|Publication number||US3417023 A|
|Publication date||Dec 17, 1968|
|Filing date||Oct 21, 1965|
|Priority date||Oct 21, 1965|
|Also published as||CA796278A, DE1717116A1|
|Publication number||US 3417023 A, US 3417023A, US-A-3417023, US3417023 A, US3417023A|
|Inventors||Salvo Walter Anthony Di|
|Original Assignee||Colgate Palmolive Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (14), Classifications (24)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,417,023 DETERGENT SPOTIING STICK Walter Anthony Di Salvo, North Arlington, N.J., assignor to Colgate-Palmolive Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed Oct. 21, 1965, Ser. No. 500,354 13 Claims. (Cl. 252118) AllSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A detergent composition in stick form for treating heavily soiled areas of textile materials. The composition contains a gel-forming salt or soap, a synthetic detergent and an optical brightener.
The present invention relates to an improved detergent composition and in particular to an improved detergent formulation which is specifically adaptable for employment in stick form, and in which form the said compositions are outstanding for use in spotting soiled clothing prior to laundering such clothing.
Most soiled articles of clothing which are normally washed in an aqueous laundry bath are not uniformly soiled, and in fact many such articles exhibit severe soiling in limited, localized areas. As an example of this mention might be made of mens shirts wherein severe soiling normally occurs on the collar and cuffs of the shirt. In the conventional laundering of heavily soiled and irregularly soiled items, it has been common practice to pretreat such areas, prior to the usual washing, with a soil removal composition, which in recent years is almost exclusively a detergent of synthetic origin. Before the advent of synthetic detergents and their use in laundering operations, it was the usual practice for the housewife to rub the heavily soiled area as with soap, conveniently in a bar form, and then proceed to launder the entire article with soap in powdered form. Today, however, laundering is done with synthetic detergents in either powdered or liquid form, and in this physical state rubbing of the heavily soiled areas is not readily or conveniently accomplished.
Further, to improve the apparent and visible effciency of the laundering operation, there has come into almost universal practice the use of optical brightening agents. These agents are generally characterized by the property of absorbing ultra-violet light and converting and re-emitting said radiation as visible light, preferably of the shorter wave-lengths, i.e., at the blue end of the visible spectrum. Compounds which are commercially feasible for use as optical brighteners should be substantially colorless, substantive for the article to be treated, have a high brightness rating, have a high degree of stability in the laundering bath, and have a fairly high degree of light stability (i.e., should not decompose to colored products under normal environmental conditions of use).
Optical brighteners are generally relatively expensive materials and therefore must perform their desired and intended function at very low concentrations. Usual laundry bath concentrations range from about 0.1% to about 3,417,023 Patented Dec. 17, 1968 0.5%, and when used in powdered or liquid detergent formulations, their effect is uniform throughout the entire bath. Thus, all areas of the articles being laundered are subjected to the same brightener concentration, and the more heavily soiled areas will not receive any greater amount of brightener than the cleaner areas. The net effect of this is to produce no more actual or apparent cleansing of these more soiled areas than of the less soiled portions of the laundered articles.
lt is therefore an object of the present invention to provide new, useful and outstanding detergent compositions which are particularly adaptable for producing articles which are actually, apparently and visibly uniformly cleaned.
It is another object of this invention to provide new, useful and outstanding detergent compositions which are particularly adaptable for pretreating heavily soiled areas of articles to be laundered.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide new, useful and outstanding detergent compositions which may be employed to pretreat heavily soiled portions of soiled items to be laundered, whereby the finally laundered products are actually, apparently and visibly uniformly cleansed notwithstanding the irregular degree of soiling present on the original article.
It is still another further object of this invention to provide new, useful and outstanding detergent compositions in a convenient shape and form for use in pre- 3 treating soiled articles which are to be laundered.
It is another object of this invention to provide new, useful and outstanding detergent compositions in a stick form incorporating therein an optical brightening agent whereby heavily soiled articles may be pretreated prior to laundering to yield uniformly cleansed products after the laundering operation.
Other objects will appear hereinafter as the description proceeds.
The objects of the present invention are attained by providing compositions which comprise as the essential components thereof the following:
(l) A gel-forming salt or soap, (2) A synthetic detergent, and (3) An optical brightener.
The gel-forming salt or soap to be employed in an alkali metal, ammonium, amine, or substituted amine salt of a higher fatty acid, and preferably a saturated higher fatty acid. Suitable fatty acids, by way of example only, are the saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acids of from 12 to carbon atoms, and of this group the preferred product is sodium stearate.
In order to form the gel matrix for the detergent and brightener it is necessary to employ an alcohol such as ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol. The former alcohol is the preferred one to use.
In producing the gel component of the compositions of the present invention, the fatty acid salt is most conveniently added to the alcohol while the latter is at an elevated temperature. Generally from about 1% to about lO% of the total detergent stick is composed of the fatty acid salt (i.e., soap) and from about to about of the said detergent stick is comprised of the alcohol, generally resulting in about 60 to 99% by weight of a gelled soap in the composition.
The amount of the synthetic detergent component of the detergent stick is not especially critical and in general may range from about 1% to about by weight based on the weight of the entire composition. Any synthetic detergent may be used selected from the three major classes of nonionics, anionics, and cationics.
The nonionic synthetic detergents are the preferred class of compounds to be employed primarily because of compatibility problems which may arise with certain classes of optical brighteners. It is of course understood, however, that the anionics and the cationics may be used with equivalent efiiciency and results where the proper brightener is used.
The nonionic synthetic detergents are as a class, well known materials, but by way of example, mention may be made particularly of the alkylene oxide condensation with higher aliphatic alcohols, alkyl phenols, carboxylic acids, amides, amines and sulphonamides. Examples of such products may be found illustrated in U.S. Patents 1,970,578, 2,085,706, 2,205,021, 2,213,477, 3,060,124, 3,075,922, and 3,122,508.
The anionic and cationic synthetic detergents are well known, and by way of exemplification references thereto can be found in US. Patents 2,941,950, 3,001,949, 3,075,- 922, 3,122,508, 3,192,166.
The final necessary component of the compositions of the present invention is the optical brightener. As with the synthetic detergent, the specific chemical nature of the brightener is not especially critical and any of those, conventionally used and well known in the art may be employed. The following general classes of optical brightening agents are satisfactory for use in the compositions of this invention:
Coumarin types as illustrated in U.S. Patents 2,590,- 485, 2,600,375, 2,610,152, 2,647,132, 2,647,133, 2,791,- 564, and 2,881,186.
Triazolyl stilbene types as illustrated in US. Patents 2,668,777, 2,684,966, 2,713,057, 2,784,183, 2,784,197, 2,817,665, 2,907,760, 2,927,866 and 2,993,892.
Stilbene cyanuric types as illustrated in US. Patents 2,473,475, 2,526,668, 2,595,030, 2,618,636, 2,658,064, 2,658,065, 2,660,578, 2,666,052, 2,694,064, and 2,840,- 557.
Acylamino stilbene types as illustrated in US. Patents 2,084,413, 2,468,431, 2,521,665, 2,528,323, 2,581,057, 2,623,064, 2,674,604, and 2,676,982.
Miscellaneous types such as shown in US. Patents 2,911,415 and 3,031,460.
The amount of brightener may vary considerably but, in general from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight based on the weight of the total stick composition can be used. The preferred range of concentration varies from about 0.2% to about 2% on a weight basis.
The general procedure for preparing the compositions of this invention is as follows:
The selected fatty acid is dispersed in the hot alcohol, the latter at a temperature of about 160 F. A solution in water of sodium hydroxide, or any other selected base, preferably at a concentration of about 50% base, is then added to the above dispersion until neutralization of the fatty acid is effected. There is then added the optical brightener which is well dispersed in the selected synthetic detergent. The mixture is stirred to insure uniformity in characteristics thereof, and then cooled in a suitable mold to the desired shape, which as pointed out above is preferably in the form of a stick.
The following examples will serve to illustrate the present invention without being deemed limitative thereof. Parts are by weight unless otherwise indicated.
Example 1 grams of double pressed stearic acid are added to 255 cc. of ethyl alcohol, the latter at a temperature of about 160 F. To this dispersion there is added sutficient of a 50% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the stearic acid. There is then added a mixture of 0.38 gram of a brightener having the formula:
SOJNa and 10 grams of a synthetic detergent which comprises nonionic surface active agent (nonyl phenol condensed with 10 moles E0, 15% cetyl alcohol.
After the resultant mixture is well stirred it is poured into a stick mold and allowed to cool to room temperature. The resultant stick is a readily handled composition.
Example 2 Two mens shirts equally soiled, and, equally, more heavily soiled in the collar and cuff areas are selected. One of the shirts is rubbed in the heavily soiled areas with the water-moistened stick of Example 1. The other shirt is treated in the same areas with a small amount of a commercial heavy duty liquid detergent which contains about 25% polyphosphates, 10% ethoxylated nonyl phenol (60% E.O. surfactant, 1.5% CMC, 10% sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, and 10% of a 36% aqueous sodium silicate solution as the major ingredients. Both shirts are then laundered using the commercial heavy duty liquid detergent in a standard 30 minute wash and spin dry laundering cycle. The shirt which has been treated with the stick formulation of Example 1 is uniformly clean in all areas. The other shirt has discernible soiled areas where the garment was originally heavily soiled.
Example 3 Examples 1 and 2. are repeated except that the 10 grams of synthetic detergent used in that example is replaced by the following:
(A) 10 grams of dinonyl phenol+7 grams ED.
(13) 8 grams of lauryl alcohol+15 grams E.O. (C) 10 grams of oxotridecyl alcohol+7 grams 13.0. (D) 10 grams of stearamide+25 grams E.O.
(E) 6 grams of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate.
The results are comparable to those of Examples 1 and 2.
Example 4 Examples 1, 2 and 3 are repeated replacing the brightener used in these examples by the following:
Naois Ethylcne oxide.
Example Example 1 is further repeated except that the stearic acid is replaced by the following acids:
(A) Palmitic acid.
(H) Hydrogenated tallow fatty acids (HYFAC series). (C) Hydrogenated fish fatty acid (HYFAC series). (D) Eicosanoic acid.
Example 6 Example 1 is repeated except that in place of the 15 grams of stearic acid, there are used the following in separate formulations:
(A) 5 grams of stearic acid. (8) 10 grams of stearic acid.
Comparable results are obtained.
Example 7 Example 1 is again repeated but replacing the optical brightening agent with the following in the amounts indicated:
Excellent cleansing action is achieved in each instance when the procedure of Example 2 is followed.
The preferred and typical formulations have been exemplified above. it is clear. however, that many variations can be made in such compositions without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. The usual and conventional additives such as fillers, perfumes, disinfectants, scqucstrants, polyphosphates, silicates, soil suspending agents. and the like may be added where desired.
1. A detergent stick consisting essentially of:
from 60 to 99 percent by weight of a gelled soap matrix. said matrix being a mixture of l to 10 percent by weight of a soap selected from the group consisting of alkali metal, ammonium. amine and substituted amine salt of a saturated fatty acid containing from 12-20 carbon atoms, and 60 to 95 percent by weight of an alcohol selected from the group consisting of ethyl alcohol and lsopropyl alcohol, said matrix containing as the sole additional ingredients (1) from 1 to 10 percent by weight of a synthetic detergent selected from the group consisting of non-ionic, anionic and cationic detergents, and (2) from 0.1 to 5 percent by weight of a synthetic textile-substantive optical brightening agent.
2. The detergent stick as claimed in claim 1 wherein the soap of said gelled soap matrix is an alkali metal stearate.
3. The detergent stick as claimed in claim 2 wherein said alkali metal stearate is sodium stearate and said synthetic detergent is a non-ionic synthetic detergent.
4. The detergent stick as claimed in claim 1 wherein said soap is an alkali metal salt of a saturated fatty acid containing from 12-20 carbon atoms, said alcohol is ethyl alcohol and said synthetic detergent is a non-ionic synthetic detergent.
5. The detergent stick as claimed in claim 4 wherein said soap is an alkali metal stearate.
6. In a method for laundering soiled articles in a detergent wash, the improvement which comprises rubbing said textile materials prior to laundering in said detergent wash with the water-moistened detergent stick of claim 1.
7. A detergent stick as defined in claim 5 wherein the alkali metal stearate is sodium stearate.
8. A detergent stick as defined in claim 5 wherein the non-ionic synthetic detergent is an ethoxylated alkyl phenol.
9. A detergent stick as defined in claim 5 wherein the non-ionic synthetic detergent is an ethoxylated aliphatic alcohol selected from the group consisting of ethoxylated lauryl alcohol and ethoxylated oxotridecyl alcohol.
10. A composition as defined in claim 1 wherein the brightening agent is an optical brightener including a triazolyl stilbene moiety.
1!. A composition as defined in claim 1 wherein the brightening agent is an optical brightener including a stilbene cyanuric moiety.
12. A composition as defined in claim 1 wherein the brightening agent is an optical brightener including an amido stilbene moiety.
13. A composition as defined in claim 1 wherein the brightening agent is an optical brightener including a coumarin moiety.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,763,618 9/1956 Hendrix 252-118 2,901,476 8/1959 Gold et a1. 252-89 1,477,220 12/1923 Hcmen 252174 2,915,472 12/1959 Pressner 252-153 FOREIGN PATENTS 366,535 2/1932 Great Britain.
OTHER REFERENCES S. R. Trotman and E. R. Trotman, The Bleaching, Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres, London: Charles Grifiin & Company Limited, 42 Drury Lane, 1946, p. 512.
LEON D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner.
B. BETTIS, Assistant Examlner.
US. Cl. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||510/283, 510/336, 510/483, 510/500, 510/294, 510/324, 510/494|
|International Classification||C11D9/26, C11D3/20, C11D9/44, C11D17/00, C11D3/42|
|Cooperative Classification||C11D9/26, C11D10/04, C11D3/201, C11D3/42, C11D9/448, C11D17/00|
|European Classification||C11D10/04, C11D3/20B1A, C11D9/26, C11D17/00, C11D3/42, C11D9/44H|