US 341690 A
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2 Sheets-Shet 1.
' B. REIOHENBAGH DITGHING LEVEL- No. 341,690. Patented May 11, 1886.
(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 2. E. REIGHENBAOH.
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N. PETERS, Phnln-Lilhognphnn Washinglan. D. C,
UNITED STATES PATENT OF ICE.
EDlVARD REIOHENBAOH, OF ORRVILLE, OHIO.
$PEC1FICATION forming part of Letters ,Patent No. 341,690, datedMay 11, 1886.
Application filed October 30, 1885. Serial No. 18l,355. (No model.)
To alZ whom it may concern.-
Be it known thatl, EDWARD REICHENBAOH, a citizen of the United States, residing at Orrville, in the county of Wayne and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Ditching-Levels, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to a new and useful level for employment in making ditches for draining land and other similar purposes.
Theinvention consists of certain novel parts, combinations of parts, and features of construction, first hereinafter described, and then designated in the claims.
The invent-ion is illustrated in the accompanying two sheets of drawings, in which Figure 1 is an isometric View of the level mounted on the extension standard. Fig. 2 shows two views of the front or eyepiece end ofthe level. Fig. 3 shows two views of the opposite or target end of the level. Fig. 4 is an isometric view of the target. Fig. 5 is a rear side 'view of the target. Fig. 6 is a side view of the level mounted on a straight-edge drag-bar. Fig. 7 is an end view of same. Fig. Sis a view illustrating the manner of using the level when sighting the target and calculating distances.
The body A of the level has at each end a boss, B G, which is elevated or projects above the top surface of the body, and each boss has a horizontal bore, a, which constitutes the sights, one in line with the other. The bore in boss designated by B is the eyepiece bore, and the end I) of this bore, to which the eye is applied, is open, while the opposite end is covered with a plate, 0, having three sightholes, 0, arranged in a vertical line one above the other. The middle one of these three holes is designed to be in sight-1ine with the horizontal wire (1 and target, hereinafter mentioned, when the body A is level. boss 0 at the other end has a. cross consisting of two wires, d, placed at right angles. One wire extends horizontally and one vertically. This latter has position only below the horizontal wire. If desired, a lens may be attached in one or both of the horizontal bores a of the sights. XVithout the lenses, however, the device answers a useful purpose.
To insure that the instrument will be adapt ed for estimating or measuring distances indo- The bore in the ing the work for whichit is intended, the space between the three holes (:"at the eye-piece mustbe proportioned to the space between the .two sights-that is, the hole-plate c and the wires (1. This proportion may be found either by experiment or by mathematical ealculatipn.
One way, for instance, of finding this proportion, is as follows: If the spa'ce'betweeu' the two sights be thirty-four inches, and the tri- 6c angle which is formed by the diverging sightlines d'when sighting through the middlehole and the upper or lower hole, as denoted in Fig. 8. widens at the rate of one inch per rod, and the target be one rod from eyepiece, then 6 5 the triangle thus formed will he one rod long,
'less thirty-four inches-the space between the two sightsand one inch high, and in this case the space between the upper and lowerholes in the plate at the eyesightbore will be sev- 7c enteen forty-firsts of an inch from center to center, and the middle hole will be. at an equal ;ber adjacent to each mark. The numbers commence at the center with 1, and from thence extend both ways. Each cross-mark is to designate the position of the air-bead in the glass tube,'and this position indicates the proportionate rise or fall of the body A toward one end of a line. The marksf on the spirit-glass: serve to aid the work man in making the proper 0 grade between marked stakes on a line "sur- Veyed for a ditch or road-bed, as hereinafter described.
The extensible standard which is employed to support the level-body include thetwo up right bars E E, which are connected by two encircling bands h in such manner that said bars may slide endwise on each other. One bar has a series of holes which are spaced apart at certain distances. In Fig. 1 the holes are designated by broken 'lines 6. The other bar has a hole, 1'', and carries a spring-finger, i,
whose end works loosely through the said hole, and the end of this spring-finger is thus in position to enter any one of the series of holes 07 in the other bar, and thereby the spring-finger holds or serves to lock the two bars together foot-piece, l, atone side, and a pointer, Z, at
the opposite side. The foot-piece servesto depress the metal point into the ground, and the standard is designed to be set so that the pointer I shall have position exactly at the center of a predetermined mark (a cross-mark X for instance) on a stake, 1*, previously driven into the ground.
The pointer-bar E is provided with figures 53 54 and so on, increasing upward on the bar. In adjusting the two bars the figure on the bar E appearing just below the lower end of the bar E indicates the height in inches of the sight-linelevel above the -mark on th estake; The upper end of the bar E is provided with a double joint, F and F, one entirely above the other, the one turning in a vertical plane at right angles tothe other. Each joint has a segment-shaped plate, m, provided on its rim with teeth in and a screw or worm shaft, n,is mounted in bearings o, and has at one end a head onthnmb-button, n, by which it is turned. The worm-shat t engages with teeth on the segment-shaped plate. The segment-shaped plate m of the lower joint, F, is provided on the side opposite its curved rim with an upward projecting bifurcated arm,j, and the segmentshaped plate of the upper joint, F, is pivoted between the two branches of said bifurcated arm. The upper segment-shaped plate, m, has a spindle or fixed prong, p, which occupies a hole in the under side and at the center of the level-body. By this construction the level-body is mounted 011 a swivel, and may be turned in a horizontal plane, so as to point in any direction. It will thus be seenthat by turning the thumb-buttons n the joints may be operated and the body A leveled in crossdirections.
The target consists of a target-rod, G, and a sliding target-block, H. The rod is provided with figures designating feet, and these com mence at the lower end with 1. The rod is sharp-pointed at the lower end to enter the ground, and near the end is provided with a horizontal pointer, q, which is designed to have position at the mark on that stake, P, at which it may be set. The target side of the block Hhas a surface with several colors, so that it may be plainly seen, and on the back of the block is a central vertical groove, 7', which is of breadth sufficient to pass over the figures on the rod without rubbing them. The back also has guideso'flwhich keep it straight as it slides on the rod, and a clamping-spring, r, by which it is retained on the rod wherever set.
A straight-edge drag-bar, I, may be made of wood orhollow steel,and has clamps or thumbscrews 8. The level-body A may be removed from the spindlep on the standard and set upon the drag-bar, to which latter it is attached by the clamping set-screws s. A draft handle, L, is bifurcated at one end, to set astride of the level-body A, and a pin, 1, passes through the said bifurcations, and through a hole, 21, in the level-body, and thereby attaches the draft-handle. By thus mounting the level-body on a drag-bar of greater length and attaching the draft-handle, the level may be drawn along the ground on the surface to be graded, and thus the incline of the ditch may be tested or properly arrived at by noting whether the airbead of the spirit-tube has the position which it should have, as per the stakemarks made by the surveyor. It is immaterial whether the handle L be attached to the level-body or to the drag-bar. Either will answer.
To use the instrument for estimating distances in laying offa line for-a drain or roadbed where the total inclination or difference then one end of the level-body is lifted until the air-bead moves to the next wire, and then move the target on the rod to bring it in sight again, each inch on the rod the target was moved from the first to the second position will represent a rod distant from the instrument or between the instrument and target. A stake, 1 having a -mark, having been set in the ground, the standard of the instrument is brought near the stake and set so that its pointer Z shall be at the center of the cross-mark 011 the stake. The body A should then be leveled by adj usting the thumbbuttons at. The target G H should then be set up at the desired point, and the body A turned to proper position for viewing the target through the sights. After the line for a ditch or drain has been laid out and staked the workmen may grade a rod or two at random between two stakes onthe line surveyed. By then placing the drag-bar, with the levelbody on it, on the graded part the position of the air-bead'will show whether the grade corresponds to that marked on the stakes.
Having described my invention, I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States 1. A level having its body A provided with a spirit-glass, and at each end aboss, B G, elevated above the top surface of the body,with a horizontal sight-bore, a, through each boss,
a plate, 0, at the eyeboss bore having three sight-holes, 0, one above the other in a vertical line, and in the bore of the other boss a cross consisting of two wires at right angles with each other, as set forth.
2. A level having, in combination, a body, A, provided with a spirit-level, a standard composed of two bars, E E, side by side, which slide endwise on each other, and one of said bars having a series of holes, 1', and the other having a spring finger, 2", which may enter any one of the said series of holes, as set forth.
3. A level having, in combination, a body, A, provided with a spirit-level, a standard which supports the body and has at its lower extremity a point, is, and a horizontal footpiece, Z, at one side, and a pointer, Z, atthe opposite side, as set forth.
4. A level having, in combination, a body, A, provided with two spirit-glass tubes, 6 D, which extend in directions crosswise of each other, a standard provided with two joint-s, F F, one entirely above the other and each turning in a vertical plane at right angles to the other, each of said joints having a seg' ment-shaped plate, m, the curved rim of which is provided with teeth, and a screw-shaft, 11, engaged with the said teeth, as set forth.
5. A level having, in combination, a body, A, provided with two spirit-glass tubes, 6 D,
which extend in directions crosswise of each 6. A ditching-level having, in combination,
a straight-edge drag-bar, I, a level-body, A, provided with a spirit-glass tube and mounted on the drag-bar, and a draft-handle, L,whereby the drag-bar and level-body may be drawn along the ground, as set forth.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
' EDWARD REICHENBACH. Witnesses:
H. E. STANLEY, H. BLANKENHORM.