US 3416512 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 17, 1968 A. MINTZ INFRARED HEATING SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 9. 1967 I INVENTOR.
ALVIN MINTZ ATTORNEYS 7, 1968. A. MlNTZ 3,416,512
INFRARED HEATING SYSTEM Filed Jan. 9, 1967 v 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
N ALVIN mm'z ATTORNEYS Dec. 17, 1968 A. MINTZ 3,416,512
INFRARED HEATING SYSTEM Filed Jan. 9, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.
ALVIN MINTZ ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,416,512 INFRARED HEATING SYSTEM Alvin Mintz, 4457 Baintree Road, University Heights, Ohio 44118 Filed Jan. 9, 1967, Ser. No. 608,186 4 Claims. (Cl. 126-94) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A heating system is provided in which a pair of heatemitting conduits are disposed in axial alignment with each other and spaced axially from each other, burner units are provided spaced along said conduits for providing flames interiorly of the conduits, and means common to both conduits is provided adjacent the space between the conduits for simultaneouly exhausting the products of combustion from both conduits in countercurrent relationship to the flow of heat in the first-named conduits and in heat-transferring relationship to the latter.
This invention relates generally to space heating systems, but has reference more particularly to a heating system in the form of infrared ray emission.
A primary object of the invention is to provide a heating system of the character described, in which the heat necessary to produce the infrared ray emission is obtained through the combustion of oil or a like fuel, by means of flames which are completely enclosed within the infrared ray emitter, and cannot, therefore, cause damage or injury to persons subjected to the heating.
Another object of the invention is to provide a heating system of the character described, in which the infrared ray emissions are produced by relatively long conduittype units, in which the flames are produced at uniformly spaced points.
A further object of the invention is to provide a heating system of the character described, in which the air required to produce the flames is sucked or drawn into and through conduit-like units by means of a blower arrangement which is also utilized to withdraw the products of combustion and exhaust them to a point remote from the heating system.
A further object of the invention is to provide a heating system of the character described, in which the residual heat in the products of combustion is utilized to preheat the infrared ray emitters as well as the combustible mixture in such emitters, through a unique countercurrent flow of the products of combustion.
A further object of the invention is to provide a heating system of the character described in which burners of novel construction are employed which are highly efficient from the viewpoint of thorough combustion of the fuel, heat radiation, and control of the air volume required for combustion.
A further object of the invention is to provide a heating system of the character described, in which a novel ignition system is employed for igniting the combustible mixture of fuel and air which passes into the burners.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a heating system of the character described, which consists of components of which a maxi-mum number is readily available or easily manufactured, and can be quickly and easily assembled and installed, at relatively low cost.
Other objects and advantages of my invention will be apparent during the course of the following description.
In the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification, and in which like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary top plan view of a heating system embodying the invention, but with the omission of certain parts, for purposes of clarity;
FIG. 2 is a rear elevation of the heating system, as viewed in the direction indicated by the arrows 22 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view, on an enlarged scale, taken on the line 33 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary rear elevational view, on an enlarged scale, of a portion of FIG. 2, and showing one of the burner units and associated parts;
FIG. 5 is a top plan view of one of the burners;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view, taken on the line 66 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view, taken on the line 7-7 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is a view illustrating, in somewhat diagrammatic manner, the fuel storage and supply system for the heating system, and
FIG. 9 is a wiring diagram, showing the current supply and ignition system for energizing the electrodes in the burner units.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, the system will be seen to comprise a pair of axially-spaced conduits of pipes 1 and 2, each provided with end flanges 3 and 4. These conduits are preferably of cast iron, but may be made of any other suitable heat-resistant metal. In a test installation of the system, the conduits 1 and 2 were approximately 20 feet long, and approximately 6" in diameter.
The axially-spaced flanges 3 of the conduits have secured thereto caps or closure plates 5.
The conduits 1 and 2 may be supported in any desired manner, as, for example, by means of base pedestals or brackets, :so as to be spaced a suitable distance from the ground or floor or from a vertical wall or overhead structure, but the showing of such supporting means is not regarded as necessary for the purposes of this invention.
Secured, as by welding or other means, to the upper surface of the conduits 1 and 2, are conduits 6 and 7, the end portions of which terminate short of the ends of the respective conduits 1 and 2. In the test installation referred to, the conduits 6 and were made of steel pipe and were approximately 18 feet long and approximately 3" in diameter.
The inner ends of the conduits 6 and 7, are connected, as by means of pipe segments 8 and 9, to a manifold 10 from which the products of combustion which are generated in the heating system are exhausted by a blower 11, which is activated by an electric motor 12. The blower 11 has an exhaust portion 13 through which the products of combustion may be exhausted into the atmosphere or into another conduit for exhausting to a point remote from the blower.
The outer ends of the conduits 1 and 2 are connected with the outer ends of the conduits 6 and 7 by means of piping generally designated by reference numeral 14, and consisting of interconnected suitable curved and straight pipe sections or segments.
The conduits 1 and 2 are provided in their rear portion with elliptical openings 15, which are spaced uniformly along these conduits, the spacing between centers of the openings in this instance being approximately 4 feet.
Secured to the rear portion of the conduits 1 and 2, in such manner as to communicate with the openings 15, are short lengths 16 of pipe, approximately 16" in length and approximately 4" in diameter, which extend in a common horizontal plane and at an angle of approximately 30 degrees to the axes of the conduits 1 and 2. The pipe lengths 16, which are secured to the conduit 2, are inclined in a direction opposite to that in which the lengths 16 are inclined to the conduit 1.
The lengths 16 of pipe are open at both ends, and serve as housings or casings for burners, generally designated by reference numeral 17.
Each of the burners 17, as best shown in FIGS. 4, 5, 6 and 7, comprises a cylindrical shell 18 of cast aluminum which fits snugly within the pipe 16 adjacent the rear end of the latter, and is provided on its inner surface with heat dissipating spiral ribs 19. The shell 18 has frictionally secured to its forward end a cylindrical sheet metal shroud 20 which terminates in a conical portion 21.
Secured within the shell 18 is an annulus 22 having a spider 23 formed integrally therewith, which is provided with a central portion which supports an oil flow tube 24 and wing portions which support insulator sleeves 25 and 26, in spaced parallel relation to the tube 24. The tube 24 has an oil-burning nozzle 27 threadedly secured to its forward end, and the insulator sleeves 25 and 26 support electrically conductive rods 28 which tenminate in electrodes 29 which are adopted to provide an ignition spark between their pointed inner ends. The rods 28 are provided at their rear ends with terminal sockets 30.
Theannulus 22 has mounted in its rear end a disc 31 having circumferentially-spaced, radially-extending slots 32, through which atmospheric air is adapted to pass into the burner. The amount of air which passes through the slots 32 may be adjusted, and for this purpose, a second disc 33 is secured to the central portion of the spider 23, as by screws 34, which pass through arcuate slots 35 in the disc 33. The disc 33 is also provided with circumferentially-spaced, radially-extending slots 36, so that by adjusting the disc 33 circumferentially with respect to the disc 31, and then tightening the screws 34, the slots 32 may be closed or opened to any desired extent, thereby controlling the volume of air which passes through the slots 32.
The annulus 22 has secured to its forward end a cylinder 37 which encloses the nozzle 27, and is provided with perforations 38 which permit escape of heat rearwardly through the shell 18, and into the atmosphere to thereby preserve or prolong the life of the burner and prevent corrosion of portions thereof.
The heating system further includes deflectors or reflectors 39 which extend substantially the full length of the conduits 1 and 2 and are supported in spaced relation to the conduits 1, 2, 6 and 7, as by means of brackets 40. These deflectors or reflectors are preferably made of sheet metal, and have the cross-sectional configuration shown in FIG. 3.
Fuel for the burners 17 is supplied from a fuel storage tank 41 (FIG. 8), and is pumped, as by a pump 42, from the bottom of the tank through a conduit 43, and through a filter 44 to a fuel line or manifold 45, which extends in parallel spaced relation to the conduits 1 and 2. At intervals corresponding to the spacing of the burners 17, the fuel is flowed from the manifold 45 through branch conduits 46, valves 47, and conduits 48, to the rear or inlet ends of the oil flow tubes 24. In this manner, the oil is supplied in equal amounts to each of the burners 17.
The excess oil, that is to say, the oil in excess of that which flows through the burners, is returned by the conduit 45 through a second conduit 49 and a constant pressure valve 50 into the top of the tank 41, to be recirculated through the fuel supply system.
For the purpose of igniting the oil which issues from the nozzles 27, an ignition system is provided, which is illustrated somewhat diagrammatically in FIG. 9.
The ignition system includes a transformer, the primary coil 51 of which is connected to a 110 volt A.C. source of current, and the secondary coil 52 of which is grounded at one end and has its other end connected to a rectifier system. The transformer, in this case, is a 20 kv. transformer.
The rectifier system comprises a series of diodes D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7 and D8, each having a 2 ampere 4 rating, at 2000 PIV, and a series of resistors R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7 and R8, each of 6 megohm rating.
The rectified current passes through a limiting resistor R9, having a resistance of 250 kilo-ohms.
The rectified current is supplied to each of the burners from a common transmission line 54, through a unit which is mounted on each of the pipes 16, and each unit comprises a resistor R10 of 1 megohm capacity, and a condenser C1 having a capacity of .06 microfarads, at 10 kv. The units 55 produce the spark between the points of the electrodes 29, through a gap of .040".
The operation of the heating system may now be briefly described, as follows:
The blower 11 is activated by the motor 12, causing atmospheric air, in controlled amounts, to enter the rear ends of the pipes 16 and into the burners 17 in the space between the nozzles 27 and cylinders 37.
At the same time, the fuel oil is injected into the burn ers by the nozzles 27, forming a combustible mixture with the air in the burners. This combustible mixture is ignited by the spark created by the electrodes 29, thereby providing flames within the conduits 1 and 2, causing these conduits to be heated to a temperature of about 1000 F., at which infrared or heat rays are emitted from the conduits. These rays travel in divergent straight lines from the conduits 1 and 2 to all surfaces and objects, without heating the air they travel through.
In addition to those rays which travel directly from the conduits 1 and 2, other rays are redirected by the reflectors 39 to provide an additional source of heat.
The products of combustion pass through the outer ends of the conduits 1 and 2, and enter the conduits 6 and 7, through which they pass into the manifold 10, and are exhausted by the blower 11 into the atmosphere or at some point remote from the heating system.
The system is thus a vacuum heating system, in which the flames are entirely confined within the system, and cannot cause combustion of extraneous objects in the area surrounding the system.
Due to the fact that the conduits 6 and 7 are disposed in adjacent parallel relationship with the conduits 1 and 2, and that the products of combustion flowing through the conduits 6 and 7 flow in a direction countercurrent to the flow of the products of combustion in the conduits 1 and 2, the heat generated by the conduits 6 and 7 is used as a means of preheating the combustible mixture in the conduits 1 and 2, or as a means of preventing dissipation of the heat provided by the conduits 1 and 2. This measurably increases the efiiciency of the heating system.
It is to be understood that the form of my invention, herewith shown and described, is to be taken as a preferred example of the same, and that various changes may be made in the shape, size and arrangement of parts thereof, without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the subjoined claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. In a heating system of the character described, a pair of conduits in axial alignment with each other and spaced axially from each other, burner units spaced longitudinally along and extending through the side wall of each of said conduits, means for injecting fuel oil into said burner units, means for admitting atmospheric air into said burner units to provide a combustible mixture with said fuel, means for electrically igniting said combustible mixture to provide flames for heating the interior of said conduits, means common to both of said conduits and disposed adjacent the space between said conduits for simultaneously exhausting the products of combustion from both of said conduits, said last-named means operative to suck said atmospheric air into said burner units, and including a second pair of conduits contiguous with and disposed parallel with said first-named conduits in heat conducting relationship therewith, means for communicating the outer ends of said first-named conduits with the outer ends of said second-named conduits, and
, 5 means for communicating the inner ends of said secondnamed conduits with said exhausting means, whereby the products of combustion in said first-named conduits pass through said second-named conduits and transfer heat from said second-named conduits to said first-named conduits to preheat the combustible mixture in the latter.
2. A heating system, as defined in claim 1,, wherein said burner units are disposed at an acute angle to the common axis of said first-named conduits, and are inclined in a direction towards the outer ends of said firstnamed conduits, with the burner units of one of said firstnamed conduits inclined in a direction opposite to that of the burner units of the other of said first-named conduits.
3. A heating system, as defined in claim 2, including a fuel oil storage tank, means for pumping fuel oil from said storage tank to said burner units, and means for returning unused oil to said storage tank.
4. A heating'system, as defined in claim 3, wherein said means for electrically igniting the combustible mixture includes a current rectifier system.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,734,870 11/1929 Morse 126-91 2,091,980 9/1937 Hamlink 12691 2,547,841 4/1951 Strickland 12694 2,551,823 5/1951 Buttner et al. 126-91 2,789,632 4/1957 Smits 158 28 2,903,051 9/1959 Blackman 126-91 2,985,797 5/1961 Williams et a1 158-28 FOREIGN PATENTS 458,654 7/1950 Italy.
FREDERICK L. MATTESON, JR., Primary Examiner.
ROBERT A. DUA, Assistant Examiner.
US. Cl. X.R. 12691