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a novel and improved spring-less magnetic lock which will avoid the aforementioned objectionable incidents, for my new lock operates properly without the aid of gravity and regardless of its position. Further, gravity action will never open the lock regardless of how the locks position is shifted. My new lock operates properly wholly by magnetic action and hence the line of tumbler movement may even be up to lock, or horizontal, because gravity action is never relied on.
This invention contemplates a lock construction which operates on the principal that when a magnetic insert in the shank of a key is properly positioned in a lock, it will pull a tumbler from locking position to open position, and that for the tumblers, the lock includes companion means acting by magnetic attraction which will pull the tumblers back to locking position when the key is removed. In such combination, gravity is not called upon to play any part in effecting tumbler movement.
Parts held in contact by magnetic attraction, require considerable force to be separated. This would require that the magnetic insert in the key must be very strong by comparison, in order to overcome the attractive force between the tumbler as the companion means.
It is therefore another object of this invention to pro vide a novel and improved construction which makes it easy for the magnetic insert in the key to overcome the attraction of the tumbler between itself and its companion, so the tumbler is shifted into open position.
Another object thereof is to provide the lock with antipicking means.
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel and improved magnetic lock structure of the character described and having the states attributes, which is simple in construction, reasonable in cost to manufacture, easy to assemble and efiicient in carrying out the functions for which it is designed.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent as this disclosure proceeds.
For one practice of this invention, each tumbler is permanently magnetized. The key has permanently magnetized inserts, one for each tumbler respectively, and so arranged that upon insertion of the key into the lock, the tumble-rs are attracted thereby and moved into unlocking position. Fixed on the lock easing, are auxiliary permanent magnets, one for each tumbler respectively, and so arranged that each constantly attracts its related tumbler to bring and hold it in looking position when the key is withdrawn. At all times, the tumbler is under the attraction of its related auxiliary magnet, regardless of the direction and line of movement of the tumbler. Contact of the tumbler with its associated fixed companion magnet, is avoided by a thin non-magnetizable element between them. Except for the magnets, the lock structure is of non-magnetizable material. Of importance is that in each such set of three related magnets, the strength of the auxiliary magnet is suflicient to maintain the tumbler in locking position regardless of the direction of movement of the tumbler, and the strength of the magnet key insert is suflicient to shift the tumbler into unlocking position against the action of the auxiliary magnet regardless of the line of movement of the tumbler. These strength relationships must also prevail regardless of the direction the tumbler need move at any time. The magnets are so positioned that all action on the tumbler is in attraction.
Various modified embodiments of this invention, will also be shown.
One pick-proof provision is to have one or more auxiliary tumblers of magnetizable material maintained in unlocking position by a fixed permanent magnet; each auxil iary tumbler being at a location where the key presents no magnetic insert when the key is in the lock in proper position to bring the main tumblers into unlocking position.
For a preferred embodiment of this invention, I show herein its adaptation in a cylinder lock construction, and include structure providing that the key can be withgrawn, only that thereupon, the device is in locked conition.
In the accompanying drawing forming part of this specification, similar characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all the views.
FIG. 1 is an enlarged longitudinal view showing a cylininder lock embodying the teachings of this invention, and also its key. This view is shown in section taken at line 11 in FIG. 3. The key is shown entering the barrel. The main tumblers are in locking position. The auxiliary tumbler is in open position.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary view of the device as shown in FIG. 1, but here in FIG. 2, the key is shown fully inserted, and hence the main tumblers are in their moved position and the barrel is free to turn in the casing,
FIG. 3 is a Section taken at line 33 in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 shows a front view of the lock, that is, looking onto the left end in FIG. 1. In this FIG. 4, the key is shown partly turned from its initial position at full insertion. Of course, the barrel has turned with the key.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary perspective View which shows the front end portion of the barrel.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary section only of the casing, taken at line 66 in FIG. 4.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary section showing a modified construction to hold a tumbler out of contact with its auxiliary magnet.
FIGS. 8-10 are fragmentary sections of modifications of FIG. 1; FIG. 10 being drawn to a reduced scale.
In the drawing, the numeral indicates generally a locks cylinder or casing in which a barrel 16 is rotatably fitted, and as is well known, said barrel carries a suitable member 17 to shift the locks bolt not shown, upon rotation of said barrel within the casing. Said barrel and casing are of non-magnetic material and so is the body of the key 18 which is slidable into and out of the barrel. There is a series of holes through the wall of the casing 15, one such hole being shown at 19, which series, at one position of the barrel 16, register respectively with radial sockets in said barrel 16, as for instance the socket 19' with the hole 19. Each hole and its related socket are of like diameter, adapted to house a slidable permanently magnetized tumbler which is of a length greater than the distance it can enter into the hole, so such tumbler can be part in the socket and part in the related hole of the cavity. Those holes having a tumbler, are closed by a permanent magnet as indicated at 20, so the tumbler is within a chamber. There is sufi'icient chamber space to allow the tumbler to reside wholly within the socket in the barrel, as do the tumblers 20 and 21 in FIG. 2, in their respective sockets 22 and 23. It is evident that when the tumblers extend all into the sockets, as in FIG. 2, they unlock the barrel and let it free for turning, and when the tumblers extend partly into the holes of the casing, they are in locking position. The key 18 has permanently magnetized inserts in the same spaced relation as the tumblers so that upon full insertion of the key into the barrel 16, one of such inserts is in axial alignment with one of the tumblers respectively.
The holes containing the tumblers 20, 21 and 24 are in one row along the casing, with the holes 19 and 25. If desired, tumblers may be provided in the holes 19 and 25, and such, together with the tumblers 20, 21 and 24, may constitute the entire locking means. Of course, wherever there is a tumbler, there is a companion auxiliary fixed magnet, as for instance the pair 20, 20'. However, in the illustrated embodiment, I have provided a second series of holes in another row along the casing 15, with companion sockets in the barrel 16, such sockets being indicated by the respective numerals 26-30, and have provided the tumblers 31 and 32 to be in staggered relation with the tumblers 20, 21 and 24, thereby leaving half the holes empty. It is evident that different choices of which holes in the casing are to contain tumblers and the position of the respective poles of the magnets, affords many combinations for the lock, each of which needs its special key respectively. The spaced magnetic inserts positioned transversely through the body of the smooth key shank, are in such relative positions that when the key 18 is fully inserted into the barrel 16, one of said inserts is in alignment with one of the tumblers respectively.
An important teaching of this invention is that the magnetic components of this lock shall comprise sets of three magnet pieces each, namely a tumbler, an auxiliary fixed magnet on the casing and a magnetic insert in the key. In each set, the tumbler is under the action of at traction by its related auxiliary magnet, and when the key is fully inserted into the barrel, the tumbler is under the action of attraction by its related key insert; the
strength of the auxiliary magnet being sufficient to maintain the tumbler in locking position regardless of the line and direction of movement of the tumbler, and the strength of the magnetic key insert, being sufiicient to shift the tumbler into unlocking position against the action of the auxiliary magnet, regardless of the direction and line of movement of the tumbler. It is evident that the effects of gravity are counteracted in such a setup.
Of prime importance is that no contact shall occur between the auxiliary magnet and the tumbler, meaning that constantly between them, only non-magnetizable material shall be present. One way to accomplish this, is to have a thin piece of copper 44, fixed at the end of the auxiliary magnet facing the tumbler, or it may be on the tumbler end which faces the auxiliary magnet. Another way to have such non-magnetic material between them, is to have an air gap 45, which is maintained by providing a stop shoulder 46 for a shoulder 47 on the tumbler 48, a construction shown in FIG. 7.
I will now identify sets of three magnet components each. The tumbler 20 is related with the auxiliary magnet 20' and the magnetic key insert 20". The tumbler 21 is related with the auxiliary magnet 21' and the magnetic key insert 21". The tumbler 24 is related with the auxiliary magnet 24' and the magnetic key insert 24". The tumbler 31 is related with the auxiliary magnet 31' and the magnetic key insert 31". The tumbler 32 is related with an auxiliary magnet not shown, and with the magnetic key insert 32".
At the finger-piece end, there is a pin 33 transversely through the shank of the key 18. This pin extends out of the shank, more at 33' than at 33", to determine the position the key is to be in, so that when inserted into the barrel 16, the inserts 20", 32", 21", 31" and 24" shall respectively be in alignment with the tumblers 20, 32, 21, 31 and 24. Upon such insertion of the key 18, all the said tumblers will be shifted clear of the casing 15 and into the sockets in the barrel 16, that is, the tumblers will move from their normal locking position shown in FIG. 1 when the key 18 is out, to unlocking position shown in FIG. 2, effected by mere insertion of the key in proper position to register with the tumblers.
The casing 15, a bit behind front end, is provided with an internal annular channel 35, along which the tip end portion of pin part 33 rides fitted therein, upon turning the key 18, after such key is fully inserted into the barrel. There is a notch 36' to afford entrance of the distal end of the pin part 33' into said channel; such notch being in the face plate 34, and enterable at the front of such plate. The barrel 16 has a short keyway 37 enterable at the front end by the pin part 33", and of a depth, just to admit it. For entrance of the pin part 33, the barrel has a notch 36 enterable at the front end. The length of said keyway 37 and the depth of said notch 36 are such that when the key is fully entered in the barrel, the distal end of the pin part 33' will enter the channel 35 when the key is then turned. Said notch 36 and keyway 37, are of course so positioned that they receive the pin 33 when the key is fully inserted in the barrel. The notch 36' in the casing, is so positioned that it registers with the notch 36 when the tumblers are in locking position. In normal manufacture, the keyhole offered by the notches 36, 36' and the keyway 37, shall admit the pin 33 when the latter is vertical, in order to conform with ordinary lock practice to have the key in the vertical plane for insertion. It is evident that the key can be inserted only in one way, since the keyway 37 will not admit the pin part 33, but can only admit the pin part 33", which is much shorter than 33.
Upon full insertion of the key 18 into the barrel 16, meaning that the pin part 33" is at the end of the keyway 37, the pin part 33' is at the closed end of the notch 36 and the distal end of said pin part 33' is in the annular channel entrance 36, the keys magnetic inserts are in their proper location to effect tumbler shift to unlocked position as in FIG. 2. So mere insertion of the key as mentioned, will release the barrel 16 for turning. Now upon turning the key, the barrel will turn and the incident movement of the member 17, will operate the bolt mechanism not shown. The distal end of the pin part 33' will be cached in the annular channel 35. It is evident that in this structure as illustrated, the key cannot be withdrawn except when the tumblers would be in locking position as in FIG. 1, upon the withdrawal of such key, and to withdraw the key, it must be in position to have the pin part 33' leave through the notch 36'.
It is to be noted that the action of gravity will never cause any tumbler to shift from locking position to unlocking position, even if the device is inverted, and it is evident that the tumblers may be arranged for movement along any direction, even along the horizontal, since at no time is gravity action relied on to operate the device in any particular. Hence locks embodying this invention, may be used on cabinets, chests and the like, because turning the cabinet upside down, will not release the barrel 16. I have indicated the arrangement for the magnetic components, by marking polarities thereof N and S. Of course, many other dispositions may be made to get lock combinations, but always, the magnetic forces acting on the tumbler are attraction forces exerted by its associated auxiliary magnet and its actuating magnet insert in the key. 0f importance to note, is that regardless how the lock is installed, said auxiliary magnets maintain the tumblers in locking position when the key is out, whether tumbler movement is along the horizontal, or require to be acted on by an upward force to stay in locking position or require a force in any direction to stay in locking position, and said auxiliary magnets always do their job regardless of any shift in look position. These incidents of structure and mode of operation, make this lock pick-proof, to which end further protection may be provided where for instance an attempt is made to pick the lock by any means which would create within the keyhole, a magnetic field of such intensity as to overcome the attraction action of all the auxiliary magnets, and thus draw all the tumblers into the barrel 16, bringing the device into unlocked condition. Then to turn the barrel, would be an easy matter. So to avoid this, the device may be provided with an auxiliary tumbler 40 of magnetizable material as soft iron, wholly within the hole 41 in the casing and there maintained by the permanent magnet 42 fixed in such hole. The barrel has a socket 43 into which part of said auxiliary tumbler 40 would be withdrawn into by such overpowering magnetic field and thus maintain the device in locked condition; said socket 43 and the hole 41, being in alignment when the device is in locked condition of FIG. 2. Although the magnetic inserts in the key 18, during insertion of the key into the lock, would in passing, shift the auxiliary tumbler 40 into locking position, the magnet 42 would pull it back into the hole 41 and let the key do its work. It is evident that gravity would in no manner effect said auxiliary tumbler 40.
In the embodiment illustrated herein, the forward end of the barrel 16 is of reduced diameter and the cylinder 15 is bored and counterbored, suiting the barrel to fit therein for rotation; the assembly of said casing and barrel being effected by a strong split retaining ring as shown at 49.
In the scheme of structure herein taught, the tumblers must be drawn into unlocking position by forces of attraction furnished by the permanently magnetized key inserts, and they must be drawn into locking position by some auxiliary means to which they are attracted when the key is out of the lock. In FIG. 1, such auxiliary means are the fixed permanent magnets 20, 21' and the remainder of such series. It is therefore evident that the key must have its magnetic inserts, and that when the auxiliary 50 is a permanent magnet, its related tumbler 50 may be of soft iron and unmagnetized, or that when the tumbler 51 is a permanent magnet, its auxiliary 51' may be of soft iron and unmagnetized. In the latter instance, all the auxiliaries may be offered by a soft iron sleeve 52 on the casing, which sleeve closes all the holes in the casing, and for the non-magnetizable separator, said sleeve may have a copper or brass lining 52. In all instances however, the force of attraction of the key insert upon a tumbler, must be suflicient to move the tumbler into unlocking position against the force of attraction of the tumbler for its auxiliary, and the force of attraction of the tumbler for its auxiliary, must be sufiicient to shift the tumbler into locking position, when the key is out of the lock.
The sleeve 52 is securely attached to be part of the casing, and is preferably exteriorally threaded as is empirical in this art.
This invention is capable of numerous forms and various applications without departing from the essential features herein disclosed. It is therefore intended and desired that the embodiments shown herein shall be deemed merely illustrative and not restrictive and that the patent shall cover all patentable novelty herein set forth; reference being had to the following claims rather than to the specific showings and description herein, to indicate the scope of this invention.
1. In a spring-less magnetic lock device, a first member, a second member movably mounted on the first member; said members being of non-magnetic material; the first member having a hole therethrough and the second member having a socket therein in alignment with said hole, a tumbler element longitudinally slidable and fitted in said hole and socket, and positioned part in said hole and part in said socket and being capable of being housed entirely in said socket, an auxiliary element positioned fixed on the first member, across said hole, a nonmagnetizable media in the hole extending only between the tumbler and the auxiliary elements; one of said elements being a permanent magnet and the other being of magnetiza-ble material, in combination with a key of nonmagnetic material having a permanently magnetized insert; said key when placed in a position so that the magnetic insert is in alignment with said tumbler element and acting to attract said tumbler element so the latter is moved entirely within said socket in the second member, the second member will thereby be released for movement in relation to the first member; the strength of the magnetized element being such that regardless of the line and direction of movement of the tumbler element to leave the hole, the auxiliary element will act on the tumbler element to maintain it part way into said hole when said socket and hole are in alignment and the key is away from said position; the strength of said magnetic insert being such that regardless of the line and direction of movement of the tumbler element to leave the hole, said insert will act on the tumbler element to maintain it wholly in said socket when the key is in said position, regardless of the action on the tumbler element by said auxiliary element.
2. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, wherein the media constantly between the tumbler and auxiliary elements is a non-magnetic element carried on one of them.
3. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, wherein the media constantly between the tumbler and auxiliary elements is air.
4. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, wherein the tumbler element is the one which is a permanent magnet.
5. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, wherein the auxiliary element is the one which is a permanent magnet.
6. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 5, wherein the tumbler element is also a permanent magnet.
7. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, including second means on said key and second member, which come into alignment upon placing the key so that its magnetic insert is in alignment with said tumbler element, and upon such positioning of the key and when said tumbler element is entirely within said socket in the second member, the key can be manipulated to move the second member in relation to the first member.
8. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 7, wherein the first member is a casing and the second member is a barrel rotatably fitted in said casing; said barrel having a bore therein therealong and said bore being accessible for the admission of the key therein; the mentioned hole being through the Wall of said casing.
9. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, wherein the first member is a casing and the second member is a barrel rotatably fitted in said casing; the mentioned hole being through the wall of said casing; said barrel having a bore therein therealong and said bore being accessible for the admission of the key.
10. A magnetic lock device as defined in claim 1, wherein the first member is provided with another hole therethrough and the second member is provided with References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,931,953 4/1960 Barney 317134 1,172,203 2/1916 Fuller 70-276 2,966,789 1/1961 Hall 70276 3,111,834 11/1963 Felson 70276 MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner.
R. L. WOLFE, Assistant Examiner.
US. Cl. X.R. 70-413
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|U.S. Classification||70/276, 70/413|