|Publication number||US3416485 A|
|Publication date||Dec 17, 1968|
|Filing date||Sep 8, 1966|
|Priority date||Sep 8, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3416485 A, US 3416485A, US-A-3416485, US3416485 A, US3416485A|
|Inventors||Chester W Phillips|
|Original Assignee||Chester W. Phillips|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (7), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
17 1968 w. PHILLIPS SCORING AID Filed Sept. 8, 1966 ZI 182i- N mi wIOh-i- INVENTOR CHESTER W. PHILLIPS ATTORNEYS.
United States Patent O 3,416,485 SCORING AID Chester W. Phillips, 74D Amberley, Rte. 2, Annapolis, Md. 21401 Filed Sept. 8, 1966, Ser. No. 578,054 7 Claims. (Cl. 116-120) This invent-ion is directed to a scoring aid and more particularly to a `single element, hand-held device for scoring athletic or like performances involving multiple exercises performed in sequence over a rather extended period of time.
In certain visible and audible performances, as in athletic, musical and dramatic presentations, or in educational testing and the like, there is an involvement of multiple mandatory or free exercises which are performed at high speed in sequence, by a varying number of contestants over an extended period of time. The scorer must pay extremely close attention to the contestant as he proceeds through the multi-part exercise and award unitary or fractional points on the basis of completion of -various parts of the exercise having varying degrees of difficulty, while at the same time noting momentary deficiencies in style or actual failure in completing a part or parts. Obviously, throughout a given exercise or other performance, it :is exceedingly difficult for a scorer, even if he is an expert in the 4sport or other competition, to carefully remember whether or not the contestant has actually completed all of the parts for each exercise and to remember specifically the number of momentary faults or complete part failures.
Usually, the scorer carries a pencil and pad and tends to mark, as the performance proceeds, either additive or subtractive fractional to whole point counts. At the end of the performance, the scorer usually subjectively evaluates each complete performance based on a mental picture formed at the end of the performance. He, therefore, tends to rely heavily upon his overall mental picture which may, in actuality, have nothing to do with a true mathematical computation of a point count score. The deficiency in present scoring procedures is obvious.
It is, therefore, a primary object of this invention to provide a relatively simple, easy to use scoring aid, allowing the scorer to instantly record his impression of every element seen or heard during a multiple part athletic exercise or other performance, without taking the eyes off of the performer and to provide at the end of the performance a positive evaluation in terms of point count of a completed performance.
It is a yfurther object of this invention to provide a scoring aid of this type ywhich allows the scorer to arrive at a cumulative score involving both penalty counts and completion ycounts based upon both additive and subtractive factors.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved scoring aid which readily allows point counts to be awarded for performance parts which vary in difficulty.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a scoring aid for scoring performances which provides a graphic interpretation of the scoring prescribed by the applicable rules and which automatically converts subjective l judgment into accurate cumulative numerical scores.
Further objects of this invention will be pointed out in the following detailed description and claims, and illustrated in the accompanying drawing, which discloses, by way of example, the principle of this invention and the best modes which have been contemplated of applying that principle.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a plan view `of one embodiment of the ice present invention fin which the scoring aid is adapted to be grasped by both hands during scoring.
FIGURE 2 is a plan view of a section of an alternate embodiment of this invention.
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of a portion of yet a third embodiment of the present invention.
FIGURE 4 is a perspective view of a fourth embodiment of the present invention to be held in only one hand during scoring.
In general, the scoring aid of the present invention comprises a single element, elongated, planar body which is adapted to be manually grasped. The aid is provided with at least one long-itudinally extending edge having designated areas along the edges for initially receiving one or more of the scorers digits and surface irregularities along the edge, adjacent to associated designated areas, whereby the scorer manually moves the digit along the edge and across the surface irregularities in sequential fashion corresponding to the partial score counts to be cumulatively applied during a multiple part performance or exercise.
In preferred form, the device is adapted to be grasped in both hands with the forefingers and thumbs of each hand resting on designated arcas to the right and left of a centerline along opposed longitudinal edges of the device. Triangular shaped projections form the surface irregularities, outwardly of the centerline along both edges and in both directions. The left-hand section of the device is thereby adapted to provide additive partial counts to be applied to a cumulative total while the right-hand section of the score is adapted to provide subtractive partial counts for a predetermined maximum point count total. The surface irregularities of the different sections are of the same configuration, but may readily be given different partial point counts providing maximum exibilty to the scoring aid.
Referring to the drawing, there is shown in FIGURE 1 a preferred embodiment of the scoring aid of the present invention as applied to the eld of gymnastics. It is noted that the scoring a-id comprises a single element, thin, rectangular member 10, similar in configuration to a standard rectangular rule, with the exception of the upper and lower edges 12 and 14, respectively. The scoring aid 10 may be punched from conventional card stock or may be formed of plastic, wood or like material. The scoring aid is divided into a left hand section 16 and into a right hand section 18 separated by centerline 20. The upper edge 12 of the right hand section 18 is provided with ten triangular shaped projections or surface irregularities 22 which extend outwardly from a position just to the right side of the dividing line 20. This leaves a small section 24 along the upper edge, between the centerline 20 and the first of the series of projections 22, which is designated as receiving the right forefinger. In like manner, the bottom of the right hand section is provided with a series of ten triangular projections 26, which extend in like manner outwardly, away from the centerline and towards the extreme right hand edge 28. This produces a small section 30 along the bottom edge 14 and to the right of the centerline 20 which is the designated area -for receiving the right thumb of the scorer.
In similar manner, the left hand section 16 of the scoring aid is provided with a number of similarly formed triangular shaped, projections 28 forming a first series along the upper left hand edge 12. The first of the projections is positioned slightly to the left of the centerline 20, thus providing an area 32 designated as receiving the left forefinger when held in the scorers left hand. A second set of projections 34 are provided along the upper edge 12, but spaced from the first series of projections 30, the space 36 along the upper edge, between the first and second series of left hand projections, is designated as receiving the left small finger when held by the scorer.
The extreme left hand series of projections 34 number only two, while the first series numbers six. Along the lower left hand edge 14, there are provided yet another set of triangular shaped projections 38, the first of these projections being slightly to the left of centerline 20, thus providing an area 40 which is designated as receiving the left thumb when the aid is held by the scorer.
The upper surface 42 of the scoring aid is provided with various numeric designations other than the lettered designations for the right forefinger, right thumb, left forefinger, left small finger and left thumb, at areas 24, 30, 32, 36 and 40, respectively. The scoring aid of FIGURE 1, as mentioned previously, is to be used when scoring an extended gymnastic performance involving multiple exercises. Under the International Code of Points, each contestant may receive a maximum of 10.0 points for an individual exercise. The scoring aid allows the scorer to instantly record his impression of every movement seen during the individual gymnastic exercise without removing his eyes from the performer. The scoring aid automatically evaluates every detail giving the scorer an absolute numerical accuracy for scoring under the International Code of Points. It is necessary for the scorer to think with his fingers so that as the performer completes the mandatory number of A parts or tricks, which are the least diicult, the scorer may so record the completion of each of the A parts as it is completed. At the same time, under the International Code of Points, the scorer records the number of more difficult B parts completed by the performer and the highly difficult C parts. Since six A parts must be completed, six lower left-hand projections 38 are provided, one for each A part and as indicated by the printing at 44, each A part is given a fractional point count of .2 so that upon completion f all six A parts, the performer is given 1.2 points toward the ten point total as an additive factor in the cumulative score.
Referring to the series of six projections to the left of the left forenger area 32, these projections relate to the B parts of the exercise. Since the B parts are more difficult, a fractional 4/10 of a point is awarded for each B part completed. Thus, if the performer performs the four B parts required under the International Code of Points, he receives 1.6 points to be additively applied to the cumulative score for `the completion of the required B parts. It is noted that a fifth and sixth projection 30 is provided, however, these B parts are utilized only in certain championship competitions, and would not normally be utilized in scoring domestic events, such as collegiate competitions. Again, while two C part projections 34 are provided, only the first projection is normally required and upon completion of a C part by the performer, he receives a fractional G/10 point score to be additively applied to the cumulative total. It is, therefore, obvious that the scorer uses his left hand in cumulatively applying fractional points as the performance occurs. The left-hand side of the scoring aid is, therefore, designated as the difficulty side as indicated by the printed word difficulty appearing at on face 42 of the aid.
The right-hand side is known as the penalty side of the scoring aid, and the printed word penalty appears at 56 on the right-hand face 42 of the scoring aid. It is noted that to the right of the right thumb designated area 30, there are provided ten projections 26 and associated therewith numerical designations 6.6 through 5.6 from left to right, respectively, below line 54 and numerical designations 4.6 through 3.6 above this line. Likewise, with respect to the upper right-hand edge 12 of the scoring aid, there are provided a series of ten projections 22 to the right of the right forefinger designated area 24 and numerical designations from 5.6 to 4.6 from left to right above the line 52 and 3.6 through 2.6 from left to right below this line. The lower projections 26 are numbered 1 through l() and the upper projections 22 are numbered 1l through 22 indicating to the scorer the number of penalties applied in a cumulative sense during the multiple exercise performance. The fractional penalties are instantly recorded by the simple expedient of moving, during the first ten penalties, the right thumb from its right thumb designation area 3f) to the valleys between succeeding projections 26 whereupon7 after ten penalties are applied, the right forefinger is moved from its designated area 24 from left to right over projections 22 to fall succeedingly into the valleys between these projections and to therefore apply penalties 11 through 20. If more penalties are to be provided, the penalties are then succeedingly applied by reverting back to the right thumb which has returned to designated area 30, and moving the r-ight thumb from the centerline outward in the same manner as applying the first series of penalties.
From the numerical designations, it is obvious that the penalties are applied in a subtractive sense, that is, as mentioned previously, should the performer complete the exercise without a aw and complete all exercises, he would receive a maximum of 10 points. Regardless of the fractional points received by the performer for completing the exercises having various values insofar as difficulty is concerned, the most that he can receive is 3.4 for the completion of the exercise. He is automatically provi-ded with the 6.6 points unless he has been penalized and the unique scoring aid of the present invention allows the penalties to be subtracted from the 6.6 remainder as the performance proceeds. For instance, during the performance, if the performer is given 15 penalties at 1/10 of a point each, the scorer will have moved his right thumb along the ten lower projections 26 and the right forefinger along the first five projections 22 of the righthand upper edge 12. He merely has to look at the position where his right forefinger rests at the end of the performance and note the number. Since his right forefinger is resting between the projections 22 having numeral designations and 16, it ydenotes a penalty accumulation of 1.5 points. If the performer has completed the exercise consisting of six A parts for an A part score of 1.2, four B parts for a score of 1.6 and a single C part for a score of .6, he will additively receive the maximum of 3.4 on the left-hand or difficulty side of the scoring aid, and will receive a 5.1 score on the righthand or penalty side of the scoring for a cumulative total 8.5.
While the description of the scoring aid and the numeric designations on the front face 42 of the scoring aid are specifically applied to gymnastic events scored under the International Code of Points, the scoring aid of the present invention has broad application to other sporting events, such as boxing or figure skating. Indeed it may be applied to any long range individual or group performance performed over a relatively long period of time, where it is exceedingly difiicult to arrive at a cumulative score for a performance. For instance, the aid may be useful in making awards for theatrical performances, debates, public speaking competition or for more personal applications, such as job interviews, educational testing and the like.
Referring to FIGURE 2, it is noted that instead of having projections along the upper and lower faces of the scoring aid, the embodiment of FIGURE 2 employs triangular indentations 130 as applied to the upper edge 112 0f scoring aid 110. Again, the device is shown as applied to ta gymnastic performance within a B part section 146 to the immediate left-hand side of the centerline and spaced slightly from a C part section 143. Again, right forefinger section 124 is designated along the upper edge 112 to the right side of centerline 12u, while left forefinger section 132 abuts the right forefinger section to the left of the centerline. A left small finger section 136 separates the B and C part areas 146 and 148 respectively. Indentations or notches 134 allow the left small finger to move into a first or second notch during scoring. While the notches or indentations 130 and 134 are triangular or V-shaped, it is obvious that they could be semi-circular or semi-oval as desired. In like manner to the previous embodiment, the scoring aid 110 may be in the form of a thin plastic planar element, or punched from cardboard of like material.
FIGURE 3 shows an alternate embodiment very similar to the embodiment of FIGURE 2, with the exception that the initial placement areas for the finger and thumb digits (not shown) are in the form 0f annular depressions. For instance, the scoring laid 210 is provided along its upper edge 212 with a left small finger 4annular depression 2.02, a left forefinger annular depression 204 and a right forefinger depression 206. The notches or indentations 230 and 234 4for B part and C part sections 246 and 248 respectively are identical to the V-shaped notches of the embodiment of FIGURE 2. Use of the annular depressions insures the proper placement of the fingers and thumbs when initially grasping the scoring aid by the scorer.
, The present invention has further application to a scoring aid which may be readily grasped in one hand by the scorer. For instance, where a performance is being scored which involves only the cumulative addition of points for completion of `a multiple trick exercise, a modified scoring aid such as the one shown in FIGURE 4 may be employed. In the modified form, the scoring aid 310 is formed of thin planar stock material and constitutes essentially the left hand section 16 of the embodiment shown in FIGURE l. In this case, it is easily grasped in the left -hand with the left forefinger lying along surface area 332, the left small finger lying along surface area 336` between raised notches 334 and 330 and the left thumb lying along surface 340 adjacent notches 338. Scoring in the case of this instrument, is the same as in FIGURE 1, since ,as shown by the difficulty designation 350, projections 1 through 6 along lower edge 310 allow additive compilation of fractional, unitary or multiple points for -,A part. The six projections 330 allow the accumula- `tionof B part points and the two projections 334 allow awarding of additional points based on the more diliicult parts-of an exercise or performance. Obviously, instead of using the series of projections 330, 334 :and 338 all in an additive sense, the upper sections 330 for instance may be -additively applied while the lower projections 338 may be .used to penalize or reduce the score in the same manner-*that projections 22 and 26 of the FIGURE 1 embodimentsubtract point count. It is obvious from the above that many variations and changes may be made in the existing device. It is the intention, however, to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.
. What is claimed is:
1 1. A scoring aid for manual manipulation comprising: an elongated body having opposed edges, a first and second series of undulations carried by one of said edges, a medial edge portion separating said first and second series of undulations to initially receive the index fingers of respective right and left hands during use, subtractive factor indicia carried by said body corresponding to individual undulations of said first series and additive factor indicia carried by said body corresponding to individual undulations of said second series, whereby, the scorer manually moves respective index fingers along said edge to Sequentially apply partial score counts and to thereby provide a cumulative score for a multiple part exercise.
2. The scoring laid las claimed in claim 1 further in- 0 cluding a third series of undulations carried by said body along a portion of said opposite edge and additional subtractive factor indicia carried by said body corresponding to the individual undulations of said third series whereby said third series acts as an extension of said first series of subtractive factor undulations.
3. The scoring aid as claimed in claim 2 further including a fourth series of undulations carried by said one edge, longitudinally spaced, outwards of said first series of undulations with the edge portion formed intermediate thereof initially receiving the small finger of the left hand during use, and additional additive factor indicia carried by said body corresponding to the individual undulations of said fourth series.
4. The scoring aid as claimed in claim 3 further including a fifth series of undulations carried by said opposite edge, generally opposite of said second series of edge undulations and additional additive factor indicia carried by said body corresponding to the individual undulations of said fifth series.
5. The scoring aid as claimed in claim 4 further including a medial edge portion separating said third and fifth series of edge undulations to initially receive thumbs of respective right and left hands during use.
6. The scoring aid as claimed in claim 1 wherein said edges extend longitudinally beyond said series of edge undulations to define an edge baseline, and said undulations are formed by projections integral with said body and projectingoutwardly from said base line.
7. The scoring aid as claimed in claim 1 wherein said edges of said.elongated body project longitudinally beyond said. series of edge undulations to define the base line of said one edge, and said undulations fare formed by a series of recesses extending inwardly of said base line.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 694,730 3/1902 Collamer et al. 116-130 1,422,944 i 7/ 1922 Edmondson 235-69 1,768,087 6/1930 Leverson 116-130 2,001,650 5/1935 Bane 116-119 2,296,308y v 9/*1942 Rand 116-130 2,712,810 7/1955 Ranko etal 116-130 LOUIS I. CAPOZI, Primary Examiner.
l Us. c1. xa. 33-107
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US694730 *||Nov 14, 1901||Mar 4, 1902||Newton L Collamer||Designator or enumerator.|
|US1422944 *||Jan 3, 1920||Jul 18, 1922||Calcttlatob|
|US1768087 *||Jul 3, 1928||Jun 24, 1930||Irving B Leverson||Score card|
|US2001650 *||Sep 19, 1933||May 14, 1935||Bane John N||Bookmark|
|US2296308 *||Aug 1, 1941||Sep 22, 1942||Indicator|
|US2712810 *||Feb 24, 1954||Jul 12, 1955||Reminder sheets|
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|U.S. Classification||116/222, 33/492, 33/494|